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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2017 volume:20 issue:3

Article
Nano Crystalline Titania Powders as Enhancement for 2-(2-Nitrobenzylidene) Hydrazinecarbothioamide as Corrosion Inhibitor

Authors: Zeyad Fadhil
Pages: 1-5
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Abstract

The present investigation, represent arranging of nano-sized TiO2 powder by method for sol-gel strategy through precursor hydrolysis of Titanium isopropoxide. Morphological reviews gained from SEM micrograph showed the particles with the round shapes are Anatase in nature. Crystalline size of TiO2 powder has procured is 50-75 nm for Anatase at 550 ºC by controlling the sharpness. Weight lessening system has been used to consider the disintegration prevention effectiveness of 2-(2-nitrobenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide enhanced by TiO2 in HCl course of action. The results show that 2-(2-nitrobenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide with TiO2 raise the disintegration productivity from 87 to 96%. Disintegration obstacle viability increases with growing concentration of inhibitor and it moreover augments with extending joining of TiO2

Keywords

TiO2 --- titania --- Surface --- Erosion.


Article
4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal, Indused Nitric Oxide Synthase Statues in Hypertension Patients

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Abstract

The oxidative stress is one of the main cause for cardiovascular diseases (like Hypertension) also one of the results of these diseases. This study involved 56 subjects matched ages and sex divided into two groups; 28 hypertensive subject and 28 healthy subject as control group. The following analysis was done: 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE), Induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and albumin. The results show that there is a significant increase in (4HNE) between patients group and control group. INOS was significantly higher in patients compared to controls while there were no significant difference found in albumin between patient and control group. The increase in 4HNE which is a product of lipid peroxidation is attributed to destruction in body cell caused by due to the increase in stress events. And the increase in iNOS because iNOS produces large amounts of NO as a defense mechanism in response to cytokines and is an important factor in the response of the body to attack by parasites, bacterial infection, and tumor growth. It has been concluded that is important nappy on ideal weight, because obesity considered main factors for heart disease and hardening of the arteries. There is a positive relationship between oxidation results from hypertension and their developments. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between of some oxidative stress markers and cardiovascular diseases


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Theoretical Study of 1,2(2,2-dihydroxy benzelidenamine) Phenyl Complexes

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Abstract

New schiff base and its metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II) has been synthesized from O-phenylenediamine and O-hydroxyl benzaldehyde. The ligand and its complexes were described the distinctive nature of element by elemental analysis (C,H,N), FTIR, UV-Vis, and magnetic susceptibility. Hyperchem-7 software was used in this project for a theoretical treatment of the synthesized complexes under gas phase condition. PM3 method was used to calculate: heat of formation (ΔHfە), binding energy (ΔEb) and total energy (ΔET) for both ligand and its complexes at 298 K. Additionally, the electrostatic potential of the free ligand (L) was calculated to see the active sites of the product complexes. According to the results of this research, the produced complexes form [ML] type composition where L ligand=1,2(2,2-dihydroxy benzeliden amine). Phenyl and M=Co, Ni, Fe and Cu.


Article
Investigation of the Photodecomposition Rate Constant of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Films Containing Organotin (IV) Complexes

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Abstract

The photodecomposition of poly(vinyl chloride), films containing organotin complexes (0.5% by weight) was investigated. The photodecomposition rate constant was reduced significantly in the presence of organotin complexes compared to the blank PVC. The Ph3SnL complex was found to be the most effective additive in photostabilization of PVC films. The photodecomposition rate constant for PVC films containing triphenyltin(IV) was found to be 1.80  103 sec1 compared to 4.75  103 sec1 for PVC films in the absence of any additives.


Article
Evaluation the Level of Dieldrin and Heptachlor in Iraqi People

Authors: Alaa H. Jawad
Pages: 24-29
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Abstract

Organochlorine pesticides for whatever length of time that been extensively utilized as a part of farming and in public health as highly effective pest control agents. They are lipophelic and have drawn out a half-existences of years to decades; thus, they amass in human fat tessues and a can bring about endless poisonous quality after long term exposure. To detect and measure the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, (Dieldrin and Heptachlor) in serum and fatty tissue samples and studies their correlation with lipids in order to reveal the need. for human monitoring. The study was conducted on 50 samples of blood and fatty tissues to determine their lipid concentrations and detect metabolites of organochlorine pesticides and asses their1correlations using HPLC. The study observed that there were raised serum concentrations of lipids which were positively corresponded with lifted serum convergences of Dieldrin and Heptachlor pesticides. Mean serum concentrations of triglycerides was inside “normal” range while mean serum of aggregate cholesterol was hoisted above ordinary range. Rate of grouping of lipid to serum Dieldrin was higher than that of Heptachlor in living subjects.

Keywords

Dieldrin --- Heptachlor --- Pesticides.


Article
Diagnosis of Some Active Organic Compounds and Study their Oxidation Reaction in Thyme Plant Leaves.

Authors: Qotebh Fadel --- Fouad Hussein --- Sabri Mohammed
Pages: 30-33
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Abstract

This study focused on diagnosis of volatile oil extracted from Breckland thyme plant by aqueous solvent by Reflux method. Thin layer chromatography was used to separate some active organic compounds from Breckland thyme leaves oil. (Toluene Ethyl acetate) (5:95) used in Thin layer chromatography as eluent. Results showed 6 spots, 5 spots were diagnosed by spectroscopic methods, qualitative and quantitative analytical methods gas chromatography (G.C). Results indicate that the 14 compound in A very small percentage 5 of that following compounds, Carvacrol, p-Cymene, Camphor, Thymol and α-Pinene are present in the following percent, 21.1, 10.1, 0.8, 24.77 and 19.92 respectively in Breckland thyme oil leaves and unknown compounds. Resulted showed oxalic acid is product of Breckland thyme leaves was study.

Keywords

Oxalic --- Breckland --- oxidation --- organic --- plant.


Article
Estimation of the Folic Acid Using Zero Order, Area Under Curve and First Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods in Pure and Marketed Tablet Formulations

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Abstract

Three simple, inexpensive and nontoxic spectrophotometric methods have been used for determination folic acid in pure and market formulation tablets. Linearity was founded in the range 6- 20 mg.l-1 for the all three methods, the detection limits was found to be 0.261 for zero order method, 0.006 for AUC method and 3.800 for first derivative method. The RSD% was found to be less than 0.856 indicating a good accuracy and precision of three proposed methods. The results of zero order, AUC and first derivative methods were statistically compared with those obtained by the official standard method using the F-test and t-test and found to be a good agreement.


Article
Evaluation the Corrosion of Mild Steel Rings in Simulated Conditions of Natural Gas Transportation

Authors: Jewad K. Shneine
Pages: 42-48
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Abstract

Corrosion of steel rings (steel tubes) under natural gas production conditions has been studied in a 2 L glass autoclave. Steel tubes, axially constructed with cavities of aspect ratios 3×1 mm, were exposed to CO2 saturated chloride salt solutions in a glass autoclave for 4 days at a flow rate of 6m/s and CO2 flow of 5 bar. Effect of temperature, chloride ion concentration, and inhibitor ratio has been studied. Accordingly, removal mass, surface layer mass and the corrosion rate were evaluated at different conditions. Fe2+ concentrations and pH values were also evaluated. The corrosion degree of the tested samples is assessed by polarizing microscope at different magnification values. Results showed that high corrosion rates affected by high temperatures and high chloride concentrations, have been particularly reduced by addition of Dodisclae V3962 inhibitor. Formation of a fixed surface layer mass might be the reason for the high corrosion inhibition. [DOI: 10.22401/JUNS.20.3.08]


Article
Preparation, Spectroscopic, Bioactive and Theoretical Studies of Mixed Ligand Complexes

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Abstract

The mixed ligands complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline and Schiff base 1, 5-dimethyl-4-(5-oxohexan-2-ylideneamino)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3 (2H)-one (L) with Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions were prepared. The compounds have been characterized by NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis and mass spectra, elemental microanalysis (C.H.N.), magnetic moment, chloride contain, atomic absorption and molar conductance. All prepared complexes were octahedral geometry. Compound structures treated theoretically using the program hyper chem. 8 in gas phase at 298°K. The compounds were also screened for their bioactive property such as antifungal and antibacterial.


Article
Standoff Raman Detection of Explosive Materials Using a Small Raman Spectroscopy System

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Abstract

In this work a standoff Raman spectroscopy SRS system has been designed, assembled and tested for detecting explosives (Ammonium nitrate, Trinitrotoluene and Urea nitrate) in dark laboratory at 4 m target-telescope distance. The SRS system employs frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm excitation with laser power of 250 mW and integration time of 2 second. The Cassegrain telescope was coupled to the Ventana Raman spectrometer using a fiber optics cable, and Notch filter is used to reject Rayleigh scattering light. The Raman scattered light is collected by a telescope and then transferred via fiber optic to spectrometer and finally directed into charge coupled device CCD detector. In order to test SRS system, it has been used to detect the Raman spectra of Toxic Industrial Compounds TIC such as acetone, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride. The SRS results were compared with conventional Raman microscopy results using a bench top Bruker SENTERRA Raman instrument.


Article
Immersion Time and Annealing Temperature Effect on TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Hydrothermal Method

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Abstract

In this work, TiO2 nanofibers thin films were prepared by using different immersion times for hydrothermal method. Annealing in air at different temperatures of (400,500, and 600)°C at constant time (1 hour) were achieved for all films. Many analysis and measurement had been done (XRD, SEM, EDX, and AFM), and optical (UV-Visible spectroscopy, PL spectroscopy, and Spectral Response). The properties of nanofibers TiO2 films were investigated and analyzed for films. The SEM analysis of TiO2 films showed nanofibers shapes with diameter of about 21 nm. The absorption edges are located at UV-region, and the Eg has higher values compared with Eg for bulk TiO2 film. Spectral response measurements show photocurrent peaks for TiO2 nanotube films centered at UV-region (350 nm).


Article
Optical properties of CR-39 Detector Irradiated with Gamma-rays and (He-Ne) Laser

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Abstract

The impacts of gamma-beams and He-Ne laser of optical properties for CR-39 track indicator were studied. Twenty locations separated into five gatherings. In the first-place aggregate, one finder un- irradiated (control). Second gathering, five indicators irradiated to 60Co gamma source with various dosages 300, 500, 800, 1200 and 1600 kGy (γ). Third gathering, 5 identifiers illuminated with gamma beam with various dosages 300, 500, 800, 1200 and 1600 kGy afterward presented to 15 min of He-Ne laser at 10 mW control (γ +laser). Fourth gathering, nine indicators were presented to various force 1, 5 and 10 mW of He-Ne laser at various circumstances 5, 10 and 15 min (laser). The optical properties were considered with bright unmistakable UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopic. In addition, the optical vitality band cavity and carbons number was computed at various gamma measurements and diverse time's introduction of He-Ne laser. The outcomes for second, third, fourth and fifth gatherings demonstrate expanding in the absorbance with expanding in the time presentation of He-Ne laser and gamma dose. The FTIR spectrum indicate moving in the groups of CR-39 track indicator presented to gamma beam, laser and (γ +laser), for gamma beam demonstrate expanding in the absorbance at 300 kGy and unsymmetrical diminishing of absorbance at 500-1600 kGy, and for CR-39 identifier presented to (γ +laser), the impacts demonstrate unsymmetrical diminishing in the force absorbance with increment in the gamma measurements, at laser impacts indicate expanding in the absorbance A, with expanding in the time introduction of He-Ne laser at various forces


Article
Study of Charge Density Distributions and Elastic Charge Form Factors for 40Ca and 48Ca

Authors: Arkan R. Ridha
Pages: 83-90
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Abstract

The ground charge density distributions (CDD), elastic charge form factors and proton, charge, neutron, and matter root mean square (rms) radii for stable 40Ca and 48Ca have been calculated using single-particle radial wave functions of Woods-Saxon (WS) and harmonic-oscillator (HO) potentials. Different central potential depths are used for each subshell which is adjusted so as to reproduce the experimental single-nucleon binding energies. An excellent agreement between the calculated rms charge radii and experimental data are found for both nuclei using WS and HO potentials. The calculated proton rms radii for 40Ca are found to be in good agreement with experiment data using both WS and HO potentials while the results for 48Ca showed an overestimation in WS potential and slight overestimation in HO potential. The calculated neutron rms radii are found to be well predicted in HO potential for both 40Ca and 48Ca, while there is overestimation in WS results for both isotopes. The calculated rms matter radii showed good agreement with experimental data for 40Ca using WS potential while the result is underestimated in HO potential. For 48Ca, the results obtained with HO potential is underestimated and slightly underestimated with WS potential. For both nuclei, the calculated ground charge density distributions evaluated with WS are in better agreement with the data than those of HO potential. Finally, the results of the calculated elastic charge form factors demonstrate excellent agreement with experimental data for both nuclei under study in WS potential on contrary to the results of HO potential which are completely failed to predict the existence of third diffraction minimum.


Article
Synthesized and Study the Structural and Morphological Properties of Polyaniline-Cadmium Sulfide Nanocomposite

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Abstract

The nanocrystalline CdS powder was prepared using sol–gel method. The polyaniline were prepared using chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline. The PANI-CdS nanocomposites had been prepared via same method of polyaniline preparation and different concentrations of CdS (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt%) were added. X-ray diffraction shows that the peaks of emeraldine salt polyaniline powder are located at 2θ = 21.5o, 25.7o and 28.1o which indicate of polycrystalline polyaniline and the peaks of CdS powder are located at 2θ = 26.69, which is indicate of crystalline CdS coincides with hexagonal [002] structure, 2θ = 47.47 which is refers to CdS with hexagonal [103] and cubic [220] structures. The crystallite size of PANI and CdS were found to be 7.95 and 12.09 nm respectively. FTIR measurement indicates that there are interaction between polyaniline matrix and CdS nanoparticles. The AFM investigation shows that there is uniform distribution for CdS nanoparticles in the PANI matrix.


Article
Third Order Optical Nonlinearity of Silver Nanoparticles Prepared by Chemical Reduction Method

Authors: Hussein T. Salloom
Pages: 99-104
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Abstract

In this study, silver colloidal nanoparticles have been prepared by chemical reduction of silver nitrate by trisodium citrate as a reduction agent. The adding time of the reduction agent was held constant while the time of stirring was varied. The resulting silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The non-linear refractive index and absorption coefficient of silver nanoparticles were investigated using a single beam z-scan technique. The excitation source was a continuous wave (CW) of 532 nm diode laser with a beam power of 40 mW. All investigated samples showed negative and large thermally-induced non-linear refractive indices. Other nonlinear optical parameters (i.e.β,χ_r^((3)),χ_i^((3))) were also calculated. Our measurements confirm that the non-linear parameters are caused by self-defocusing process making them potential candidates for nonlinear optical devices.


Article
Total and Partial Substitution of the Local Grass Pea Seed Lathyrus sativa Processed by Different Methods by Soy Bean Meal Glycine max in Small Common Carp Cyprinus carpio L. Diets

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This experiment was carried out in the laboratories of fish and animal resource center-agricultural research directorate from 1/3-30/6/2015 to study the possibility of improving the nutritional value of local grass pea seeds Lathyrus sativa (GPS) by degradation of anti-nutritional factor and using it as protein source for common carp Cyprinus carpio L. diets. Three different treatments for GPS meal, fermented, germinated and soaking (GPS) were used as partial or total replacement of soybean meal (SBM) for practical diets of common carp Cyprinus carpoi L. ration. Thirteen experimental diets were formulated, the diets 1, 2 and 3 were used crud GPS without any treatment at the substitute ratio 33%, 66% and 100% of (SBM), the diets 4, 5 and 6 contained fermented GPS at the same substitute ratio. The diets 7, 8 and 9 were germinated GPS at the same substitute ratio. The diets 10, 11 and 12 were soaking GPS at the same substitute ratio and diet 13 for control without GPS. The results showed no significant differences between control treatment (T 13) without GPS and soaking at substitution ratio 33% and 66% (T 10 and T 11), which were significantly differed (P<0.05) with other treatments. Thereby, it is recommended soaking GPS and at substitute 33% and 66% of SBM for common carp diets.


Article
An Epidemiology Study of Some Protozoan Parasitic Diseases in Iraq from 2011 Till 2015

Authors: Entsar J. Saheb1 --- Sinan Ghazi Mahdi --- Israa S. Mosa
Pages: 115-120
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The parasitic diseases including leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis and malaria are globally wide spread with potentially harmful consequences if it does not treat. Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan parasites Leishmania. Many Leishmania spp. causes skin ulcers and nodules. Other species damage the internal organs. Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii. Malaria is one of tropical and semi-tropical parasitic diseases caused by the protozoan parasites Plasmodium. This study assesses the epidemiology of the leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis and malaria infection for the period from 2011 till 2015 in Iraq. From 2011 till 2015, 3611 patients with visceral leishmaniasis, 21473 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis, 4365 patients infected with toxoplasmosis, 31 patients with malarial infections were recorded in Iraq. The parasitic diseases including leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis nowadays have a wider geographical distribution in Iraq. This increase is mainly attributed to the environmental conditions, great migration, urbanization that occurs during the study period. In contrast, according to this study malaria has been greatly reduced in Iraq in the last years and this could be due to the use of protective clothing, insecticides, insect repellents and bed nets.


Article
Determination of Human Sapovirus Genotypes Causing Gastroenteritis in Children under Five Years in Baghdad

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Sapoviruses (SaVs) may cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children. To prove the presences of Sapovirus infection in Iraq AGE patients, a total of 200 stool samples from children patients under five years with AGE were collected and screened by reverse transcription real time PCR using specific primers was performed for partial sequencing SaVs capsid and probes cover all Sapovirus genogroups, this was followed by revers transcription PCR and nested PCR using the specific primers. The SaVs partial capsid gene amplicons were sequenced. Partial capsid sequences were blasted with National Center of Information Technology (NCBI) and phylogenetic analysis was conducted using MEGA 6.0 program. Out of the 200 samples tested, 18 (9%) were found SaVs positive. Amplicons were sequenced and only 7 samples were genotyped, 5(5/7) were belonged to the genotype GI.1, 1(1/7) were belonged to the GI.4, and 1(1/7) were belong to the GII.8 .The GI.1 was the dominant strain in Baghdad and the more infected age stage was the children 4 ≤5 years. SaVs was diagnosed in Baghdad in the current study for the first time. These results need more extensive surveillance study to determine the distribution and burden of virus in Iraq community.


Article
A Microbial Survey of Second Hand Clothe Samples Collected from Baghdad Market

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Second hand represent one of the sources of illness due to environmentally related disease and injury. Used clothes are sold all over the country since they are very cheap compared with the new ones. The current study included collecting samples from different used clothing markets in Baghdad and comparing the efficiency of detergents used to reduce microbial load in the garments. The samples were adult's clothes, babies' clothes, and fabric toys. Isolation and identification of bacteria with CFU were done to determine which cloth samples carry the highest bacterial contamination and dominant pathogenic microbes associated with skin infection. Culture and biochemical methods were used for the identification. Samples were washed using two types of detergents (soap, granulated detergent) to investigate the efficiency of these detergents in reducing bacterial contamination in such clothes. The results showed that the dominant isolate bacteria in adult clothes were Staphylococcus sp. and Enterobacteriace sp. while Enterobacteriace sp., Bacillus sp. in baby clothes and Bacillus sp. in fabric toys. The results of CFU found to be the highest in baby's clothes (4x106), fabric toys (2.2x104 ), adult clothes (20x102 )respectively. Results showed that the isolated fungi were Aspergilus flavus, Aspergilus niger, Rhizopus. After washing with detergents including soap and granulated detergent, the results showed that the granulated detergent is more effective in reducing bacterial and fungal contamination than soap in all samples. This study concluded that babies' cloths are vulnmrable to contaminating with bacteria and fungi then fabric toys followed by adult clothes. It's recommended to wash second hand clothes using other methods to remove both bacterial and fungal contamination such as disinfectants then ironing.


Article
Weak Soft Separation Axioms and Weak Soft (1,2)*- -Separation Axioms in Soft Bitopological Spaces

Authors: Sabiha I. Mahmood
Pages: 137-148
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In this article we introduce and study new types of soft sets in soft bitopological spaces, namely, soft (1,2)*-difference sets and soft (1,2)*-b-difference sets by using the notion of soft -open sets and soft (1,2)*-b-open sets respectively. Furthermore we use these soft sets to define and study new types of soft separation axioms, namely, soft (1,2)*- -spaces and soft (1,2)*-b- -spaces for which are weaker than soft (1,2)*- -spaces and soft (1,2)*-b- -spaces for respectively. The basic properties and characteristics each of soft (1,2)*-b- -spaces, soft (1,2)*- -spaces and soft (1,2)*-b- -spaces for also have been studied.

Table of content: volume:20 issue:3