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MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL

مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان

ISSN: 18138500
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

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SCIENTIFIC AND REFERRED DENTAL JOURNAL

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Table of content: 2017 volume:14 issue:1

Article
SAF file: It's really three dimensional file

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Abstract

The biological objectives of root canal treatment have not changed over the recent decades, but the methods to attain these goals have been greatly modified. The introduction of NiTi rotary files represents a major leap in the development of endodontic instruments, with a wide variety of sophisticated instruments presently available (1, 2). Whatever their modification or improvement, all of these instruments have one thing in common: they consist of a metal core with some type of rotating blade that machines the canal with a circular motion using flutes to carry the dentin chips and debris coronally. Consequently, all rotary NiTi files will machine the root canal to a cylindrical bore with a circular cross-section if the clinician applies them in a strict boring manner (3).

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Article
The effect ofWi-Fi signals on the measurement accuracy of electronic apex locator during root canal therapy

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Background: The using of devices that emitted electromagnetic radiation has been limited in many healthcare centers to prevent interference with medical devices. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of Wi-Fi Router (Tenda FH456) on working length determination using electronic apex locator (NSK-iPex II) in the presence of network connection with tablet (GT-N800) or not.

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Article
Comparison of apically extruded debris of different nickel titanium instruments

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Abstract

Background and objective: During root canal instrumentation irrigants, necrotic pulp tissue, microorganism and dentin debris may be extruded beyond the apex into the periradicular tissue. These extrusions may cause flare-up. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris with three rotary Nickel titanium instruments. Methods: Sixty single rooted, single canalled premolars were selected. The roots were divided randomly into three groups; (n = 10) according to the type of instrumentation system used, group 1“ProTaper Next” system, group 2 “One Shape” system and group 3 “Mani Silk” system. The Debris extruded during the instrumentation was collected and dried in preweighed vials and the amount of extruded debris was assessed with an electronic balance. Result: results showed that the Mani silk system extruded significantly less debris than the ProTaper Next and One shape systems (P < .05), and there is no significant difference in apically extruded debris between ProTaper Next group and One Shape group but the One Shape produced more debris than ProTaper Next. Conclusion: the Mani silk file instrument was behaved well during instrumentation and extruded less debris than the other groups.


Article
Comparative evaluation of compressive strength of esthetic restorative materials

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Abstract

The present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the compressive strength of conventional glass ionomer cement with resin modified glass ionomer, compomer and microhybrid composite. A total of 40 specimens of esthetic restorative materials were fabricated using customized cylindrical teflon mould measuring 6mm height and 4mm diameter and were grouped with ten specimens in each group, Group I: Conventional glass ionomer cement (Fuji II). Group II: Resin modified glass ionomer (Fuji II LC). Group III: Compomer (Dyract AP) and Group IV: Microhybrid composite resin (Tetric Ceram).They were covered with Mylar strip and were cured using LED light curing unit. Compressive strength was evaluated using Universal testing machine. The result showed that there were a significant difference among the groups in which Tetric Ceram showed highest compressive strength and Fuji II showed the least compressive strength.

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Article
Smear Layer Removal and Apical Extrusion Evaluation Among Different Irrigating Techniques and Solutions (In vitro Comparative study)

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Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of Endovac, Vibringe and needle with different irrigation solutions on removal of smear layer and apical extrusion of irrigating solution. Methods: Seventy-two sound human premolar teeth were used and divided into three experimental groups (n=24) according to the type of irrigation technique used: Ingroup 1 irrigation was performed with Vibringe. In-group 2 irrigation was performed with a 30-gauge side-vented irrigation needle. In-group 3 irrigation was performed with Endovac. Instrumentation was performed by using the ProTaper files. Each main group divided into three sub-groups (n=8) according to irrigation solution used: In sub-group 1 Irrigation was performed with 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL). In sub-group 2 Irrigation was performed with 17% Ethylene Diamin Tetra Acidic Acid (EDTA). In sub-group 3 Irrigation was performed with 5.25% NaOCL and 17 % EDTA. The amount of extruded irrigating solution was then measured by subtracting the weight before final irrigation from the weight after final irrigation using the electronic balance. The cleanliness of smear layer removal was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Results: The results showed that the group that resulted in more irrigation extrusion was as follow from highest to lowest: side-vented >Vibringe> Endovac. The difference among all groups was significant. As for cleaning results, smear layer collection in both EndoVac and Vibringe groups were less than side-vented group and these differences were significant. When the three irrigating solutions compared the differences among all the groups were significant and combination of (5.25% NaOCL and 17 % EDTA) resulted in more smear layer removal. Conclusion: In conclusion, the EndoVac irrigation system extruded significantly less irrigant solution than both the Vibringe and needle irrigation systems. Smear layer collection was least in the apical third regarding the EndoVac irrigation system and resulted in more Smear layer removal. And combination of NaOCL and EDTA group was more effective on smear layer removal than other two groups.


Article
Prevalence of dental anxiety in relation to sociodemographic factors using two psychometric scales in Baghdad

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Abstract

Background: In spite of advances in dentistry, anxiety about dental treatment and the fear of pain remains public health problem and is a significant impediment to dental treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of dental anxiety in patients who referred to Al-Mustansiriyah dental clinics and Al-Shiekh Omar specialized dental center in Baghdad and their relation to their gender, age, educational level. Materials and methods: The study was done on (800) patients, aged (20-59) years in Baghdad. The survey form was prepared and translated from English to Arabic languages by certified translator and were filled by patients themselves without any help from dentists. Patients with mental retarded, those who not having completed the survey form and those below 20 years and above 59 years were excluded. The survey was divided into 3 parts (socio-demographic information, Modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS) and Dental fear survey (DFS). Results: The present study showed that females had higher anxiety (13.57, 47.38) than males (8.98, 37.75) for Modified dental anxiety scale and Dental fear survey respectively. The anxiety decreased with advance of age (12.31, 11.41, 10.89, 10.45 for Modified dental anxiety scale and 43.10, 41.22, 38.69, 37.93 for Dental fear survey) in groups (1,2,3,4) respectively. The anxiety decreased with advance of teaching, so the uneducated patients had higher mean of anxiety (14.45, 48.59) while the postgraduate patients had lower anxiety (9.10, 36.30) for Modified dental anxiety scale and Dental fear survey respectively than others. There was high significant difference between males and females at P-value (≤ 0.01) for both Modified dental anxiety scale and Dental fear survey scales. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed high significant difference among age groups and among education level groups at P-value (≤ 0.01) for both Modified dental anxiety scale and Dental fear survey scales. The higher percentage of anxiety scales was appeared in minimal anxiety score in males (56%, 48%) in Modified dental anxiety scale and Dental fear survey respectively, while lessor percentage was appeared in very high anxiety score in males (5.1%, 5.5%) in Modified dental anxiety scale and Dental fear survey respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) showed that there was a positive relationship between gender and anxiety scales, with statistically high significant at P-value (≤ 0.01). While, there was inverse relationship between age and anxiety scales, and betweeneducation and anxiety scales with statistically high significant at P-value (≤ 0.01) for both relations. Conclusion: The females had higher rate of anxiety than males. The anxiety decreased with advance of age and education level of patients. There was a strong (positive) relationship between gender and anxiety. While, there was inverse (negative) relationship between anxiety with age and education.


Article
The effects of mode of delivery on Mutans Streptococci colonization and dental caries in a sample of Iraqi children aged 3-5 years from Baghdad city

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Aim: To investigate whether mode of delivery is associated with mutans streptococci (MS) colonization and dental caries in pre school children. Methods: This study includes 64 pairs of mothers and their children aged 3- 5 years old (34 born vaginally and 30 born by Caesarean section).Data included a dental examination, a questionnaire survey of mode of delivery, maternal gestational age, as well as children's birth –weight, and laboratory assessment (by collecting non stimulated saliva for each woman and child and homogenizing them then Mutans Streptococci (MS) were counted ,isolated, purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristic . Results: Dental caries, salivary and plaque streptococcus mutans counts were significantly higher in children delivered by caesarean section mode than those delivered normally (P<0.05).There was a positive linear correlation between the mean value of DMFS, salivary and plaque streptococcus mutans count of children and their mothers, and this association statistically significant (P<0.05). Gender, gestational age and birth weight had no significant correlations with the dmfs of children (P>0.05). Conclusion: The mode of delivery is significantly correlated with MS colonization and caries outcomes in pre-school children.


Article
Management of Traumatized Permanent Maxillary Immature Incisor with Oblique Subgingival Crownroot Fracture

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Background: Trauma to the anterior teeth is a common injury in young children. The maxillary incisors being the most affected. Although root fractures are rare, they do occur and were previously and often considered hopeless and were extracted. The time between the injury and the initiation of treatment, level of the fracture line, and stage of root development are some criteria to be considered when choosing a treatment approach for a complicated tooth fracture. This case report describes the management of a traumatized immature maxillary central incisor with Elise class IV fracture with vertical oblique subgingival fracture of the root. Materials and method: Apexification was carried out using biodentine followed by removal of the fractured segment. A fiber post was cemented in the root canal with resin cement. The coronal portion of the tooth was restored using anterior light cured composite material. The tooth was examined and evaluated after 1 week and after 2 months by clinical examination and radiographical evaluation of root development. Results: The follow up evaluation revealed clinical and radiographical success. Radiographic view showed continued development in the apex of the root and showed normal periodontal ligament space and dense lamina dura. Conclusion: Extraction should not be the first choice of treatment for extensively damaged young permanent teeth in the anterior region; instead, alternative treatment modalities must be considered. The traumatized immature tooth was saved and restored.


Article
Selected salivary antioxidants and gingival health condition among a group of obese females aged 20-22 years in Baghdad, Iraq

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Background: Obesity and periodontal disease are diseases of multifactorial etiology closely related to dietary habits and sociodemographic background of the individuals. The aim of this study was the assessment of selected salivary antioxidants and gingival health condition among a group of obese females aged 20-22 years in comparison with normal weight females. Materials and methods: The study group included 40 obese females, with an age range 20-22 years old. The control group included 40 normal weight females of the same age. Body weight was assessed by using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Collection of unstimulated salivary samples was carried out under standardized conditions. Plaque and gingival indices were used for recording the oral hygiene and gingivitis. Salivary flow rate was measured then salivary samples were analyzed to determine the concentration of salivary antioxidants (total protein and uric acid). Results: The data analysis of the present study found that the level of salivary total protein was lower among the obese females compared to the normal weight females with statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01), while salivary uric acid was statistically highly significantly higher among the obese than the normal weight females (p<0.01). Salivary analysis demonstrated that the salivary flow rate was statistically highly significantly higher among the obese females (p<0.01). The mean values of plaque index and gingival index were lower among obese females compared to the normal weight females with statistically highly significant difference for plaque index (p<0.01). Conclusions: The result of this research revealed that salivary antioxidant (uric acid) and salivary flow rate were higher among obese females than normal weight females which may play a role in protection oral tissue from oral diseases in addition to the oral cleanliness effect.


Article
Oral health status in relation to nutritional status among kindergarten children aged (4-5) years old in Karbala city / Iraq

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Back ground: Dental caries and periodontal disease were the most common and widely spread diseases affecting children. The nutrition may be one of the factors affecting the severity of the oral diseases. The Aims of this study was the assessment of the following oral diseases (dental caries, gingivitis) in addition to assessment of oral hygiene among 4-5 years old children in Karbala city –Iraq. Furthermore, nutritional status was assessed in relation to oral diseases. Materials and methods: A sample of 658 children (350 males, 308 females) aged four and five years old was selected randomly from the fourteenth kindergartens in Karbala city. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries was followed the criteria of WHO 1987. Dental plaque was assessed using plaque index of Silness and Loe, 1964. Gingival health condition was assessed using gingival index of Loe and Silness, 1963. The assessment of nutritional status was performed using anthropometric measurement (height and weight) according to Body mass index indicator with -2SD cutoff point. Results: Caries prevalence was found to be (83%) of the total sample the mean rank value of dmfs was higher among boys in comparison to girls with statistically no significant difference (P>0.05). The value of dmfs increased with age with statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01).The mean rank values of dental plaque and gingival indices for total boys were found to be higher than total girls with statistically highly significant differences (P<0.01). Recording of this study demonstrated that 100% of children had dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Positive highly significant correlations were recorded between dental caries with dental plaque and gingival indices. The prevalence of malnutrition described by Body mass index indicator was (3.2%). According to nutritional status indicator Body mass index-for-age, it was found that the wasted children had higher value of dmfs than well nourished children with statistically no significant differences (P>0.05). The plaque and gingival indices were higher among well nourished children than among wasted children with statistically highly significant differences (P<0.01).The correlation coefficient between body mass index with dental caries, plaque index and gingival index were very weak and statistically not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions: High prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis was recorded indicating the need of public and preventive programs among kindergarten children.


Article
Oral Health Status in Relation to Nutritional Status among 9 years old school Children in Dewanyiah City/Iraq

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Background: Although they are not life threatening, dental caries and periodontal disease are the most predominant and widely spread oral diseases throughout the world. The aims of the study included the investigation of the prevalence and severity of dental caries, gingivitis and dental plaque in relation to gender, furthermore, nutritional status was assessed in relation to oral health condition (dental caries). Materials and Methods: This oral health survey was conducted among primary school children aged 9 years old in Dewanyiah city in Iraq. The total sample composed of 600 child (320 males and 280 females) selected randomly from different school in Dewanyiah city. Diagnosis of dental caries was according to the criteria described by WHO (1987). Plaque index of Silness and Loe (1964) was used for plaque assessment, gingival index of Loe and Silness (1963) was followed for recording gingival health condition. Nutritional status was assessed according to body mass index (BMI) indicator using anthropometric measurement (height and weight). Results: Results showed that the prevalence of dental caries was 85% for 9 year-old school children. Regarding primary and permanent dentition, dental caries was higher among females compared to males with statistically significant difference (P<0.05) for primary dentition, on the other hand, males showed higher values of filled surfaces compared to females with statistically significant difference (P<0.05) for primary dentition and highly significant difference (P<0.01) for permanent dentition. Finding of this study revealed that 100% of the children had gingival inflammation. Furthermore, the values of plaque and gingival indices were higher among males compared to females with statistically highly significant differences (P<0.01). In current study, the prevalence of malnutrition described by the BMI indicator was 5.3%. For total samples no significant difference was recorded in dmfs /DMFS values among wasting and well nourished children (P>0.05). Conclusion: A high prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis were recorded. Improvement in the prevention educational programs is needed among school children.


Article
The effect of Ramadan fasting on plaque count of Streptococcus Mutans in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliance. A clinical study
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Aim: This clinical study is to investigate the effect of fasting (Sawm) Ramadan on the count of streptococcus mutans in plaque surrounding fixed orthodontic appliances. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with orthodontic appliances were participated in this study. Plaque specimens were collected from those patients at two occasions, during Rmadan fasting (Sawm) and after they break there fasting after Ramadan. The plaque Streptococcus mutans number of colony-forming units (CFU) was analyzed by using Dentocult SM Strip mutans test. Results: This study demonstrated highly significant difference in Streptococcus mutans (CFU) counts in plaque between the values obtained from fasting patients during Ramadan and when they are breaking the fast after Ramadan. Conclusions: during Ramadan fasting, persons change timing and types of their food and beverages consuming as well as teeth cleaning habits. Therefore orthodontist should be aware of their patients’ oral hygiene during Ramadan by promoting and maintaining satisfactory teeth cleaning during fasting (Sawm) and Iftar hours.


Article
The role of intracanal medicaments in inhibition of bacteria isolated from root canals of infected primary molars

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Microbes are considered as the primary etiologic agents in endodontic diseases. Disinfection of the root canal is obtained by the combined effect of biomechanical preparation, irrigation and intra canal medicament. The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of intracanal medicaments (formocresol and Endosepton) against two micro organisms (Streptococcus mutans and staphylococcus aureus) isolated from 15 necrotic pulps of primary molars indicated for pulpectomy procedure. The samples were cultured, and purified using microbiological evaluation. Broth dilution test was performed in our study by preparing test tubes containing 10 ml of BHI broth (pH. 7) which then inoculated with strains of the tested bacteria and incubated at 37 C° for 24 h. After over night incubaction, ten fold dilution were made in test tubes containing 9 ml of normal saline by adding 1 ml of the inoculum to the first tube . Then from dilution 10-1 , 0.1 ml of cell suspension was added to 9.9 ml of formocresol and endosepton, then 0.1 ml was taken and spread on duplicates of BHI agar plates at different intervals and incubated aerobically for 24 h. at 37 C°. Colonies on the plates were counted after incubation and CFU/mL (colony forming unit) was calculated. Our results indicating that there were no significant differences between the intracanal medicaments, but there were high significant differences between the intervals time of the study. We concluded that both materials had great antibacterial effect against the pathogens commonly isolated from necrotic pulpal tissue of primary teeth.


Article
The Influence of Silica Dioxide and Aluminum Oxide Nano Fillers Reinforced Heat Cured Acrylic Denture Base Material and Thermocycling on Tensile and Shear Bond to Denture Soft Lining Material

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Background: Soft lining materials play an important role in modern prosthodontics treatment because of their capability to restore the inflamed and distorted mucosa. The purpose of the research was to estimate the influence of acrylic denture base reinforcement with silanted nano fillers (Al2O3 and Sio2) separately on tensile and shear bond strength of soft lining material and studying effect of thermo cycling on bonding strength. Materials and methods: Total 120 specimens were prepared; it divided into 60 Specimens for shear bond strength test and 6o specimens for tensile bond strength test. Specimens were sub grouped into 30 Specimens without thermo cycling and 30 specimens with thermo cycling. Each sub group is consisted from: 10 Specimens control, 10 specimens were reinforced with 2 wt% of Al2O3 nano fillers and 10 specimens were reinforced with 5 wt% of SiO2 nano fillers. Samples were processed depending on test applied. Soft lining material was applied for each testing group. Samples were immersed in distal water for 24 hours at 37°C before testing. For thermo cycling test, specimen were thermo cycled in thermo cycling device. Bonding strength test was done using INSTRON universal testing machine. Results: reinforcement of acrylic denture base with nano-fillers was significantly increase both tensile and shear bonding of lining material and thermo cycling decreases both bonding strength. Conclusion: reinforcement of acrylic denture base with nano fillers could improve bonding strength of lining material, while thermo cycling had a deleterious effect on bonding strength.


Article
Effect of silver nitrate on some mechanical properties of heat polymerizing acrylic resins

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Aim: The aimed study was to evaluate the influence of silver nitrate on surface hardness and tensile strength of acrylic resins. Materials and methods: A total of 60 specimens were made from heat polymerizing resins. Two mechanical tests were utilized (surface hardness and tensile strength) and 4 experimental groups according to the concentration of silver nitrate used. The specimens without the use of silver nitrate were considered as control. For tensile strength, all specimens were subjected to force till fracture. For surface hardness, the specimens were tested via a durometer hardness tester. All specimens data were analyzed via ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The addition of silver nitrate to acrylic resins reduced significantly the tensile strength. Statistically, highly significant differences were found among all groups (P≤0.001). Also, the difference between control and experimental groups was highly significant (P≤0.001). For surface hardness, the silver nitrate improved the surface hardness of acrylics. Highly significant differences were statistically observed between control and 900 ppm group (P≤0.001); and among all groups (P≤0.001)with exception that no significant differences between control and 150ppm; and between 150ppm and 900ppm groups(P>0.05). Conclusion: The addition of silver nitrate to acrylics reduced significantly the tensile strength and improved slightly the surface hardness.


Article
Evaluation the effect of pulp polyp on periapical area of primary and permanent dentition: Periapical radiographic Iraqi study

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Introduction:The pulp polyp (PP), also known as chronic hyperplastic pulpitis or proliferative pulpitis, is a type of inflammatory hyperplasia. It occurs in a vital tooth with a good blood supply when the pulp has been exposed to caries or trauma. Objective: The aim of this study to evaluate different radiographic periapical changes of primary and permanent dentition in clinically detected pulp polyp patients. Materials and Methods: Patients who were clinically diagnosed with pulp polyp were subjected to radiographic examination. Digital intraoral periapical radiographs of 70 patients with pulp polyp were taken. Various periapical changes of primary and permanent dentition in the digital radiographs were recorded . The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 16.0. Result: All 70 patients showed definite periapical changes. Out of which periodontal ligament (PDL) space widening was seen in all 70 cases (100%), lamina dura discontinuity was observed in 50 cases (71.43%), periapical rarefying osteitis was noted in 20 cases (28.57%), condensing osteitis was accounted in ten cases (14.29%), periapical granuloma was observed in six cases (8.57%), hypercementosis was accounted in nine cases (12.86%) , root resorption and periapical cyst was observed in eight cases each (11.43%). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that majority of the pulp polyp patients observed at young age group in both gender and the majority of the pulp polyp patients were associated with definite periapical changes that suggested being a periapical lesion.


Article
Radiographic study on relation of the periapical status and frequency of endodontic treatment of teeth with and without apical periodontitis in an Iraqi population .

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Aim: The point of the study was to assess the prevalence of apical periodontitis and frequency of endodontic treatment in an Iraqi population. Materials and methods: Panoramic radiographs of 300 Iraqi subjects 18-60 years old. The periapical status of all teeth (with the exception of third molars) was examined using periapical index scoring system (PAI). Information were investigated statistically using the Chi-squared test at the significance level of p<0.05. Results: Out of 5822 examined teeth belonging to 300 patients 156 had one or more teeth with apical periodontitis (PAI 3-5) and 253 individuals had one or more endodontically treated teeth. Conclusions: The discoveries of the exhibit examination come into concurred upon with different investigations which accentuate that a worldwide improvement in the quality of root canal treatment in general dental practice is required to promote periradicular health.


Article
Distribution and Prevalence of Various Developmental Dental Anomalies in Iraqi population : A Radiographic Study.

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Aim: To determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in Iraqi population, and investigate their possible association with gender and teeth. Materials and methods: Panoramic radiographs of 800 patients out of 350 with dental anomalies (200 females and 150 males) ,an age range of 18–30 years ( 300 : 18-25 years ; 50: 25-30 years ) were examined for anomalies in teeth number, shape, size and position.Descriptive statistics was performed using SPSS. The level of significance was set at 95% confidence level. Results: Among the 800 radiographs examined, a total of 350 (43.8 %) had developmental dental anomalies which includes 150 (42.9%) males and 200 (57.1%) females. Around 290 (82.9%) had at least one anomaly, 50 (14.2%) cases with two anomalies and only 10 (2.9%) exhibited more than two anomalies. Both males and females were equally affected. Of these 350 anomalies, 300 (85.7%) occurred in the age group 18–25 years compared to 50 (14.3%) cases in 25–30 years range . Conclusion: The high prevalence of Developmental Dental Anomalies suggests the need to increase the understandingof their etiology and aid for better management, intervention and prevention.

Table of content: volume:14 issue:1