Table of content

journal of kerbala university

مجلة جامعة كربلاء

ISSN: 18130410
Publisher: Kerbala University
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal of Kerbala University is a refereed scientific Journal which is quarterly issued for the purposes of scientific promotions. It covers various specialties.
It was first published in 2003 and gained the international ISSN-1813-0410. The journal annually receives 500 research papers so the number of the published papers amounts to 300 papers and the pending ones amount to 200 papers.
The research papers are subject to scientific evaluation by professional panelists and they are published in both Arabic and English languages.


The Journal is concerned with:
1- Receiving the professors' research papers to be published in the Journal.
2- Forwarding the research papers to the evaluating committee of panelists.
3- Providing the researchers with a letter of publication acceptance after receiving an approval of publication.
4- Setting up the research papers according to the criteria set by Journal.
5- Making 50 copies of the special issue of the Journal scientific issue Arabic+ Human studies+ scientific studies in English and Arabic.









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Contact info

phone Number :07814214835
E_mail :Journal@uokerbala.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:15 issue:3

Article
From the references of Abdul Wahid lualua,a cash criticism modern Western
من مرجعات عبد الواحد لؤلؤة النقدية ـ النقد الغربي الحديث

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Critic Abdul Wahid Pearl is one of those who refined their monetary potential by looking at the modern Western monetary achievement; with all its symbols of great critics; they had a clear silence in the field of modern literary criticism. Modern literary criticism began in the sixteenth century in France and Italy. Critic Abdul Wahid lualua,a has made him a critical critic; he returns to him in all the perspectives and applications he needs to make use of his critical writings both theoretically and practically, whether those references are critics, poets, or novelists. In his critique of prose, Denis Johnson-Davies relied on analysis and critique of Jabra Ibrahim Jabra's novel. In the poetry, Blackmer was a critic who formed a critical reference to him in his critique of the poem by the poet of Stephen. Thus, in the rest of the critics whose critical views, views, and outlooks penetrated the criticism of the critic Abdul Wahid for the purpose of him; to be critical of his power, ability and clarity; Access to its intended purpose in perpetuating its monetary operation. Critics who have made critical references to pearls are many (Johnsen Davis, Blackmer, Amersson, Tyson, Colerage, Pound and others. However, the most critical reference in the writings of Abdul Wahid is Pearl: he is the critic, ie, Richard. He was a professor of pearl in America. He can be described by Pearl as a critic's critic and he calls him "my teacher"; as well as two others, Arnold and Elliott. They have occupied the critical mentality of Abdul Wahid Pearl in many of his critical writings in prose and poetry.

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Article
The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Quranic Language
اسلوب الترهيب والترغيب في لغة القراءن الكريم

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The research ''The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Qur'anic Language'' is taken by the researchers in order to investigate and analyze the social linguistic influences in Qur'anic meaning. The most important features of this topic is to approach the Qur’anic texts from sociolinguistic view point. Sociolinguistic view point is that social features can limit the social environment of the speaker by means of different speech habits and behaviors. It is worth mentioning that this study is to find the meanings of sociolinguistic terminology concerning the style of intimidation and inducement in Quranic language. It is important ,in such a case, to make a comparison between solidarity and intimacy with intimidation and inducement, since all these concepts guide us to the same result. The glorious Quranic texts have been chosen, since these texts contain many words and expressions of power speech and solidarity.

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Article
Smart Government: Analysis of Shift Methods in Municipal Services Delivery: The Study Area: Al-Kut – Iraq
الحكومة الذكية: تحليل لأساليب التحول في تقديم الخدمات البلدية منطقة الدراسة-مدينة الكوت-العراق

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Day after day smart-government applications are increasing and being used in all aspects of life. The growing impact in the future on the reality of the city is expected to lead to the emergence of what could be called an intelligent or smart life that would make it impossible to control the management of cities and deliver services within the traditional concepts without introducing new active components. Cities are experiencing nowadays a new revolution, different from the emergence of urban life or the industrial revolution. It is the smart information revolution. If some of the traditional approaches are now valid in dealing with the management of cities and municipal services delivery following that the smart government applications have become a reality in urban management in developed countries and have led to increasing the efficiency of cities and facilitated life dramatically, that these communities lived through technical development step by step. All e-government applications were invented technological solutions to problems faced by these communities, which increase the effectiveness of these communities and improve their productivity and provide services more efficiently. But when applying these ideas in our countries (Third World countries), how the response to these techniques would be, will the benefits therefrom will be as efficient as in the country of origin. Ambiguity of city management and the provision of services in the future as a result of the introduction of technological revolution advances, and shifting to directions that cannot be understood without realizing the impact of this revolution on the various aspects of life represent the issue of this research. Therefore, the research has aimed to investigate or to attempt to predict the role of modern technological electronic developments in shaping the cities of the future and delivering services thereto, as well as their role in the management of these cities and the provision of services. The research assumes that the information and communications technology will help facilitate the provision of information and services, and the increased accuracy will impact in one way or another the human life in its social, behavioral and economic aspects and thus will be reflected on the structure of the city and its spaces similarly to what happened in Western countries.

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Article
Study of some molecular parameter for genetic variation of TNF-α and IL-2 to vitiligo patients in karbalaa Holy province
دراسة بعض المعايير الجزيئية للتغايير الجيني لـ TNF-α و IL-2 لمرضى البهاق في محافظة كربلاء المقدسة

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This study aimed to shed light on vitiligo and conducting genetic immunological examination and knowledge of the change in the levels of certain immune variables and certain hormones and certain genes different genetic ways in people with vitiligo, as well as knowledge of the relationship between those standards and the extent of vulnerability of those genes under study, and the current study included 50 people from vitiligo patients, as well as 50 people (apparently healthy) as the control group for the study, as were collected those samples from the Husseini Teaching Hospital in the city of Karbala (unit skin counseling) during the time period from May 2015 until December 2015.

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Article
Protective Role Of Curcumin On some of oxidative stress parameters and cerebrum Tissue In Male Rabbits Subjected To Monosodium Glutamate
الدور الوقائي للكركمين على بعض معايير الاجهاد التأكسدي ونسيج المخ في ذكور الارانب المعرضة لغلوتامات الصوديوم الاحادية

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This study aimed to know the preventive role of a substance Curcumin . against damage happening in the nervous system and induced textured monosodium glutamate (MSG) in male rabbits., sixty of adult male rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups (15 animals / group), the first group (G1) intubated with 1 ml / kg ml / kg of corn oil and served as a control group (G1). The second group were intubated orally and daily with 3mg /kg of MSG for three months , while the third group (G3) has intubated orally and daily with 60 mg / kg curcumin for three months , the fourth group intubated orally and daily with 3mg /kg of MSG and 60 mg / kg of curcumin for three months .Fasting blood samples were collected from fasted rabbits at pretreated period , Mid-experiment and at the end of experiment to study the following parameters: concentration of Malondialdehyde (MDA) , Reduced Glutathion (GSH) and peroxy nitrite ( ONOO ( _ . The results revealed that oral dosing with MSG caused a significant decrease (P <0.01)in rate of GSH compared with control group and significant increase (P < 0.01) in rate of MDA , ONOO _ compared with the control group. The group that treated with 60mg/kg curcumin revealed a significant increase (P <0.01) in GSH concentration compared with the control group and a significant decrease (P <0.01) in the concentration MDA and ONOO _ compared with the control group. Experience also shows that oral dosing with MSG and curcumin caused no significant difference(P <0.01) was observed in the concentration GSH ,MDA and ONOO _ compared with the control group.

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Article
Ishaq Bin Kundaj ( 891 A. D - 278 A.H ) , His biography & Role in The Second Abbassy Era ( Historical Study)
اسحاق بن كنداج ( ت 278 هـ / 891 م ) سيرته ودوره في العصر العباسي الثاني ( دراسة تاريخية )

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Abstract

This paper deals with Turkish Prince's (Ishaq Bin Kundaj) character as well as biography. It highlights his role in the political and military events in the 2nd Abbassy Era that happened in Syria and Euphrates Island . Throughout this study, we realized that this Prince considers one of the the most prominent Turkish leaders in the 2nd Abbasy Era during the period of the Caliph ( Al- Mutamid ) . He characterized by bravery , cleverness and savvy . He plays significant role in serving the Caliphate army. He makes a group of military campaigns for keep Abbassy state safe and settled during th 2nd Abbassy Era . After a series of battles with several princes of " Al – Mutaghlbin and some of local forces in Al Jazzira and Bilad Rabee'a territory, he puts those areas under Abbassy stat's control. He has been rewarded by naming him "Waly" on these grounds out of his great efforts . He descends from Al- Khzer ancestors ; they are actually a great Turkish generation , they live in " Al -Draband" which is behind the great gate near to " Tho – Algernain" dam . Ishaq Bin Kundaj plays significant role in the political and military conflicts that take place between "Al – Tolonia " state in Egypt & Syria and the Abbassian state at the period of the temporary revivification. He gets use of the conflict between ( Al – Muwaffak bi Allah ) who is the brother and the crown prince of the Caliph ( Al – Mutamid ) ; the latter actually is leading the Caliphate in Baghdad , in the other side "Ahmed bin Tolon and Khumarawayh " , this is all about controlling leadership in Al-Jazzira & Musel as well as expand the influence and the borders of his state . As all the Turkish military leaders, he tries to achieve personal ambition aspirations on the expense of the weakness and deterioration of the 2nd Abbassian Caliphate in both political and military field .

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Article
Convergence order-unit of vector metric space
تقارب الترتيب الاحادي للفضاء المتري المتجة

Authors: Zeinab Hassan Abood
Pages: 16-19
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In this paper , we introduce order- unit of vector metric space by using an order - unit and give some of their properties . Also we prove that the order unit continuous topology is order unit vectorial continuous .

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Article
A Comparative Study for the effect of ondansetron and metoclopramide in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting
دراسة مقارنة تأثير الاندستيرون والميتكلوبرومايد في منع الغثيان والتقيؤ بعد العملية

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Background: Management of postoperative nausea and vomiting relieve suffering and leads to shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. The major goal is to find the most effective treatment with the least side effects in prevention of post operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) .

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Article
Effect of organic fertilization and Nutrient leaf in vegetative growth and quality characteristics of grape cultivars Halwani Vitis vinifera L.
تأثير التسميد العضوي والتغذية الورقية في بعض صفات النمو الخضري و الصفات النوعية للعنب صنف حلواني Vitis vinifera L.

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This study was conducted in a private orchard in al-Hamza region in the province of Babylon during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016 to study the effect of organic fertilization and Nutrient leaf in the vegetative growth and quality characteristics of grape cultivar Halwani. The experiment included four types of organic fertilization which (without fertilization , manure of sheep 9 kg / tree, waste vegetable 9 kg / tree, EM1 25 ml / l) and five types of spraying some nutrients which (without spray, algae extract ( Algaren ) 6 ml . l, Boron 3 ml . liters , Iron 3 ml . liters and Gibberellin 150 mg / l). The experiment contained (20) treatment and three replicates by three vines in each duplicate . All transactions were distributed randomly distributed within a single sector . The sheep manure gave significant increase in leaf area and leaves content of chlorophyll also gave significant increase in qualitative characteristics ( TSS , total juicy acidity , TSS / TA , total sugars, pH of the juice , percentage of juice ) ,The other transactions recorded (vegetable waste, EM1) increase characteristics compared to the control treatment . The results indicate that spray (Algaren) gave significant increase in leaf area , chlorophyll content of the leaves and qualitative characteristics compared to the control, The interaction between the waste of sheep and spraying by (Aljaran) gave significant increase in study characteristics

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Article
Evaluation of Al-Zahara Roundabout in Al-Najaf City Using Simulation Model and Selecting the Optimum Alternative
تقييم ساحة الزهراء في مدينة النجف الاشرف باستخدام نموذج المحاكاة واختيار البديل الافضل

Authors: Hamid Athab Al-Jameel
Pages: 28-39
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Nowadays, most of urban areas suffer from traffic congestion. This congestion attributed to the existing of conflicting movements at intersections, merging, roundabouts, etc. In this study, a traffic congestion problem results from roundabouts have been investigated. Although roundabouts are safer from intersections because of less conflict points, roundabouts may have less capacity than corresponding intersections. Several roundabouts were built in Iraq in the last decade as a new design to improve traffic operations. However, most of these roundabouts suffer from high congestions. Therefore this study has focused on the evaluation of AL-Zahara roundabout as a sample from other roundabouts in the city. A simulation model called S-Paramics has been used to evaluate the performance of these roundabouts. Then, field data have been collected for more than 10hours. A video camera has been installed over a multi-story building in order to capture field data from Al-Zahraa Roundabout. This field data has been used to calibrate the simulation model (S-Paramics). After calibrating and validating the simulation model, the developed simulation model has been adopted to find the suitable solution to mitigate traffic congestion using different scenarios.

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Article
Effect of cultivation date and Indole butyric acid ( IBA ) on Rooting and fig cutting growth variety ( diala black )
تأثير موعد الزراعة واضافة الاندول بيوتريك اسد (IBA) في نمو عقل التين صنف (اسود ديالى) Ficus Carica

Authors: سعد شاكر جواد
Pages: 31-34
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Abstract

This experiment was conducted at the Hindia Hor. Station / Karbala – The general company for Hort. And forestry, during the period from 25/12/2014 to 30/10/2015. To find out the effect of cultivation date ( 25/1/2015 ) and three concentrate ( 0-500-1000 ) ppm of (IBA ). Factorial experiment in (RCBD) replicated 3 times. Cultivation date (25/1/2015) significantly effect on the percentage of cutting viability branches number shoots and root length ( 91.08% , 4.59, 44.16 cm , 31.88 cm ) respectively compared to cultivation date (25/2/2015) (82.05%, 3.27, 33.12 cm , 24.67 cm ) respectively. Basbital cutting dipped in ( 1000 ) ppm ( IBA ) showed significant increase in percentage of cutting viability. Branches number, shoot and root length ( 92.16%, 5.68 , 46.71 cm , 32.38 cm ) respectively compared to ( 0 ) IBA ( 80.27% , 2.39 , 28.73 cm , 25.15 cm ) respectively. The result also showed a significant increased in Interaction treatments ( 25/1/2015 ) and concentrate ( 1000 ) ppm ( IBA ) which gave significant effect on all characteristics studied

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Article
Studying the Ability of Using by Product Water of Reverse Osmosis Plants to Production of Concrete
دراسة امكانية استخدام المياه الناتجة بشكل ثانوي من محطات تحلية المياه لانتاج الخرسانة

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Recently, reverse osmosis system has been widely used in Iraq to treatment water, reverse osmosis can be defined as a system used to improve the quality of water and purify it from pollutants and salts to be valid for human use. This system has been produced secondary water as by product result additionally to desalinated water. This research aims to examine the possibility of using this by product water to produce concrete compatible with Iraqi standard specification, samples of secondary water has been collected from separated areas in Holy Kerbala, and tested according to Iraqi specifications, and compare the results with limits of this specification.

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Article
The Validity of the Complementary Oath in Civil evidence
حجية اليمين المتممة في الإثبات المدني

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The completed oath is considered as the main mean of the proof means in Iraqi Law proof no. 107 of 1979, due to be the proof which the court relying on for press on the opponent and confirming the against evidences , available for proving the case , because there is not other way except that mean , for the sake of prove the right , this oath is possessed by the judge , so that it called the judge's oath , due to have the complete free to choose whom direct to without any intervention by the opponent , this oath is completely different of that the decisive oath , which required many urgent follows , this the different between the urgent and decisive oath .

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Article
Nahj Al-Balagha Semantic Search Engine(NSSE)
محرك بحث دلالي لنهج البلاغة

Authors: Humam M. Abdul Sahib
Pages: 40-49
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The internet is a global mesh of interconnected web links and became essential for daily jobs. The management of data infrastructure for current web page is ill-suited for the huge developments in information technology and needs to be readily accessible. Semantic web is a framework of advanced current web based on an ontology that allows data to be meaningfully shared and used by humans and machines. Arabic language is one of the official languages of the United Nations which is spoken by more than 1.7 billion Muslims and in addition to Christians in 22 countries of the Arab world. Nahj Al-Balagha is the most important book after Holy Quran because it collects the speeches of Imam Ali Ibn Abi-Talib and consists of 241 sermons, 79 letters, and 489 wisdoms as guides in different topics like politics, science, ethics, history, social philosophy and others. Nahj Al-Balagha is written in the classical Arabic language which was used before 1400 years and for this reason Nahj Al-Balagha not fully understood by most of Muslims because of the different dialects.

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Article
Root growth of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as influenced by salinity.
نمو جذور حنطة الخبز(Triticum aestivum L.) بتأثير الملوحة

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Pots experiment was conducted at AL-Hindiya Barrage (30 Km North West of Hillah City) during the period of Dec.1st,2015 till April,4th,2016.The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the cultivar and the salinity in traduced at different growth periods and their interaction on some morphological traits of root growth. Factorial experiment within C.R.D was adopted .The first factor represented four cultivars i.e Al-Hussein,Al-Rsheed,Fateh,IPA-99. The second factor represented six salinity treatments at 10.3 ds/m; continuous salinity , salinity at seed swing , salinity at tillering , salinity at boosting and salinity at flowering, in addition to the control treatment i.e . irrigation with the tap water . Seeds of wheat cultivars were sown in Dec.1st,2015 in 5 Kgs soil capacity , thinned to 5 seedling one month later. Samples were taken 10 days after flowering completion (i.e.April,4th,2016) in order to determine som morphological traits of root system that are, length ,size ,diameter and dry weight. Results revealed that ,apart from root diameter-Al-Hussein gave the highest values of studied characteristic . On the other hand ,the cultivar IPA-99 gave the lowest value , whereas, Al-Rasheed cultivar was in between. Concerning the Salinity , plants of continuous salinity showed the lowest values for the above mentioned characters. It is worth mentioning that , most characters negatively influenced by salinity were accompanied the continuous salinity treatment followed by tillering and flowering stages . On the other hand , the control treatment gave the highest values of studied character is tics . The interaction between the two factors significantly affected the above mentioned character is tics.

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Article
The effect of supplementing Ginger powder in ration on productive performance of broiler Ross 308
تأثير أضافة مسحوق نبات ألزنجبيل الى العليقة في ألاداء الانتاجي لفروج اللحم سلالة روز 308

Authors: Tariq Salah Almrsomi
Pages: 50-54
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This study was approved out to inspect the effects of adding Ginger powder in dietary supplement on broiler productive performance. Two hundred and forty chicks of commercial strain Ross 308 one day old were wielded in this rummage the chicks were separately balanced and haphazardly spread to 4 treatments. Each treatment included three replicates (20 chicks/replicate).The treatments were as follows : control G0 free of Ginger powder, G1 adding 2.5g /kg of Ginger powder to the diet, G2 adding 5g /kg of Ginger powder to the diet, G3 adding 7.5g /kg of Ginger powder to the diet. The results discovered that associated to control, there was no significantly a difference for chicks fed Ginger powder such as body weights, weight improvement, consumption of feed and feed alteration portion during the experimental period. This study indicated that the dietary levels of Ginger powder did not have any benefit effect on growth and the digestibility of most nutrients.


Article
Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus ,1857) Morphological Study of (Copepoda/Cyclopoida) in Holy Karbala/ Iraq.
دراسة مظهرية للنوع)1857, Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus (Copepoda/Cyclopoida)في محافظة كربلاء المقدسة / العراق

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This study was included the external morphology of Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus،1857( ،Collected from Holy Karbala Province/Al Hindeyah region. Distribute Genus of Mesocyclops in more aquatic ecosystem .The study was depended on external morphological characters that are taxonomically important such as: Total length and shape of the body and appendages was represented by Shape and Segments number of Antennule and Setae, arrangement of spinules in Basal Segment of Antenna,4th and 5th Pedigerous and Caudal Rami.The date and the site of collection were recorded.

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Article
Histological study of esophagus in dogs and rabbits
دراسة نسجية مقارنة لغدد المريء بين الكلاب والارانب

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The present study was addressed numerous of histological differentiations in esophageal glands between dogs and rabbits. Five dogs and five rabbits were taken for this study. All samples were collected from animal house of Veterinary Medicine college-Kerbala University. The microstructures of esophagus were examined by light microscope, the results showed that the esophageal glands were highly mucous and less number of serous gland in dog while, the esophagus in rabbits have pure mucous gland only. So, all of esophageal glands in dog located in submucosa region but in rabbits can be seen in sub mucosa and tunica muscularis. In dog, the distribution of esophageal glands were randomly, while in rabbits the oesophagus glands were scattering as clumps or grapes between them dense connective tissue regular while in dog, didn’t observed lobes and connective tissue unclear between glands. The ducting system in both of animals have some of characteristics different on each other.

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Article
Used evidence in Quran from Arabic language teacher in the University of Karbala Department College of Education Through the views of students
استعمال الشواهد القرآنية من قبل تدريسي قسم اللغة العربية في جامعة كربلاء كلية التربية للعلوم الانسانية من وجهة نظر الطلبة

Authors: زينب كاظم جاسم
Pages: 56-72
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The holly Quran is a perfect curriculum in the study of the Arabic grammar that it moves or transfers us from the presentation stage to the stage of getting of the laws and the grammatical rules. And it fits with the Quranic miracle which Quran's verses are characterized by that cover the basic issues in human life in all. In doing so, the witness Quranic instills in the learner itself the desire to research and think a scientific thinking based on an argument and a comparative criticism. For the importance of the holly Quran in our daily life and our desire to enter in the style of teaching, especially in the linguistics and grammar subjects for their close association with the holly Quran because Quran's verses getting in the Arabic language, and the holly Quran considers the strong witness taken by the Arabic grammar especially. So, this study aimed to identify on the use of Quranic witnesses by teaching staff of the Arabic language in the Education College for Humanity Sciences/ University of Karbala, from students' point of view by answering on the paragraphs scale which the researcher prepared that consists of (25) paragraphs and applies on a sample of the fourth stage in the Arabic department (75) students. The researcher uses the statistical methods like averages, standard deviations and percentages to analyze the data and answering on the resolution paragraphs, and then the results come the students have a positive direction toward the Quranic witness taken by the Arabic language teaching staff. And the teaching process isn't free from remembering the Quranic witness because of the teacher's belief of the holly Quran belief that it has influential and important thing in the student itself that the student can't ignore it or suspect it, so the holly Quran has importance in getting the correct and understanding information for the student.

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Article
Effective ZnO Doping by pulsed laser deposition to Improve the efficiency of the solar cells of TiO2at 200 C0
تأثير تطعيم اوكسيد الخارصين بواسطة ترسيب الليزر النبضي لتحسين كفاءة الخلية الشمسية للأوكسيد التياتيوم عند درجة حرارة (200) C0

Authors: Batool Gabbar Obeid
Pages: 63-68
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In this research was prepare TiO2: ZnO have been deposited on the glass substrates by the pulsed lasertechnique,the use of Nd:YAG laser with wavelength (1064)nm and energy 600mJand have been deposited with different concentration(0.03,0.05,0.07,0.1)% of ZnO at annealing temperature 200 C0with thickness (400 nm). The TiO2thin films showed n-type conductivity, according to Hall measurements, the carrier concentration of TiO2 thin films had increasedfrom (18.5× 1010 to 45.16× 1010 cm−3). The average absorbance value of TiO2 thin films was improved from (3.412*10-6to 8.654*10-6)by the doping of ZnO., These improved properties should contribute to the efficiency of the photovoltaic effect of the photogenerated charged carriers. The( I-V) characteristic of (Al / TiO2: ZnO /n-Si / Al) heterojunction show that the solar cell which is produced at X=0.1% by efficiency (η) =8.769

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Article
The Effect of Iron foliar Nutrition to reduce Salinity Stress effect in some anatomical traits and Yield components of maiz ( Zea Mays L. )
تأثير التغذية الورقية بعنصر الحديد لتقليل أثر الشد الملحي في بعض الصفات التشريحية ومكونات الحاصل لنبات الذرة الصفراء Zea Mays L

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A field experiment was conducted during the fall season of 2015 in The Najaf Ashraf governorate by using different Concentration of NaCl ( 0 , 2 , 4 , 6 ds.m-1 ) Three concentration of iron Fe ( 0 , 1000 , 2000 ppm ) in the aim of studing the effect of foliar nutrition by iron to reduce the impact of harmal salts in some anatomical traits and some of yeild components maize. From this study it was concluded that the element of iron had effective role in reducing the impact of salinity, especially in the concentricity 1000 ppm which reduce the effect of salinity and increase the production in quantity and quality by increasing the values siqnificantly in length of earn , The numbers of rows in the earn and weight of one hundred grains in (g) . In addition to that the salinity in irrigtion water led to decrease in the number of stomata , increasing the length and width of the lower epidermis of the leaf cell , thickness of the cortex and the number of air spaces in the roots of the plant.

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Article
First Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Canine Anaplasma phagocytophilum Bacterium in Iraq
التشخيص المصلي والجزيئي الاول لبكتيريا Anaplasma phagocytophilum الكلابية في العراق

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This study was aimed to detect an occurrence and demonstrate the persistence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum bacterium in dogs in Baghdad province/Iraq, and an investigation of its relationship with the most important risk factors that involved sex, age and inhabitant region. For this object, a totally of 267 dogs were submitted for blood samples collection, which examined by using of four diagnostic methods included blood smear test, rapid test, indirect ELISA and PCR technique. Although, the blood smear test was failed in detection of inclusion bodies specific for A. phagocytophilum in granulocytes, the rapid test and indirect ELISA have been revealed on 9 (3.37%) and 13 (4.87%) seropositive dogs, respectively; while, the PCR had been detected 7 (2.62%) positive dogs. Statistically, the significant differences were reported between some applied diagnostic assays, as well as between the groups related to age factor at a level of (P0.05), whereas, they did not detected between the groups associated to both sex and inhabitant factors.

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Article
Role Of Orexin in Induce Metabolic Syndrome
دور الاوركسين Orexinفي حدوث متلازمة الايض

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The aim of this study was investigate the effect of Orexin hormone on metabolic syndrome patients, these conduction 124 patients metabolic. The working criteria developed by the NCEP: ATPIII have been criticised a new set of criteria that included waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, and fasting glucose. In addition to measuring the levels of the Orexin, The data collected included age, duration of disease and BMI. The results show that significant decrease(p<0.01) in serum levels Orexin hormone in metabolic syndrome with infected diabetic patients compare to metabolic syndrome not infected diabetic patients in both sexes, Also showed in significant different between male in two group and female also.

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Article
The Development of food and food Industry Across History
تطور الغذاء والصناعات الغذائية عبر التاريخ ( حتى بدايات القرن العشرين )

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The present research sheds light on one of the most important subjects in the life of human beings and others creature .It is the subject of food and its industry and ways for preserving it from contaminant putrescence . It is proved that man from the beginning seeks to obtain food it keeps life going and this mentioned in the holly Quran in many verses. The research Concludes that man eagerly tries, in all the eras he passed in, to find the best way to preserve food and develops ways to store it, He devises many means that help keeping food Safe.Today man has the best ways to store food and because of that man Sncceed to overcome most of the problems that face food storage. There are many festivals , Conferences and assemblies Care for food softy and seek to raise e the awareness of the societies to preserve food and its industry. The researchers find that societies took great Care of beverages and try to develop their industry and always seek to devise the best kinds of beverages and trade them in the markets to get the highest prices and this earn so much money to people and their Countries

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Article
Sector Steel Plate Analysis Using Finite Difference Method
تحليل الصفائح المقوسة بإستخدام طريقة الفروقات المحددة

Authors: Sadjad A. Hemzah --- . Majid Adhab Jaber
Pages: 79-93
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An investigation of validity of the Finite Difference method to simulate thin sectorial steel plate under the effect of uniform and concentrated loads with different types of boundary conditions was studied in this paper. The differential equation schemes of curved plate were solved by means of the Finite Difference method. Also bending moments Mr , Mϕ and Mrϕ schemes were derived. The effects of curvature, aspect ratio, load type and boundary conditions of the plate were studied. Avery good agreement between the results of deflections and moments obtained by the derived Finite Difference schemes and the result from the Finite Element method of (ABAQUS) computer program for all types of geometry, loading and support conditions

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Article
Effects of Zinc nitrate Zn(NO₃)₂ and salinity in sunflower plant (Helianthus annuus L.) seedling
تأثير نترات الزنك Zn(NO₃)₂ والملوحة في بادرات نبات زهرة الشمس Helianthus annuus L.

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The present study was carried out for possibility of using Zn(NO₃)₂ in alleviating of negative effects for salt stress using of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) . Results showed that saline level ( 8 dS.m-1) reduced growth parameters including fresh & dry weight , chlorophyll content & transpiration rate in seedlings . In other hand, this salt rate caused significant increase in percentages of salts effect for shoot and root and ratio of ions leakage (plasma membrane damage). Providing of seedlings with Zn(NO₃)₂ has improved growth indicators through significant encourage for range of fresh & dry weight , chlorophyll content , transpiration rate , in addition through reducing of negative salts effect percentage of shoot & root and percentage of plasma membrane damage reaching levels which approach to control treatment (unstress seedling ) .

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Article
Food Security in science book of the secondary schools in Iraq
الأمن الغذائي في كتب علم الأحياء للمرحلة الإعدادية في جمهورية العراق "دراسة تحليلية"

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The research aims to know how the level of the concept "Food Security" at science book of the secondary school in Iraq. So to filful the aim of this research the two researohers use a scientific tool which is tried and ensured by a set of experts and mangers at Biology, psychology , and education. For this we have the tool with its final from has (64) points about 8 subhect (foot , agriculture, water resource , use of land , famine , pollution, Ecological balance , Genetic engineering and alttaqniatalaihayiya . Then the two researechers analysis science books of secondary schools that confirmed for the year(2015-2016) concering the tool. So, the number of tested pages (426) page. They have real and cimplied ideas for repetition and registration . Person correlation coefficient and percentage are used to count stability analysis labs in agreement with external analysis and the two researchers themselves. For two weeks find Biology text book for the fourth secondary consist of food security requirements and this text achieves noteworthy development which differs from the previousetexts . In addition they noticed that the text pointed out to most food security require ments , but in varing proportions in comparing with the Biology text book of the fifth year secondary school which consider nearly emply from them

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Article
Association between the genotypes of gene polymorphisms and certain risk factors of transitional urinary bladder cancer
العلاقة بين الطرز الجينية لعدد من التعددات الشكلية الجينية وبعض عوامل الخطورة في سرطان المثانة البولية الانتقالي

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Risk factors play an important role in the development of cancer, especially bladder cancer, as it some factors such as age , sex , housing ,smoking, family history of cancer ,grade disease ,other bladder diseases, were predispose for the increasing incidence and recurrence of bladder cancer. The blood sample were collected from AL-Hussein teaching hospital and AL- Safeer hospital in holy Karbala province that clinically diagnosed and apparently healthy individuals as a control group. DNA was extracted from blood samples, and the presence of polymorphism was detected in the studied genes using advance molecular techniques . The study showed the correlation between some genotypes of the studied genes and the risk factors.


Article
Extensive set in Topological Transformation Group
المجموعة الموسعة في زمرة التحويل التبولوجي

Authors: Enas Yahya Abdullah
Pages: 94-99
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In this paper we discussed properties extensive set through studied semi group replete in topological transformation group , and it will given necessary condition for extensive set to be syndetic set ,so image and inverse image of extensive set also extensive set and introduce new define of point dynamics be strongly periodic using concept of the extensive set as well as we introduce that many of new relations and theorem.

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Article
Some Results on fuzzy sub NASNR-BCK algebra
بعض النتائج حول ضبابية شبه الحلقة القريبة غير التجميعية مع جبر BCK

Authors: Sajda Kadhum Mohammed --- Marim Ameen Aliwi
Pages: 100-107
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In this research , we define a fuzzy NASNR-BCK algebra, where we study and prove some results and a properties, then we give some examples.

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Article
The effectiveness of design (educational - learning) according to the cognitive model in the development of reasoning thinking among sixth grade students
فاعلية تصميم (تعليمي-تعلمي) وفقا للأنموذج المعرفي في تنمية التفكير الاستدلالي لدى طالبات الصف السادس العلمي

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scientific research aimed to detection efficiency instructional desin- accordance of the model of knowledege in the development of thinking skills & deductive for the sixth stage scientific student . A researcher developed a zero hypothesis & to check it, she applied experince in the second semester of the year [2016_2015] : she prepared all her hardware and tools , which belong to it& it is 1- constructing educational design according to the model of knowledge in physics for the sith stage scientific students . 2- teaching plan for two qroups of search within school schedule .. 3- test deductive thinking skills . consisting of [25] artical. & she has been check it from his psychometric properties . 4- the research sample : I premeditated test from karbala secondary school for girls in the center goverernorate of holy karbala by [60] student they were randomly divided into two experimental qroup . equivalent has been done between the two qroups & the test had applied in the first week of the experiment , at the end after statistical analysis by using [spss] the results show that it was vareriment statistical at [0.05] between them & in favor of the experiment qroup , so she concluded efficiency instructional desin & the positive impact & these results developed some of suggestions & recommendations .

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Article
Response of okra planted under plastic tunnel to soil mulching , pinching and spraying liqurice root extract on growth and yield
إستجابة نباتات الباميا المزروعة تحت الانفاق البلاستيكية الواطئة الى تغطية التربة والرش بمستخلص جذور عرق السوس وعملية قرط القمة النامية

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The experiment was conducted during winter season (2015-2016) at Abol-Kassib , Basra region area . The aim of study to show the effect of mulching by black polyethylene ( mulching and non-mulching ) and pinching of apical bud (pinching and non-pinching) moreover spraying by foliar liqurice extract at two conc. ( 0, 50) mg. L-1 . Complete Randomized Block Design was used as factorial experiment with applied Duncan's test to mean comparision. The results showed that the plants were grown in mulched soil significantly increase in length of plant , number of total leaves , leaves area, total chlorophyll in leaves, weight of fruits , yield of plant and total yield. Plants were treated with liqurice extract had significant increase in length of plants, diameter of stem , number of sides branches , leaves area , total chlorophyll in leaves , number of fruits , yield of plant and total yield. There is no significant increase at all characters in plants which pinched expect in number of side branches and number of total leaves. The interaction between study factors had significant affect in some paramatars.

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Article
Study the effect of aberrations on Point spread function and encircled energy of annular aperture
دراسة تأثير الزيوغ على دالة الانتشار النقطية و الطاقة التجميعية الدائرية لفتحة حلقية

Authors: Sundus Yaseen Hasan --- Widad Hamza Tarkhan
Pages: 108-115
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In this work, the encircled energy of point spread function (PSF(for annular aperture have been studied. This study is done for the case of diffraction limited system and for different kinds of first and third order aberrations were occurred, like tilt error, focus error, spherical aberration, and coma aberration. The study showed that the spherical aberration (third order aberration) can be balanced with focus error (first order aberration) to reduce the effect of these errors on encircled energy. The same thing occurs with coma aberration (third order aberration) which balanced with tilt error (first order aberration).


Article
Effect of hypothyroidism on sheep's body condition score
تأثير القصور الدرقاني على ضابطة وزن الجسم في الأغنام

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Our current study explained an obvious swinging in body condition score resulting from deviation in both thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroxine levels that were elevated and declined correspondingly of their natural levels to showed a expressive contrast rest on a probability )P<0.01). These data affecting negatively the anabolic status that is concerned metabolic pathways of the body of the body and leading to a declined of body score medium recorded (1.3). All of these results leading to a conclusion that studying both of thyroid hormones levels and body condition score offer a way assisting in evaluation of animal's growth efficiency in the future.

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Article
The Bactericidal Activity of Gamma ,Beta on Vibrio cholerae resistance to Many of antibiotics (in vitro )
الفعالية القاتلة لاشعة كاما وبيتا على بكتريا ضمات الكوليرا المقاومة لعدد من المضادات الحيوية خارج الجسم الحي

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This study evaluated the effect of gamma , beta irradiation on Vibrio colerae isolated. The experiment included control (without exposure to irradiation) and 5 replicated doses of each gamma and beta irradiation ,which ranged (1.218×10-4 -0.320µSv) and (63.100 -96.950µSv) respectively. The total effect of gamma and beta irradiation on Vibrio cholerae viability was abrogated at (96.915177 & 63.100 µSv) by 137Cs(1µci) and 137Cs(9µci) respectively, the percentage of killing was highly (84%) and (85%) respectively and the viable cells was fewer than control. Gamma and Beta irradiation is efficient to killing Vibrio cholerae that cause many infection to human and may be cause death. The sensitivity of antibiotics of Vibrio cholerae to ten of antibiotic was tested, the results showed that percent of resistant against V. cholerae to Erythromycin , Methicillin, Ampicillin and Tetracycline was 70%, the percent of resistant to Nalidixic acid was 50%, percent of resistant to Amikacin was 10%, while percent of resistant to Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin was 0%.


Article
Choose the best estimation Methods for the multi – response dependent Variable .
اختيار افضل طرائق تقدير المتغير المعتمد متعدد الاستجابة

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The descriptive dependent variables are important one that do not have quantitative measurement units, they subject to the description of the phenomenon through studying the data and information, and enables the decision–maker to identifying the nature of response when the variable is binary–response or multi–response .We used in our thesis the descriptive regression model, when the dependent variable is multi–response, by studying some models related to these descriptive variables. was estimation the parameter of model of dependent variable, using "weighted least squares"method, and method of " maximum likelihood ", and "Jackknife estimation" methods. was applied to the life experience of some insecticidal in , we found the result of estimation is that the (MLE) method is the best and efficient because it gets less (MSE).

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Article
A survey study for axle Load Distribution of Full-trailer Trucks with Tandem Steering Axles-in Iraq
دراسة مسح لتوزيع الحمولة المحورية للمركبات نوع قاطرة ومقطورة ذات المحور الامامي (التوجيهي) المزدوجة في العراق

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In Iraq, As a result of the continuous development in the manufacture of heavy vehicles in terms of the distribution of axle and their number and what it contains of the impact on the pavement, there is a need to study the distribution of axle loads of new types of vehicles type full-trailer truck. This study included the distribution of axle loads of the two new types of full-trailer truck with tandem steering axles. The study is based on an axle load survey for the two types of vehicles covered by this study. This survey was carried out in Kerbala and Hilla cities during 2016 and covered 89 full-trailer trucks type 11.2+2.2 and 11.22+2.22. By using the results of the axle load survey, the distribution of axle loads of the trucks type 11.2+2.2 and 11.22+2.22 was obtained. The maximum axle loads obtained from the axle load survey were 12.320, 21.990, 28.320 and 34.580 tonnes for front single, front tandem, rear single, and rear tandem axles respectively. The results of this work allowed the conclusion that there is a serious overloading problem of the tandem steering axle as well as each other types of axles of the above vehicle types are covered in this study. This paper showed the urgent need for a legal axle load limit for tandem steering axle load in Iraq and recommends the activation of the enforcement system on the axle load limits on Iraqi highways.


Article
Legal adaptation of management silence
التكييف القانوني لسكوت الإدارة

Authors: ميثم محمد عبد كاظم
Pages: 128-148
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The administration often explicitly express its will by issuing the administrative decision to accept the request for resignation or retirement submitted to it by one of the employees or reject it according to its vision in achieving the public interest or issuing the decision to confirm the employee upon completion of the experience period and the conviction of his authority to carry out the tasks and burdens of his job, or not confirmation, if approved the opposite. But the administration may be silent on the response to the request submitted to it for a period that may be extended or shortened, or the confirmation of the employee after completing the trial period. Is it silence regarded an administrative decision? If so, is it an explicit or implicit decision? Is this silence regarded acceptable to the request or rejected it? This is what we'll try to answer within our search.


Article
Resistance management in Musca domestica Linnaeus (1758) (Diptera :Muscidae) resistant to Insect growth regulators (IGRs)
إدارة المقاومة في سلالة الذباب المنزلي Musca domestica Linnaeus (1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) المقاوم لمنظمات النمو الحشرية

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Carried out a status study of insect resistance management Musca domestica Linnaeus (1758) domestic flies in the Holy City of Karbala, to assess the impact of the exchange between Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (Match 5% EC, Trigard 50% WP) and its role in inhibiting resistance and stability as the results came out that use of the exchange mechanism between growth regulators and four generations was effective in inhibiting resistance in these strains, as reduse of resistance ratio LD50 (2.72) mg/l , (1.83) fold in the first generation when a treated alter with Trigard insecticide resistant strain of growth to Match the LD50 values (1.74) mg/l ratio amounted to resistance (1.16) fold in the 4th generation as well as lower LD50 value of (4.36) mg/l in the first generation when the insect growth regulator, transaction Match for the resistant strain Trigard resistance accounted for (4.00) fold the LD50 values and resistance ratio (1.45) mg/l (1.33) folds in the 4th consecutive generation We conclude from the results that the exchange mechanism between IGRs are important in resistance management programs to delay them or their retreat to Susceptibility.

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Article
Resistance management in Musca domestica Linnaeus (1758) (Diptera :Muscidae) resistant to Insect growth regulators (IGRs)
إدارة المقاومة في سلالة الذباب المنزلي Musca domestica Linnaeus (1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) المقاوم لمنظمات النمو الحشرية

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Carried out a status study of insect resistance management Musca domestica Linnaeus (1758) domestic flies in the Holy City of Karbala, to assess the impact of the exchange between Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (Match 5% EC, Trigard 50% WP) and its role in inhibiting resistance and stability as the results came out that use of the exchange mechanism between growth regulators and four generations was effective in inhibiting resistance in these strains, as reduse of resistance ratio LD50 (2.72) mg/l , (1.83) fold in the first generation when a treated alter with Trigard insecticide resistant strain of growth to Match the LD50 values (1.74) mg/l ratio amounted to resistance (1.16) fold in the 4th generation as well as lower LD50 value of (4.36) mg/l in the first generation when the insect growth regulator, transaction Match for the resistant strain Trigard resistance accounted for (4.00) fold the LD50 values and resistance ratio (1.45) mg/l (1.33) folds in the 4th consecutive generation We conclude from the results that the exchange mechanism between IGRs are important in resistance management programs to delay them or their retreat to Susceptibility.

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Article
Analytic study for the parallel processing algorithms
دراسة تحليلية في خوارزميات المعالجة المتوازية

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Parallel processing technology is considered a new and important branch of the (IT) because of what it had of an extra-large prospects that expansion and rapid the processing in the computer, to make sure the work of this technique is correct and effective thus. The researcher found several ways to manage these processes which are called Algorithms (Parallel Processing Algorithms) because this technology is important, in this paper we try to cover topics such as: what is the parallel processing, what are the types of its computers, in addition to the definition of parallel processing algorithms and how to analyze them. Also, in this paper, some studies about this technique have been mentioned. Furthermore, the designing and building processing parallel algorithms has been taken as an example. Moreover, building an algorithm called (publication Algorithms) which enables the user to access of more than one processor to a specific location in memory at a same time. The conclusion obtains some results from this paper as well as some of the recommendations


Article
Contribution of early thermal gradient within final set period and curing methods on ordinary cement concrete compressive strength with the aid of maturity concept
مساهمة التغير الحراري المبكر ضمن فترة التماسك النهائي وطريقة المعالجة على مقاومة الإنضغاط لخرسانة ألإسمنت ألإعتيادي باستخدام مفهوم الانضاج

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The present research aims to study by using maturity concept (due to internal thermal for concrete with its age) critical effect of early thermal gradient during final setting period on ordinary cement concrete compressive strength of Standard cylindrical ∅ 150 * 300 mm concrete sealed specimens (( content by weight 400 kg/m3 cement) subjected to a temperature of 4˚C for the duration of final setting times ( 6-8 hrs. ) then later (removing sealed) on to standard temperature of 20 ˚C for the duration of 1 to 360 days at moisture and air cured conditions to be finally tested in compression at the prementioned dates . The same procedure was exactly repeated but the concrete specimens subjected to 50˚C at the final setting times . The final outcome showed that generally if the maturity values least fluctuated due to each others and more regularity during first three days , upper later compressive strength . development in strength was slower for the specimens subjected to 4˚C than those at 50˚C at the initial setting times but,beyond the age of 7 days until 360 days the compressive strength gains more in strength for the specimens subjected to 4˚C than those at 50˚C as compared with same mixture subjected to 20˚C .

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Article
Contribution of early thermal gradient within final set period and curing methods on ordinary cement concrete compressive strength with the aid of maturity concept
مساهمة التغير الحراري المبكر ضمن فترة التماسك النهائي وطريقة المعالجة على مقاومة الإنضغاط لخرسانة ألإسمنت ألإعتيادي باستخدام مفهوم الانضاج

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Abstract

The present research aims to study by using maturity concept (due to internal thermal for concrete with its age) critical effect of early thermal gradient during final setting period on ordinary cement concrete compressive strength of Standard cylindrical ∅ 150 * 300 mm concrete sealed specimens (( content by weight 400 kg/m3 cement) subjected to a temperature of 4˚C for the duration of final setting times ( 6-8 hrs. ) then later (removing sealed) on to standard temperature of 20 ˚C for the duration of 1 to 360 days at moisture and air cured conditions to be finally tested in compression at the prementioned dates . The same procedure was exactly repeated but the concrete specimens subjected to 50˚C at the final setting times . The final outcome showed that generally if the maturity values least fluctuated due to each others and more regularity during first three days , upper later compressive strength . development in strength was slower for the specimens subjected to 4˚C than those at 50˚C at the initial setting times but,beyond the age of 7 days until 360 days the compressive strength gains more in strength for the specimens subjected to 4˚C than those at 50˚C as compared with same mixture subjected to 20˚C .

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Article
Role of autoimmunity in directing clinical cardiovascular & serum lipid changes in primary hypothyroidism
دور المناعة الذاتية في تغيرات السريرية القلبية الوعائية وتغير مصل الدهون في ضمور الغدة الدرقية الابتدائي

Authors: Ammar Jabbar Hamad Al-Shammary
Pages: 146-151
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A Study was done to investigate the clinical cardiovascular & serum lipid changes in thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO)-positive with primary hypothyroidism on thyroxine treatment. Fifty four patients (31 females & 23 males) with primary hypothyroidism & on thyroxine treatment with were recruited, their ages ranged 45-65 years. They were divided into 2 groups according to the result of TPO determination, i.e, TPO-positive & TPO negative groups. Results showed that heart rate was significantly decreased while the blood pressure ( both systolic & diastolic ) was significantly increased in TPO-positive group in supine & standing position. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein was significantly reduced in TPO-positive group while serum triglyceride levels were higher in TPO-positive group when compared with those of the TPO-negative group. In conclusion, cardiovascular abnormalities were evident to be more in TPO-positive patients as compared to the TPO-negative hypothyroid patients. Thus, autoimmunity is implicated in cardiovascular and serum lipid changes in hypothyroidism

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Article
Some results on IS-algebras
بعض النتائج حول جبور IS

Authors: Sundus Najah Jabir
Pages: 152-159
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In this paper we study IS- algebra , subIS- algebra , IS-algebra homomorphism and congruence relations on IS-algebra , and prove some results about this

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Article
Study of Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms of woman diabetic retinopathy Type II in Kerbala Province
دراسة التعدد الشكلي لجين عامل النمو البطاني الوعائي عند النساء المصابات باعتلال شبكية العين السكري( النوع الثاني ) في محافظة كربلاء

Authors: لقاء حسون صكبان
Pages: 154-161
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The study was included to determine the Correlation between polymorphism (Insertion and Deletion ) of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor gene(VEGF) .The Study included to the two groups, the first group was included (60) women of Diabètes retinopathy) Type II) , the second group was included (60) healthy women as control group. the polymorphism and genotype for (VEGF) gene were studied by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).. The results were indicated to increase significantly (P≤ 0.003), (P≤ 0.001) by statistical analysis Chi-Square between the numbers, And showed to the frequency for each one the genotype (DD) , and total allele D in women of Diabètes retinopathy) Type II) comparison with healthy women , reached 19 (31.67) % , 67(55.83) % opposite % (28.3 ) 43 , 5 (8.3 ) % Respectively . And was a significant increase (P≤ 0.001) in the number and percentage of repeat genotype II and total I allele in women of Diabètes retinopathy) Type II) Comparison with healthy women reached 12 (20)% and 53 (44.17)% opposite 30 (50)% (84) (70%), while no differences in of repeat genotype DI. also,the study was included increase significantly (P≤ 0.001) between the two groups when measuring of biochemical tests that included levels of Triglycerides(TG), total cholesterol concentration(T.chol), (low-lying density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C), And Body Mass Index(BMI), while the concentration of high density lipoproteins cholesterol(HDL-C) decreased significantly (P≤ 0.001) in the of Diabètes retinopathy group Comparison with healthy women group.

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Article
Performance Assessment of LiBr-H2O Absorption Chiller for Air Conditioning Purposes
تقييم أداء مثلج ماء امتصاصي يعمل بمحلول )ماء + بروميد الليثيوم (لأغراض تكييف الهواء

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The thermodynamic analysis of a 4TR single stage absorption chiller is executed numerically using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. In this chiller, water and lithium bromide mixture is used as a working fluid and supplies by hot water from electrical boiler at any temperature. The investigation is done to assess the effect of varying the exit temperatures of the absorber, evaporator, generator, and condenser on the absorption chiller cycle performance. The cycle simulation is based on the operating temperature ranges and fixed parameters which include as follows: evaporating exit temperature within a range of 2-11 °C, generator exit temperature within a range of 80-89°C, condenser exit temperature range from 30 to 48°C, absorber exit temperature range from 20 to 38°C, three magnitudes of effectiveness of heat exchanger (0.6, 0.65 and 0.7), strong solution flow rate 0.05 kg/s. The results depicted that the performance parameters are affected by the operation temperatures of main components and heat exchanger effectiveness


Article
Bacterial contamination of meat and vegetable cutting board used in restaurants and houses and the role of detergents in controlling on contamination
التلوث البكتيري لألواح تقطيع اللحوم والخضروات المستخدمة في المطاعم والمنازل ودور المنظفات في السيطرة على التلوث

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The collection and study of 25 samples which (swabs from cutting boards, wood, plastic, glass) from different locations inside and outside the campus of the University of Karbala, all samples underwent to cultivate for identify the bacteria and thier phenotypic characteristics, using general and selection culture media . the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus the largest proportion, where the percentage to isolate 24.32 )±1.00) % of the total isolation , followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with (0.02± 21.62)% and all of the bacteria Klebsiella and E.coli accounted for (1.00±16.22)% and (0.01±16.22)% for each one while got Enterobacter and Shigella on (0.04±8.11)% and (1.00±8.11)% for each one from finally the Salmonella was (0±5.40)% of total isolation. the sensitivity of bacteria isolates toward some local detergents using a agar wall diffusion method by using (M.H.A) Muller Hinton Agar was found that almost all isolates were sensitive under study at the concentration of 20% and above, but resistance to the concentration of 10%.

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Article
Use Mar Keting in telegence to Achieve Sustainble Competitve Advantage by Enviroment Scaning
أستخدام الذكاء التسويقي لتحقيق الميزة التنافسية المستدامة للمنظمة من خلال الرصد البيئي دراسة تحليلية لأراء عينة من مدراء شركة زين للاتصالات في العراق

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The research aims to determine the role of intelligence Marketing through the sub-dimensions (understanding the customer, understanding of the market, intelligent product service,smarter competitors) to achieve sustainable competitive advantage through its dimensions (superior quality, efficacy superior, update superior, superior customer response) through monitoring environmental and sub-dimensions survey, monitoring, forecasting, evaluation), selected sample of ( 75 ) people, managers and heads of departments Zain has been surveyed under a questionnaire designed for this purpose, means statistically tested and suitable for use in the analysis and testing of hypotheses, as it reached results to the conclusion that the company collects information from competitors and customers, distributors and processors, as well as its interest in the process of marketing their products to customers through the use of intelligence operations catalog-based environmental monitoring

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Article
The use of Nd:YAG laser in treatment of superficial vascular and pigmentary lesions
استخدام ليزر Nd:YAG لمعالجة الوحمات الوعائية السطحية والصبغية

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In this work, Nd:YAG laser with two wavelength (1064,532)nm was used in treating vascular (port wine stain, heamangioma ;and Telangiectase). Also Nd:YAG laser was used in tattoo treatment and the results achived is best than by using (KTP,PDL and Ar) laser. This process is occurs via absorption laser beam by skin layers, especially surface skin layer which is useful in the cosmetics surgical. There are different properties related with skin layer such as thermal diffusion and thermal relaxation time, the later is higher than the time of laser puls and this cause cooling to one –half without according thermal diffusion in normal (healthy) skin region. Nd:YAG laser can absorbed deeply and this observed when it used to remove the deep pigmentation, in compare with other laser types which absorbed only by the surface of skin layer because of low power , wavelength , frequencies and intensity in compare with Nd:YAG laser.


Article
Stady of seasonal variation of Epipili algae community in AL-Hussainia river within the holy city of Karbala-Iraq
دراسة التغيرات الفصليه لمجتمع الطحالب الملتصقة بالطين لنهر الحسينية كربلاء المقدسة / العراق

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Abstract

qualitative and quantitative study was conducted on Al- Hussainia River during the period from December 2016 to January 2016 . This study includes measuring some chemical and physical properties of water and conduct quantitative and qualitative study of the epipelic algal community . The results of the present study showed temporal and spatial variations in the physical – chemical properties of water . The water temperature ranged between (12.5 - 27) °C which accompanied the variations of air temperature that ranged between (13 – 38.5) °C . The river was tending to the alkalinity and the PH was ranged between7.5 – 8, the electrical conductivity and the total dissolved solids ranged between(1029 – 1340) μs/cm and( 564 – 910) mg / l respectively. The study also showed that the waters have slight alkalinity, the total alkalinity ranged between ( 99- 137 ) mg/l . The waters of the river were very hard , the total hardness ranged between ( 360 – 529 ) mg / l. Calcium and Magnesium ions ranged between ( 110 – 140 ) mg/l and (38 – 44 ) mg / l respectively . The lower value of turbidity was recorded during Spring 2016 , it was 6 NTU , while the upper value recorded during Autumn 2016 , it was 20 NTU . 79 species belong to 38 genus of epipelic algal community were recognized during this study , Bacillariophyceae were dominated by their species as compared to other classes of algae , followed by Chlorophyceae , Cyanophyceae and Euglenophyceae respectively . The total number of epipelic algal cells showed seasonal and spatial variation during this study , the lower number was recorded in the site 3 during the Autumn 2016 , it amounted to 1.06 × 104 cell / cm2 , while the upper number was recorded in the site 2 during the Spring of the same year , it amounted to 28.01 × 104 cell / cm2 . Some genera such as Cymbella , Cyclotella , Navicula , Nitzschia, Scenedesmus , Lyngbya and Oscillatoria were dominated by their species as compared to other genera during this study .

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Article
The use of profile analysis to compare the efficiency of some of the chemicals on the characteristics of Cucumis sativus
استخدام التحليل الشكلي لمقارنة تأثير بعض المواد الكيميائية على صفات نبات الخيار

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A formal analysis is a special case of refined measurements used to compare the parallelism of the two studied samples with the primary control sample used for comparison. Devote this search to study simple from plant cucumber where be addition chemical (treatment) use for example salt it be :- 1- chlorid sodium . 2- treeestrial potassium . 3- chloride calcium . 4- organizer growth . Know abstract efficiency this treatment on class plant cucumber and conclude abstract efficiency to be treatment on the class plant cucumber .

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Article
Assessment of the Radiological Risks due Natural Radioactivity in Selected Cement Samples for Karbala City
تقييم المخاطر الاشعاعية الناتجة من النشاط الاشعاعي الطبيعي لعينات من الاسمنت

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In the present work the specific radioactivity measurements of radionuclides to 238 U,232Th and 40K and some radiological parameters of (10) selected cement samples that available in Iraq markets was determined using NaI (Tl) , The results showed the average specific activity for (238 U, 232Th and 40K ) have been found ( 23.338±0.279Bq/kg , 39.522±0.433 Bq/kg and 153.666±3.477Bq/kg) respectively. while the average values of external hazard index (0.2504±0.0031) ,internal hazard index(0.316±0.003), absorbed dose( 41.522±0.535 nGy/h ), Radium Equivalent (92.62±1.164Bq/kg), The indoor annual effective dose (203.691±2.625 μSv/y) and the outdoor annual effective dose (50.923±0.655 μSv/y).

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Article
Enzymes and phytochemical screening of endophytic fungi isolated from Eucalyptus Camaldulensis
فحص الانزيمات والخواص الكيميائية للفطريات المستنبتة المعزولة من اليوكالبتوس Eucalyptus Camaldulensis

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The present study aimed to study and evaluate the efficiency of endophytic fungi isolated from eucalyptus leaves in the production of a number of enzymes outside the cell , in addition to that has been the study of the chemical properties of the extracts of fungal isolates. The results showed the endophytic fungi Penicillium sp. A. niger, A.flavus, , Alternaria sp. , Cladosporium sp. isolated from eucalyptus leaves that were all effective on the enzyme amylase, but to varying degrees, the diameter of transparent halo around A. niger fungal colony highly effective as it ranged Distance 60 mm , followed by isolation of fungus Cladosporium sp., Where diameter of transparent halo 32 mm, while the rest of the isolates A. flavus,. Penicillium sp and Alternaria sp. Van were all effective as diameter was transparent halo 30, 25 and 22 mm respectively . The fungal species showed high effectiveness in the production of the enzyme protease, after diameter account colony found that the isolates of A. flavus, A. niger and Penicillium sp. its portability high on the production of this enzyme ranging diameter colony 67.55 and 43 mm respectively, while isolates Alternaria sp. And. Cladosporium sp. was the other is capable of secretion of this enzyme, but less efficiently ranging colony diameter 27 and 25 mm, respectively. While the results showed the inability of the endophytic fungi to produce the enzyme in laccase .

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Article
The role of religious event monument in the Urban Development Al – Taff event Case Study
دور شواخص الحدث الديني في التطوير الحضري للمدن – حدث الطف حالة دراسية

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As thinking about the future of the city begins from the thinking of its history, This Search explores an important topic which is the religious event as an important religious and historic factor in the emergence and development of the event cities, Religious event played an important role in the survival of those cities and centers vibrant with life constantly , which emerged as a manifestations material contain with it the spiritual aspects of the event in the urban fabric of those cities. Locally religious event entities suffer especially with the increase in contemporary requirements and to prepare a clear increase of visitors to those cities, which led to the different orientations of development projects that take place at these cities, Thus, the research problem identified by (Lack of clarity of the religious event role in the development projects of urban event cities), To address the research problem, it has been built the universality of religious event knowledge base and its features. Then it was derived key vocabulary that has been built upon in the samples elected to study the practical analysis of a urban development projects for the holy city of Karbala, for the detection of a role in those projects landmarks religious event. The research found that the religious event features have a contrasting role in urban development projects, , whether it was strong or weak, and through the most important vocabulary marked by physical and moral impact of landmarks event, as research revealed the need for their integration in the development projects to be event clear to the recipient,

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Article
Repellent & attractive effect of aqueous (hot and cold) and Ethanolic extracts of plants Mentha piperita and Myrtus communis against nymph of Periplaneta americana L . (Blattodea : Blattidae).
التأثير الطارد والجاذب للمستخلص المائي (الحار والبارد) والايثانولي لنباتي النعناع Mentha piperita والآسMyrtus communisعلى حوريات الصرصر الامريكي.americana L Periplaneta Blattidae) (Blattodea

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to test the repellent and attractive effect of aqueous (hot and cold) and Ethanolic plants extracts of Mentha piperita and Myrtus communis against the nymph of Periplaneta americana L.by used several concentrations of the three extracts are(3_ 6_ 9_ 12 ) mg / mL and continued exposure for an hour and 24 hours. the results showed that the extracts were active in the repellent process and by large, reaching the highest was 76% for a plant Myrtus communis when exposing nymphs of aqueous extracts warm in concentration of 12 mg / ml after our of treatment while recorded less rates to attract 10.5% at exposing nymphs to extract cold water and concentrate 9 mg / ml after 24 hours of treatment . With regard to ethanolic plant extract it has reached the highest ratio repellent 40.5% at a concentration of 12 mg / ml after one hour of treatment, and scored lower rate attracting 10.5% at exposing nymphs to extract cold water and concentrate 9 mg / ml after 24 hours of treatment. As for the plant Mentha piperita it has reached the highest rate ratio repellent 64.3% when exposing nymphs to extract hot water and a concentration of 12 mg / ml after hour of treatment, and scored lower rate of attracted to extract Mentha piperita leaf 5.5% at exposing nymphs to extract hot water and concentrate 12 mg / ml after 24 hours of treatment. As for the extract ethanolic plant Mentha piperita was the highest repellent rates 43.8% at a concentration of 12 mg / ml after one hour of treatment, while the lower rates to attract 10.2% in concentration 6 mg / ml after 24 hours of the treatment.

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Article
Evalution of Antibacterial Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale against Streptococcus mutans
تقييم الفعالية التثبيطية للمستخلص الكحولي لنبات الزنجبيل ضد بكتريا Sterptococcus mutans

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this study was carried out to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale in different concentrations in inhibition of Streptococcus mutans isolated from cases of dental caries and periodontitis to achieve this aim this study included two methods: well diffusion method with concentrations (12.5,25,50,100,150) mg/ml .The crude extract gave activity against the tested isolates by the inhibition zones (7.6,13.3,15.3,19,23) mm ,the second method was Microtiter plate 96well with concentrations(6.25,12.5,25,50,100,150).The MIC was (12.5) .The results showed that the Zingiber officinale have activity larger than the antibiotic Ampicillin 32%.

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Article
Isolation and diagnosis of a new isolate of Potato mop-top virus and using it to evaluate the gene silencing method in transgenic tobacco plants in resistance of the same virus
عزل وتشخيص عزلة جديدة من فايروس الممسحة القمي للبطاطا واستخدامها في تقييم كفاءة مقاومته بطريقة الاسكات الجيني في نباتات التبغ المعدلة وراثيا

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine an active isolation method for obtaining a new isolate of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) from soil and applying biological (Bioassay), immunological (TAS-ELSIA) and molecular methods (RT-PCR + qRT-PCR + Nucleotide Sequencing (for diagnosing it. This is in order to utilize the new isolate in evaluation of the gene silencing method in resistance of the PMTV in transgenic N. benthamiana plants. The results showed that the liquid method was the most effective approach in obtaining PMTV viral infection in all tested plants. Additionally, the diagnosing methods confirmed that the isolate belong to PMTV and it had a high pathogenicity. The results also displayed no significant differences between the transgenic and non-transgenic N. benthamiana plants in resistance of PMTV in roots or leaves of tested plants. These results referred to a weakness of gene silencing method in resistance of the PMTV. This is possibly due to impact of the PMTV suppressor that might cause a reduction or prevention to the gene silencing efficacy in resistance of PMTV.

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Article
Preparation of Nano Vancomycin antibiotic and Evaluation of inhibitory efficiency against S. aureus locally isolated
تحضير المضاد فانكومايسين النانوي وتقييم كفاءته التثبيطية ضد بكترياStaphylococcus aureus المعزولة محليّاً .

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A nanohybrid vancomycin antibiotic Mg/Al-VAN-LDH was prepared by using direct ion exchange method between vancomycin antibiotic (VAN) and layered double hydroxide (LDH) . The new nano vancomycin antibiotic was identified. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the appearance of new groups in the Mg/Al-VAN-LDH spectrum which indicates the formation of new compound. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectrum revealed the appearance of new diffraction planes in the nanohybrid vancomycin antibiotics spectrum compare with the spectrum of layered double hydroxide . The two and three dimensional image of the studied compound in atomic force microscope confirmed the formation of new vancomycin antibiotic with nanodimensions. The inhibitory activity of the prepared nanoantibiotic has been studied against S. aureus isolates .

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Article
The Role of Strategic Flexibility in Enhancing Entrepreneurial Leadership Competences
دور المرونة الاستراتيجية في تعزيز مقدرات القيادة الريادية

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This Research aimed to determine the role of strategic flexibility in enhancing the Competences of entrepreneurial leadership application in AL-Kafeel Company for General Investments and in order to achieve this has been the adoption of the strategic flexibility dimensions (market flexibility, coordination flexibility, resources flexibility) based on the (Wei,etal.,2013:8) (Awwad,2009:6), as was adopted dimensions (competences) Entrepreneurial Leadership (pre-activeness, Innovativeness, risk-taking) on the basis of a group of writers, researchers and them (Bagheri&Pihie,2011:886). Has been chosen the AL-Kafeel Company for General Investments a field to search through a questionnaire form included (30) members of the branches of the company's managers, as well as personal interviews for the company directors and their affiliates to answer any questions about the questionnaire questions. It has been used correlation coefficient (Spearman), and test (t) to see a significant relationship between the variables, and test (F) to determine the moral regression equation, was also used (R2) to explain the amount of the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable. One of the main conclusions reached is that the strategic flexibility of an active role in enhancing the competences of entrepreneurial leadership in lost raging Iraqi environment competitive. Research has concluded a number of recommendations use of modern technology to provide innovative products to attract the largest number of customers, achieving excellence and increase the market share of the company is enhanced market flexibility and reflects the entrepreneurial orientation.

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Article
Effect of garlic and cinnamon powder and their mixtures on immune response and effect of them for some types of bacteria present in the frozen poultry meat
تأثير أضافة مسحوق الثوم و القرفة ومخالطيهما على الاستجابة المناعية والتأثير على بعض أنواع البكتريا المتواجدة في لحوم الدواجن المجمدة

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Abstract

Used in the studying 216 broiler chicks Ross strain of day –old with an average weight of 40 grams used in this study and uses two types of medicinal plants garlic and cinnamon .Aim of this study was to know the immune response and influence the inhibitory of these plants on some types of bacteria present in the frozen poultry meat for a period of 3 weeks. This study conducted in the province of Babylon period breeding period of 5 weeks. Chicks divided randomly into six treatment and three replicates a T1 control treatment (without additives), T2 (0.4 g garlic / kg feed) T3 (0.3 g garlic, + cinnamon 1 g / kg feed) T4 (0.2 g garlic + 2 g cinnamon / kg feed) T5 (0.1 g garlic, cinnamon +3 g / kg feed) T6 (4 g cinnamon / kg feed). The volumetric standard measure antibodies against patients Newcastle and Gomboro, total plate account of bacteria , the total count of bacteria-loving cooler (Psychrophilic Bacteria) and coliforms bacteria count for (1, 2.3 weeks). Sensory evaluation test for chicken deducted after cooking. Immunohistochemistry results showed that there were significant differences for each treatment T2, T3, T4, T5,T6 compared with T1. The preference for treatments of T4, T5, and the results showed that there were significant differences in Total Plate Count and Psychrophilic Bacteria , absence of contamination with bacteria the colon. And it outperformed treatment T2 in sensory evaluationtest.

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Article
Estimating of the Reliability function for the Poisson distribution using Simulation
تقدير دالة المُعًوَّلية لتوزيع بواسون بإستخدام المحاكاة

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In this study, four estimation methods were compared: the Poisson regression method as the regression method, and the Maximum Likelihood method as a Classic method, and the Shrinkage method as a Bayesian, and Kaplan-Meir method as a method of nonparametric. And the simulation style was used in the Mont-Carlo method to compare the estimation methods. The researcher found that the Shrinkage method in estimating the reliability function was better compared with other estimation methods was based on the mean square error.338

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