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المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم

ISSN: 22180265
الجامعة: جامعة النهرين
الكلية: ابحاث الاجنة ومعالجة العقم
اللغة: English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

المجلة العراقية للأجنة وبحوث العقم هي مجلة منشورة سنوياً من قبل المعهد العالي لتشخيص العقم والتقنيات المساعدة على الانجاب/جامعة النهرين،
وتنشر المخطوطات في مجالات الطب التناسلي.

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail: haydermossa@gmail.com

E-mail: ijeir.info@ierit.nahrainuniv.edu.iq

Website : http://www.ijeir.nahrainuniv.edu.iq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2014 المجلد: 4 العدد: 2

Article
Role of Clomiphene Citrate and Tamoxiphene Citrate in Mice Sperm Motility

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الخلاصة

Background: Both clomiphene citrate and tamoxiphene citrate, as an anti estrogen, is the most common prescribed medication for male infertility.In humans, ant estrogens interfere with the normal negative feedback of sex steroids at the hypothalamus and pituitary, thereby increasing endogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion directly from the pituitary. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of clomiphene citrate (CC) and tamoxiphene citrate (TC) administered to male mice on quality of sperm motility and activity. Materials and Methods: Ninety six male mice were divided into two major groups, and every one of these groups was subdivided into three minor groups involving control and two treated groups. In the CC study, 48 mice were administrated orally 0, 0.0125 mg and 0.025 mg as control (G 1), low dose (G 2) and high dose (G 3) for 42 days. While, in the TC study, 48 mice were administrated orally 0, 0.01 mg and 0.02 mg as control (G 1), low dose (G 2) and high dose (G 3) for 42 days. Then, the male mice were sacrificed, both vas deferens were collected and assessment sperm motility and activity. Results: The results of present study appeared that the use high dose of CC or TC significantly increment (P<0.05) sperm motility and activity as compared to control groups. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the administration of high dose of either CC or TC increases sperm motility and activity.


Article
Oocyte Quality and Embryonic Development after Oral Administration of Speramax® in Female Mice as Experimental Model for Mammals

المؤلفون: Saad S. Al-Dujaily --- Hiba S. Hamza
الصفحات: 6-13
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الخلاصة

Background: Speramax® was found to play an important role in sperm function characters and males reproductive performance with no studies on its effects on the oocyte maturation and embryonic development in females. Objective: The goal of the present work was to examine the effect of Speramax ® on oocyte maturation ,ova quality , embryonic development and live birth using mice as a model for mammals . Materials and Methods: In this study, Speramax ® was administrated orally for 1, 2 and 4 weeks . One hundred and ten female mice were randomly divided into four groups , the first group was superovulated(SUO) while the second group was treated by Speramax® with SUO and the third group was spontaneously ovulated (SPO) and treated with Speramax ® and the forth group was spontaneously ovulated (SPO ) and served as control group .Another forty- eight female mice were used for the determination of the number of live births . Results: The results indicated that treatment with Speramax® showed a positive effect on oocytes maturation in vivo. There was a highly significance ( p˂ 0.0001) improvement in the number of mature oocytes following treatment with Speramax® in SPO and SUO mice compared with SPO and SUO mice not treated with Speramax® . The percentage of embryonic development after 24 and 48 hours of mating in treated groups with Speramax® was significantly ( p˂ 0.05) higher than SPO and SUO mice .The study showed that the quantity and quality of embryos obtained from the treated groups were superior to that of the untreated group . Conclusions: It was concluded that the Speramax® greatly improved oocyte maturation, early embryonic development and embryo grading quality embryos with an increase in the numbers of mice live births.

الكلمات الدلالية

Speramax® --- oocyte quality --- embryonic development.


Article
Prevalence and Presenting Features of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Iraqi Obese Females

المؤلفون: Faris Abdul Kareem Khazaal --- Abdul Hadi Liebi --- nsaf Jasim Mahmoud
الصفحات: 14-18
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الخلاصة

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) constitutes the most common endocrinopathy of women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS manifest hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis aberrations. Objective: The objective of the present study was to find the prevalence and the presenting features of PCO patients and associated manifestations in relation to biochemical and anthropometric parameters in adult obese women attending obesity research and therapy unit. Methods: Patients diagnosed as PCOS according to Androgen Excess and PCOS Society/2009 criteria were grouped into two groups: those with BMI less than 30kg/m2 and those with BMI 30kg/m2 and more. Blood was drawn for biochemical and hormonal assay. Information tabulated, means and percentages used, and the results were analyzed. Results: The number of adult females 20-40 years of age attending Obesity research and therapy unit (ORTU) during February 2013 to February 2014 was 756, (14.3%) of them had PCOS, (65%) were diagnosed during examination. (94.4%) had menstrual disturbances, (63.8%) had hirsutism and (91.7%) had PCOS ultrasound findings. Mean BMI of the patients with PCOS was 33.62 (SD 4.21). Mean LH exceeded mean FSH in patients with PCOS and it was more evident with increasing BMI where it was doubled in those with BMI more than 30 kg/m2. LH/FSH ratio for BMI above 30 was 2.1, and although testosterone level was elevated showed no statistical relation to BMI. The fasting glucose level, cholesterol and triglycerides levels showed the same pattern of elevation that with increasing BMI. Conclusions: The prevalence of PCOS in females (20-40y) attending ORTU was 14%, of them 65% were undiagnosed before, 63% had hirsutism, 94% had menstrual disturbances and 90% had ultrasonic features of polycystic ovary. These findings suggest the need to stress on diagnosing PCOS in adult female during management of obesity.

الكلمات الدلالية

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome --- Iraqi Obese Females.


Article
The Profile of Apoptotic Marker sFas Ligand in seminal plasma of Oligozoospermic men

المؤلفون: abah N. Alwachi --- Anam Rasheed AL-Salihi --- Ahmed Hussein Zwamel
الصفحات: 19-24
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الخلاصة

Background: The Fibroblast associated (Fas) system in the testes has been identified as a key regulator of apoptosis, a process that greatly influences the germ cell population of the testes. Objective: This study measures the level of soluble Fas Ligand (sFasL) in the semen of oligozoospermic men evaluating the association between seminal plasma sFasL and spermatogenesis. Methods: A total 58 oligozoospermic men and 29 normal volunteers were included in this study. semen was evaluated according to World Health Organization 2010 standard parameters. sFasL was measured using ELISA enzyme immunoassay for quantitative determination of sFasL. Results: s FasL level was found significantly higher (P< 0.01) in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic men, with weak correlation of the level of this marker with the degree of severity of oligozoospermia. Conclusions: The apoptotic marker, sFasL is a novel marker found in the seminal plasma of oligozoospermic men. It's level is higher in cases of oligozoospermia regardless of its severity. Key words:

الكلمات الدلالية

soluble Fas Ligand --- Oligozoospermia --- Male infertility.


Article
Preparation of Human Spermatozoa Using Glass Wool Filtration Technique Versus Centrifugation Swim-Up Technique for Asthenozoospermia

المؤلفون: Sumeya G. AL-Najjar --- Muhammad M-R Fakhrildin
الصفحات: 25-31
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الخلاصة

Background: Semen preparation techniques were developed to separate motile sperm that are morphologically normal from seminal plasma to optimize successful assisted reproductive technology cycles which seem to be the most effective options in cases of a male factor infertility. Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare between outcomes of two sperm preparation techniques for asthenozoospermic patients includes:1-Centrifugation swim up technique.2-Glass wool filtration technique. Subjects, Materials and Methods: Fifty three infertile males were participated in this study during their attendance to the Infertility Clinic at High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies; Al- Nahrain University. Semen samples were collected and SFA was done according to WHO (2010 and 1999). Each semen sample was divided into two aliquots. The first one prepared using centrifugation swim up technique, while the other one prepared using glass wool filtration technique then sperm parameters were assessed for both techniques and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: After in vitro sperm activation using both techniques, there was significant reduction (P<0.05) in the sperm concentration, significant improvement (P<0.05) in the percentages of sperm motility and morphologically normal sperm when compared to pre-activation. Present study appeared that the glass wool filtration technique resulted in significantly (P<0.05) better results for sperm concentration and total number of progressive motile sperm than the swim-up technique. The present study proved that there was significant (P<0.05) improvement in sperm parameters (increment for sperm motility (%), progressive sperm motility (%), total number of progressive motile sperm and normal sperm morphology (%), while reduction for round cell count and sperm agglutination percent) for all cases using glass wool filtration techniques. In contrast, there was failure of sperm activation for 10 cases using centrifugation swim up technique. Conclusions: From results of the present study, the sperm parameters outcomes using glass wool filtration technique was superior to the outcomes of centrifugation swim up technique when prepare semen of asthenozoospermic patients.


Article
Correlation between Homocysteine and Insulin Resistance in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Referring to AL-Yarmook Teaching Hospital

المؤلفون: Dhilal Q. Mohammed --- Hawaa AL-Dhahir --- Sabah M. Husein
الصفحات: 32-39
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الخلاصة

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among females in reproductive age. Women with PCOS have several cardiovascular disease risk factors. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance (IR) which is a known key factor in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) may associate PCOS. Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is toxic to vascular endothelium, leads to early atherosclerosis. PCOS said to be associated with high plasma homocysteine. Objective: To determine the correlation between insulin resistance and homocysteine in PCOS patients. Methods: Patients diagnosed as PCO according to Androgen Excess and PCOS Society/2009 criteria were grouped into two groups: those with BMI less than 30kg/m2 and those with BMI 30kg/m2 and more. Blood was drawn for biochemical and hormonal assay. Information tabulated, means and percentages used, and the results were analyzed. Results: Homocysteine levels were significantly higher (P value < 0.05) in PCOS group (12.28±1.89 μmol/l) as compared to control (9.51±1.92 μmol/l).HOMA-IR was significantly higher (P value < 0.05) in PCOS (4.15±2.54) as compared to control (1.69±0.54) .There was no correlation between IR and homocysteine within PCOS group. Conclusions: Polycystic ovarian patients have higher levels of homocysteine and IR compared to control but there is no correlation between IR and homocysteine within PCOS group.

الكلمات الدلالية

Polycystic ovarian syndrome --- homocysteine --- insulin resistance.


Article
Risk of birth defects and other childhood adverse outcome associated with in vitro fertilization

المؤلفون: Adnan M. Hamawandi --- Khalid H. Salih --- Hind N. Ayoub --- Amanj R. Zangana
الصفحات: 40-46
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الخلاصة

Background: In vitro Fertilization (IVF) is an important alternative for infertile couples, there is an increase in the number of children conceived by IVF worldwide. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of birth defects and adverse outcome among infants and children conceived by in vitro fertilization in Sulaimani-Iraq. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 160 children, 75 were product of IVF(using ICSI) and 85 were product of natural conception. Data collected regarding mother age, father age, duration of infertility before pregnancy with the index child, any complication during pregnancy, age of the child, gender, mode of delivery, gestational age, weight at delivery, history of neonatal admission and it’s cause, admission to hospital after neonatal period, and history of surgical operation. All children were examined for any gross anomaly, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, skeletal, urological and neurologic abnormality. Results: IVF was a risk factor for prematurity (OR, 7.844 95% CI 3.025 - 20.339) , LBW (OR, 4.645 95% CI 2.038 -10.587), Congenital anomaly (OR, 1.362 95% CI 0.720 - 2.576), predominance of male gender (OR, 1.340 95% CI 0.719-2.498), neurodevelopmental delay(OR,1.333 95% CI 0.672- 2.646), admission to NICU (OR,1.703 95% CI 1.052-2.758 ), C/S delivery (OR, 1.972 95% CI 1.507-2.581), and childhood hospitalization (OR, 1.193 95% CI 0.838-1.696), also there was statistically significant association with multiple pregnancy. Conclusions: IVF carries increased risk of LBW, prematurity, congenital anomaly, neuro-developmental delay, admission to NICU, childhood hospitalization, C/S as a mode of delivery and predominance of male gender.

الكلمات الدلالية

In vitro fertilization --- birth defect --- adverse out come.


Article
Assessment of Sperm DNA Fragmentation for Patients Suffering from Varicocele

المؤلفون: Saif H. Mohammed --- Adib M. Al-Kazzaz --- Usama S.Al- Nasiri
الصفحات: 47-52
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الخلاصة

Background: Varicocele is an abnormal dilation of the testicular veins in the pampiniform plexus and characterized by retrograde blood flow in the internal spermatic veins due to incompetent or absent valves. It is considered one of the main causes of male factor infertility. Sperm DNA integrity is essential for in vivo and in vitro fertilization, and varicocele causes a progressive decrease in sperm quality . Objective: To study the impact of varicocele on semen quality and sperm DNA integrity. Patients, Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with varicocele and 20 men without varicocele were assigned into two groups in the Out-Patient Clinic of Urology in Al-Kadhimya Teaching Hospital . Semen was collected from both groups and the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation assessed by the "Comet assay" and categorized to 4 classes. Class I (no DNA fragmentation), class II (little DNA fragmentation), class III (meaningful DNA fragmentation), and class IV (high DNA fragmentation) . Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the varicocele and control groups with respect to age. Men with varicocele had significantly higher ejaculate volume, lower sperm concentration, and lower progressive motility, and showed more abnormal morphology than men in the control group. The Varicocele group showed a lower percentage of sperm with little DNA fragmentation (class II) and a higher percentage of sperm with DNA fragmentation (class IV), than the control group. Conclusions: Compared with men without varicocele, men with varicocele had a higher percentage of cells with DNA fragmentation .

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2014 المجلد: 4 العدد: 2