Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches

المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم

ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Embryo research and treatment of infertility
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi journal of embryos and infertility research is apeer-reviewed journal published annually by the High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies/Al-Nahrain University,
it publishes manuscripts in the fields of reproductive medicine.

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Contact info

E-mail: haydermossa@gmail.com

E-mail: ijeir.info@ierit.nahrainuniv.edu.iq

Website : http://www.ijeir.nahrainuniv.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:4 issue:1

Article
Effect of cryopreservation protoco1sin relation to human sperm parameters

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Abstract

Backgrou nd The semen cryopreservation has an important role in the male fertility preservation. Certainly, patients who are prone to become infertile due to surgica l or medical treatments such as chemo- or radiotherapy for cancer treatment. In fact, semen cryostorage seems to be the only proven method that may offer these couples a chance of having children inthe future. Objecti ves This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cryopreservat ion protocols on human sperm parameters. Methods Sixty semen samples with range of age (19-35) years were included in this study. Sperm parameters, were assessed pre- or post-cryopreservation. Cryopreservation protocols were done using SMART medium with either 15% dimethy l sulfoxide(DMSO) or 15% glycerol alone (as control group) or supplemented with either 0.25M or 0.5M of sucrose for treated groups. Crude data were statistica lly analyzed Reo;ults Generally, the results of the present study showed that the sperm parameters were significantly deteriorated post-thawing (P<0.05) as compared to pre­ cryopreservation . Bothtreated groups (G2 and G3) showed best results as compared to G1 (control groups). In contrast, treated group (G2) with 0.25 M of sucrose appeared better results than the as G3 group that treated with 0.5M of sucrose Conclusion Sperm parameters including concentration, motility, and morphology were deteriorated after cryopreservat ion. Using 0.25M sucrose reduced the impact of cryopreservation.


Article
Role of Fibrillin-3on Fertilization Capacity in Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

Authors: Saad S. Al-Dujaily --- Wafaa Mohammed Abed
Pages: 13-17
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Abstract

ackground Fibrillin- 3 is a recently discovered hormone .However, there are no studies till now regarding the role of fibrillin-3 hormone on fertilization capacity in infertile pregnant and non-pregnant women. Objectives The goals of this study are concentrated on the fertilization capacity parameters by examining the effect of in vivo concentration of fibrillin-3 hormone on the ovarians status at different menstrual cycle phases and to elucidate the correlation between the levels of this hormone with pregnant and non -pregnant women following Intra­ uterine insemination (IUI) outcome or through natural pregnancy . Methods Sixty infertile couples were involved in this prospective study. The couples were divided according to the type of insemination and ovulation induction program into two groups Group(1): Thirty spouses were subjected to induced ovulation stimulation by using clomiphene citrate(CC) and recommended for natural coitus. Group(2): Thirty couples, the females were induced ovulation stimulation by CC,Gonal F-751U /ml and Fostimon 501U/ml with IUI. Measurements of Fibrillin-3 with other reproductive hormones were done at different phases of menstrual cycle and for pregnant and non-pregnant women following natural coitus and IUI. Results The mean offibrillin-3 hormone level at day 2 of menstrual cycle was 3.7ng/ml (ranged from 3.50 to3 .91) in the two groups. The mean of fibrillin-3 hormone at cycle day 13 was 6.6ng/ml( ranged from 5.83to 7.0). Whereas , The basal level of Fibrillin-3 at 14 days post insemination was 3.3ng/ml. The range is from 2.76,395 to 3.29 ng/ml. There was no significant difference inthe mean of Fibrillin-3hormone between pregnant and non-pregnant women through the phases of menstrual cycle or between the two groups, but there isa significant value between fibrillin-3 post insemination and E2 day 2 and day 13 P<0.05. Conclusion The present study concluded that Fibrillin -3 hormone has no role in pregnancy, but it may have a main relationship with estrogens reaction in folliculogenesis , oocyte maturation and follicular contents. Therefore, this hormone may be one of the new hormones that interfere with fertilization capacity

Keywords

Fibrillim-3 --- Women --- Pregnancy --- Fertilization


Article
Protective Effects of flaxseed & zinc against lead induced reproductive toxicity in male mice

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Abstract

The toxic effect of drugs and environmental chemicals on the human reproductive system has become a major health concern. Lead is recognized as the most dangerous of the toxic metals and a major threat to the biological systems of both human and animals. In this study we detect the effect of two types of antioxidants: flaxseed and zinc, on the toxicity of low dose of lead acetate on reproductive organs of male mice, this study was conduct.Two groups of mature male mice,exposed to low dose of lead, were administered either zinc sulphate (0. 5mg/kg body weight/day) or flaxseed oil (2.5% of total daily food intake), for 6 weeks. The results showed that lead caused a significant reduction in the total body weight, testicular weights & adverse effects on sperm parameters , while the concomitant administration of antioxidants caused elevation in these weights with significant improvement in sperm quality as compared to the only lead treated group. It is concluded that lead, like all other heavy metals, could induce oxidative stress and the concomitant administration of antioxidants (zinc or flaxseed) can ameliorate the toxic effect of leadon reproduction .


Article
Leukocytospermia and sperm quality, in seminal fluid samples of infertile men

Authors: Mohammed AL-Janabi
Pages: 25-27
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Abstract

Background White blood cell are present in most human ejaculates, but leukocytospermia may reflect an underlying pathological condition. This study evaluated the relationship between leukocytospermia and standard semen parameters. Objectives To investigate the presence of correlation between the leukocytospermia , sperm motility and sperm concentration in infertile Iraqi men. Methods A total of 154 semen analyses of infertile men were included inthis study. All semen analysis were performed within 1 hour, Data were collected for sperm motility type A and B, concentration of both leukocyte and spermatozoa. The mean numbers of motile sperms and the leukocytes were obtained for each specimen. 10 micro liter of seminal fluid were transferred on a slid and covered by a cover slip, then the mean number of motile sperm, leukocyte and concentration were obtained by reading 25 Microscopicfields Resul1.;; The results indicated a significant relationship between the reduction in the number of leukocytes and the increase in the number of motile spermatozoa and sperm concentration r = -0.731 and r = - 0.77 respectively. But the mean number of motile sperms was weakly correlated with the sperm concentration r = 0.58. Conclusion : Both the mean number of motile sperms and sperm concentration were significantly correlated with the increasing number of leukocytes . That refers to improvement in motile sperm and sperm concentration with the reduction of leukocytes. Keyword: Seminalfluid, Leukocytospermia , Sperm motility.


Article
Effect of Aloe vera extracts on the histological features of male mice testis

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Abstract

Background Among various natural therapeutic remedies, Aloe vera, a medical plant widely used in food supplements, beverages, pharmaceutical and cosmetics. Aloe vera has been widely reported for its numerous medicinal effects. Ob,jertives The present investigation was carried out to study the histological changes inthe mice testis consumed low doses of Aloe vera leaf gel extracts Methods Forty immature male Swiss Webster mice divided into two equal groups (experimental and control) (G and C respectively). The experimental group (G) was given 10 µI of Aloe vera extract orally for 21 days. While the control groups (C) were given by the same dose and rout of administration with normal saline only.After Six weeks (around puberty) the male were sacrificed to get their testes; each testis was fixed .Then histological sections with athickness of 5 microns were prepared. Results Histological studies of mice testes from groups that consume low dose Aloe vera extracts showed enhanced the entire structure of spermatogenic layer of semineferous tubules that composed of extensive normal arranged germ cells layer.A significant increase in the numbers of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatids, rates of normal supporting (Sertoli cells) and Leydig's cells. A significant increase in the rate of height of epithelial cells, and rates of sperms concentration in the semineferous tubules were observed too. Conclusion Using low dose of Aloe vera extract enhanced the histological structure of male mice testis and may be usefulto produce drugs to improve malefertility.


Article
Correlation between Obesity and Semen Interleukin-6 with Sperm Concentration and Motility in Iraqi infertile Men

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Abstract

Background Obesity has been defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health while the Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of the weight-to-height ratio that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations. Many semen parameters alteration can be ascribed to obesity like decreased sperm concentration , abnormal morphology, compromised chromatin integrity and abnormal motility. Many evidences showed an adverse effect of excess body fat on spermatogenesis. Methods A total sample size composed of (?O)infertile men were grouped into three groups according to published BMI ranges as follows: normal weight, overweight and obese .A single semen sample was collected for each infertile men.Heightin (m) and weight in (kg) were recorded on day of semen collection .BMI was calculated as BMI= Kgm2. Sperm parameters evaluated accordingto World Health Organization guidelines.Quantitation of the IL-6 inseminal plasma were accomplished using commercially available ELISA kit. Results In the current study, a positive correlation was found between body mass index and IL-6, on the contrary, a significant negative correlation was found among IL-6 level and progressive sperm motility and sperm concentrat ion as well. Conclusion There is an increase of IL-6 from the adipose tissue with increasing BMI. The IL-6 cause reduction of the sperm motility by increasing the level of ROS. The obesity reduces the spermatogenesis by androgenic deficiency results in low sperm concentration and motilitywhich it may bethe main reason of their infertility. The aim of the study: to evaluate the correlation between the obesity and IL-6 and their effects on sperm concentration and motility.

Keywords


Article
Assessment of in vitro fertilization and early embryonic development using SMART medium enriched with coenzyme Ql0

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Abstract

Background Zygote produce from once a sperm fertilizes an egg cell. Then, the zygote (unicellular) will begin chain of cellular cleavages to produce multicellular mass, its embryo, the differentiated to different tissues and organism.The development of the embryo is called embryogenesis. Coenzyme Q10, is an antioxidant produced in the body. It boosts cellular energy and may enhance the immune system. CoQ10 is present and measurable in seminal fluid,the concentration of CoQ10 directly correlates with both sperm count and motility. It is beneficial inthe prevention and treatment a wide range of health problems. Objectives The present study was aimed to investigate the possibility of using coenzyme Q1O to improvein vitro fertilization (IVF), and early embryonic development (ED) in mice as a model for human being Methods Superovulation program was achieved to mature healthy female mice with age 10-12 weeks and weight 24-26 gm. After sacrificing female, oocytes were collected and incubated within C02 incubator for less than 1 hour. Sperm were collected from vas deference of males. Sperm parameters were assessed after 30 min. of incubation. Mature oocytes were divided intothree groups accordingto theconcentrations of CoQ10 including G1 (control group; SMART medium only), G2 (treated group; SMART medium enriched with 20 M CoQ10) and G3 (treated group; SMART medium enriched with 40 M CoQ10). IVF technique was performed for 3 groups, and assessment of IVF (%), embryonic development stage (%) and abnormal embryo morphology (%) for each embryo stage. Results Results of the present study appeared significant increment (P<0.05) in the percentages of IVFfor both treated groups as compared to the control groups.Also, significant increase (P0.05%) in the 8-cells embryo stage were assessed among control and treated groups Conclusion From the results of the present study it wasconcluded that the coenzyme Q1O (40µM) enriched to the culture medium improved percentage of in vitro fertilization and no effect on embryonic development.

Keywords

Fertilization --- Embryo --- Smart --- coenzyme Q10


Article
Embryonic development following the insemination with epididymal sperms of vasectomized mice activated invitro using Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice) extract: model for obstructive azospermia

Authors: Saad Al-Dujaily --- Sawsan S. Hamza
Pages: 43-48
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Background Many studies found that the Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra) showed a positive effect on the activation of sperm in vitro specifically improve the activity of progressive movement. However, it was not known the impact of this stimulant on the certain sperms parameters in vasal obstructive mammals. Objectives This experiment was designed to examine the possibility of fertilization ova by epididymal sperm of vasectomized mice activated by G. glabra and study the early embryonic development, as a model for obstructive azoospermia Methods Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extract (0.3 mg/ml culture medium) was used for in vitro direct sperm activation technique. The superovulated female mice (SUO) were divided into two groups, the first group; the insemination of flushed ova was performed with epididymal sperm of vasectomized male mice activated by adding30% of G. glabra to the culture medium (treated group). While the second group, the ova were inseminated by epididymal sperm of vasectomized male mice activated by G. glabra - free medium (control). Results This study showed a highly significant (P <0.01) improvement in certain sperm function parameters i.e the sperm forward movement , morphologically normal sperms (MAS) . There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in fertilization rate (FR) of SUO mice oocyte using 30 % G. glabra medium(75.84%) compared to G. glabra­ Free medium (Hams -F12 medium ) alone (54.43%).By adding 30% G.glabra to the medium , the number of 3-cell and 4-cell embryonic stage of SUO mice was significantly (P <0.05) higher than that of grouping G. glabra- Free medium mice embryo( 62.10 % and 65.78% vs.58.88 and 66.29% , respectively ). Conclusion This study showed a highly significant (P <0.01) improvement in certain sperm function parameters i.e the sperm forward movement , morphologically normal sperms (MAS) . There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in fertilization rate (FR) of SUO mice oocyte using 30 % G. glabra medium(75 .84%) compared to G. glabra­ Free medium (Hams -F12 medium ) alone (54.43%).By adding 30% G. glabra to the medium , the number of 3-cell and 4-cell embryonic stage of SUO mice was significantly (P <0.05) higher than that of grouping G. glabra- Free medium mice embryo( 62.10 % and 65.78% vs.58.88 and 66.29% , respectively).


Article
Mice embryonic development from cryopreserved epididymal sperm activated by pentoxifylline and L-carnitine: experimental model for human obstructive azoospermia

Authors: Saad S. Al-Dujaily --- Ahmad H. Abbod --- Noor Hani
Pages: 49-55
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Background Many studies has been found that the pentoxifylline (PX) and L-carnitine (LC) as motility stimulants showed a positive effect on the activation of sperm in vitro and improve the forward movement after cryopreservation Ob,iectives The present study aim to investigate the possibility of using the motility stimulants(i.ePX ,LC and mixture of PX with LC medium) for invitro sperm activation after cryopreservation of epididymal sperms and their effects in vitro on fertilization rate (FR) and early embryonic development (ED) following in vitro fertilization (IVF) process as a model for obstructive azoospermia in men. Methods Fifty mature male and Fifty mature female mice, 8-12 weeks old were used. Epididymal sperms were obtained from caudal region and in vitro direct activation technique was done after cryopreservation by using four media namely; PX alone, LC alone, a mixture of PX with LC and Ham's F-12 (as control media). The four media were usedfor IVF of mature ova and FRwith EDwere recorded. Results In vitro activation of epididymalsperms with PX , LC and mixture of PX with LC has shown positive effect on sperm concentration, sperm motility, and grade activity of progressive forward movement after cryopreservation. There was a significant (P<0.05) increase of FR in treated media compared with the control medium after 24 hours of insemination. The study showed that the quality and quantity of embryos Conclusion It is concluded from the results of the present study that adding PX, LC and mixture of PX with LC medium to the culture medium of cryopreserved epididymal sperms and IVF leads to an improvement in certain sperm function parameters, supports the FR and early ED rate.


Article
Role of alcoholic extract of Black Carrot in improvement of human sperm parameters during in vitro activation

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Abstract

Background The increasing prevalence of infertility cases is becoming a major public health problem in developing countries due to changes indiet and lifestyle. OhJectives Black Carrot Extract BCE (Daucuscarota) plays an important role as fertility agent due to its antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties. Therefore , the aim of the present study was to identify the effects of different concentrations of BCE on the outcome of in vitro human sperm activation of infertile patients Methods Thirty two semen samples were prepared which served as a control, using direct swim-up technique. Modified Earl's medium (MEM) was used only in group 2 (G2) and two concentrations of BCE (1Oµg/1ml and 20µg/1ml) were added to culture media MEMof groups 3 (G3) and 4 (G4) for in vitro sperm activation (ISA). Results a highly significant (P<0.001) correlation was noticed between G4 with G2 and G3 in progressive motility when activation by adding 20µg/1ml of BCE to culture media as compared to G3 (which adding 1Oµg/1ml of BCE to culture media) and G2 (activation with culture media only).Moreover, swim-up activation technique with culture media and by both adding (1Oµg/1ml and 20µg/1ml of BCE respectively) to culture media enhancement in the (sperm motility, progressive sperm activity and sperm morphology). Conclusion The high concentration of BCE is effective in the enhancement of progressive sperm activity during invitro human sperm activation.

Table of content: volume:4 issue:1