Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches

المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم

ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Embryo research and treatment of infertility
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi journal of embryos and infertility research is apeer-reviewed journal published annually by the High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies/Al-Nahrain University,
it publishes manuscripts in the fields of reproductive medicine.

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Contact info

E-mail: haydermossa@gmail.com

E-mail: ijeir.info@ierit.nahrainuniv.edu.iq

Website : http://www.ijeir.nahrainuniv.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:5 issue:1

Article
The Factor VIII:C plasma activity level in females with primary unexplained infertility and recurrent miscarriage

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Abstract

Background: Recurrent miscarriage and infertility are intriguing problems with growing clinical concern.Among the causes of thrombophilia; elevated plasma VIII:C activity level emerges with a rising concern as a possible risk factor of repeated miscarriage and subsequent infertility.Factor VIII is activated in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade of secondary hemostasis. Objective: To evaluate plasma VIII: C activity level in females with repeated miscarriage and primary unexplained infertility in order to determine if Factor VIII:C over-activity is a probable cause of such conditions. Patients, Materials and Methods: This study was performed on strictly selected90 females, aged 20-45 year. The females wereassignedinto three groups (34 females with unexplained primary infertility, 41 females with history of repeated miscarriage(after exclusion of other gynecological and obstetrical causes) and 15 healthy age-matched females were selected as a control group. Plasma VIII:C functional activity was assayed.Blood samples for general hematological studies (Packed cell volume PCV, Prothrombin time PT, and activated partial thromboplastin time APTT) were obtained manually for all included females. C-reactive protein assayed in all samples to exclude the inflammatory causes of elevated factor VIII, which is regarded as an acute phase protein. Results: Factor VIII data were expressed as a mean of percentage of activity (±SD). A significant (*p=0.009) higher plasma activity level of factor VIII:C was demonstrated in infertile females(111.29%±31.66) and females with recurrent abortions (118.63%±39.54); Compared with the healthy control females (80.23%± 22.23), PCV, PT and PTT measurements demonstrated no statistical significance in infertile and recurrent abortion groups when compared to the control group (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups regarding the PCV, PT and PTT measurement. Conclusions: Plasma Factor VIII:C activity level was higher in females with unexplained primary infertility and those with history of recurrent abortion. This elevation suggested of being independent risk factor of such conditions; after exclusion of other multiple causes leading to thrombophilia, abortion and infertility.


Article
The Effect of Pregabalin (Lyrica) on the Spermatogenic Cells in Rat

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Abstract

Background: Pregabalin is an anti-convulsent drug that is indicated in epilepsy, neuropathic pain and anxiety. This study evaluates its effect on spermatogenesis in male rats through histological and physiological examination of the seminiferous tubules. Two doses of Pregabalin were employed, 300, 600 mg/Kg B.Wt. given orally and daily to groups of 30 male albino rats ( Rattaus rattus) for 35 days. The changes in the testes were evaluated by paraffin sections stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. The results showed relative preponderance of primitive germ cells over other stages of more mature spermatogenic cells. There was reduction in the diameter of the seminiferous tubule. These findings were more prominent with increase of the dose of Pregabalin. The above results were discussed in dose related context indicating that the current therapeutic dose of Pregabalin seems to not be within the range of dosage of Pregabalin that adversely affects spermatogenesis.


Article
Effect of L- carnitine and Co Enzyme Q10 Addition to SMART Pro- Medium on Human Sperm Parameters During In Vitro Sperm Activation

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Abstract

This study was designed to assess the effect of different concentrations of L-carnitine and Co enzyme Q10 (COQ10) supplied to SMART Pro- medium on human sperm motility and sperm grade activity ( progressive, non-progressive and immotile) during in vitro sperm activation. Eighty seven samples of semen of infertile and fertile men were randomly collected from the subjects at the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies / Al- Nahrain University. The mean age of the men was (32.034 ± 0.57) years with mean duration of infertility (4.644 ± 0.25) years. Seminal fluid analyses were done involving macroscopic and microscopic examinations according to WHO criteria. Swim-up technique was dependent for in vitro sperm activation , the washed samples were divided before using centrifugation swim-up technique into 3 groups: control group (G1) without L-carnitine and CoQ10. While, in G2, G3 two concentrations of L-carnitine and CoQ10 (20 μg , and 40 μg ) were used. Moreover, all groups within post-activation enriched with SMART- Pro media. The sperm motility and sperm grade activity were evaluated after the addition of L-carnitine and COQ10. The results showed a significant (P<0.05) differences were showed in sperm motility and sperm grade activity of post-activation when compared with the pre-activation. In G2 and G3, with dose of ( 20 μg and 40 μg) of L- carnitine and CoQ10, the results showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in the percentages of sperm motility, progressive sperm motility in spite of the increase in the percentages of sperm motility, progressive sperm motility in G3 compared to G2, there was non significant (P>0.05) differences between G2 and G3. The results for non-progressive sperm motility% and total progressive sperm motility millions/ mL. for 40 μg ( G3) groups were significantly (P< 0.05) decreased when compared to control group (G1) with non-significant (P>0.05) differences between 20μg (G2) group, with significant (P< 0.05) decreased in immotile sperm percentage in post-activation when compared to the pre-activation. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the addition of 40 μg of L-carnitine and CoQ10 to washed sperms can improve sperm motility and sperm grade activity in vitro. Data were analyzed statistically using complete randomized design (CRD) (one way ANOVA).


Article
Sexual Differentiation of the Spinal Nucleus of Bulbo-Cavernosus Muscle (Onuf's Nucleus)

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Abstract

Background: The brain seems to be inherently feminine. Masculine characteristics of the structure and functions are imposed on developing CNS by the action of testicular hormones during a critical embryonic period. Testosterone is a prohoromone responsible for sexually dimorphic characteristics of the brain. A number of structural sex differences in the human brain have been reported, but their functional significance are less well established. Brain function in men appears to be more lateralized than women and this may be the reason that women are more likely than men to recover speech, after a stroke that damages cortical speech areas. Objective: this study examines the effects of testosterone on sexually dimorphic nucleus of the rat spinal cord i.e. the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus muscle, which innervates two sexually dimorphic, androgen-sensitive perineal muscles that are active during copulation, the bulbocavernosus and levator ani. Methods: the study was performed on litters of albino rats. Their pregnant mothers received on embryonic days (E16- E20) subcutaneous injection of 2mg of testosterone propionate. The spinal nucleus of bulbocavernosus was examined in control group, female litters with and without prenatal testosterone injection. Results: It was demonstrated that perinatal injection of testosterone prevented the involution of spinal nucleus of bulbocavernosus in the female rats. Conclusions: It is concluded that androgens have a sparing effect on the motor neurons of this nucleus that prevent the developmental cell death of neuronal cells. The mechanism of the effects of androgen are discussed, whether it is through direct effect of androgen on motor neurons themselves, or indirect effect as a result of the androgen action on the target androgen-sensitive perineal muscles.


Article
Effect of Adenosine Triphosphate on in vitro Fertilization in Mice as a model for Human Being

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Abstract

Back ground: Optimal IVF and embryo culture conditions depend on the composition of culture media being the most important determinants of successful in vitro interaction of the gametes and subsequent embryo development. ATP is fundamental factor to maintain the life, by providing energy, and controlling the cell function and metabolism. Objective: To investigate the effect ATP supplied to culture medium on fertilization rate and in mice as model for human being. Materials and Methods: The female mice (90) were superovulated using superovulation program (SOP) to produce large number of oocyte were divided into three groups, G1 inseminated with vassal sperm in vitro alone (control) , G2 inseminated with vassal sperm in vitro using SMART enriched with ATP(1.25mM). While, G3 inseminated with vassal sperm in vitro using SMART medium enriched with ATP (2.5mM). Mouse spermatozoa were collected from both vas deferens. Then sperm parameters were assessed after 30 min. IVF technique was performed for 3 groups. Results: The results of the present study appear, significantly increment (P<0.05) in the IVF (%) was observed when using 2.5 mM ATP as compared to 1.25 mM ATP and control group. Conclusions: The result showed that addition of high ATP concentration (2.5 mM) enriched to the culture medium improved percentage of in vitro fertilization.

Keywords

ATP --- in vitro fertilization --- mice.


Article
Study of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Profile in the Seminal Fluid of Oligozoospermia Men

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Abstract

Background: Oligozoospermia is one of male infertility type which related with sperm lowering count in seminal fluid under limited reference. There are many factors leads to oligozoospermia like, congenital defects, endocrinal disorders, genetic abnormalities, immunological factors , life style , or in some cases unknown reasons. Immune and some non-immune cells produce immuno-chemical messengers proteins called (Interleukins) work as alerts proteins and contribute in immune body defend. These mediators found in all body fluids, also found in seminal fluid,and it’s presence of certain concentrations reflects the state of health of the body. Objective:Measure the level of interleukin-6 in fertile (normospermia) and infertile (Oligozoospermia). Materials and Methods: Microscopically and macroscopically ejaculates analysis according to WHO (2010) criteria for eighty -seven ejaculate from normospermia and oligozoospermia patients with age rang (21-47)yrs. , in duration of ( Nov- 2013 to Mar- 2014), study divide in to three groups according to the concentration ranges in to (normospermia > 15X 106 cells/ml), (Mild to Moderate Oligozoospermia 15-5 X106cells/ml) , (Severe Oligozoospermia< 5X106). Then store all samples in(-20) , IL-6 was detected through the (ELISA) specific way and kit . Results: Interleukin-6level is less in normospermia group than Oligozoospermia groups at (P<0.05), IL-6 level not correlated with sperm count, except weak correlation in severe group at (P≤ 0.05) and (t α=0.05). Conclusions: There are no correlation between IL-6 level and sperm cells concentration but the variation of interleukin-6 level among the groups indicate that some sperms parameters influence on interleukin-6 levels among the groups like sperm motility or morphology and also that the causative factors which lead to oligozoospermia also effect on IL-6 level and effect on spermatogenesis


Article
Impact of in vitro Preparation with Citrullus Colocynthis on DNA Normality of Human Asthenozoospermic Semen

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Abstract

Background: Citrullus colocynthis (CC) is an herbal medicine used in the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Recently, It has been studied on in vitro activation of mice sperms with no research concern the effect of this plant on the DNA normality following in vitro preparation of human semen samples. Objectives: The present study was aimed to examine the effect of adding CC in the medium used for in vitro sperm activation of asthenospermic men and related factors and to found out the effect of CC on the DNA status following the activation. Materials and Methods: Citrullus colocynthis aqueous extract (0.01mg/ml culture medium) was used for in vitro sperm activation . One hundred and ten semen samples were divided into two groups, the first group activated in vitro by adding CC extract to the culture medium Ham's F-12 (the treated group) and, the second group sperm activated in vitro with Ham's F-12 alone ( the control group). Results: In vitro activation of sperms with aqueous extract of CC has shown positive effect on sperm concentration, sperm motility, and grade activity of progressive forward movement. There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in certain sperm function parameters of asthenozoospermic in treated group compared with the control group .The study showed that the DNA fragmentation resulted from treated group were lower than that of control group. Conclusions: According to the results of present study, adding aqueous extract of CC to the human sperms activation culture medium leads to an improvement in certain sperm function parameters of asthenozoospermic men with no harmful effect on the human sperms DNA with decrease in DNA denaturation.


Article
Effect of Vitrification Technique and Different Biochemical Materials on In Vitro Maturation Outcomes

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Abstract

Background: In vitro maturation (IVM) is a culture technology that enables the immature oocytes to reach metaphase II (MII). Vitrification of immature oocytes followed by in vitro maturation can offer advantages, such as to avoid the use of large doses gonadotropins and also be an alternative approach to the use of endocrine stimulation to obtain pre-ovulatory oocytes in all cycles. Objective: The objective of the study is to determine the effect of vitrification technique and several biochemical materials on outcomes of in vitro maturation. Materials and Methods: Normal and viable immature oocytes divided into two major groups including: control group and vitrification technique group. Post-thawing, each major group subdivided into four in vitro maturation (IVM) groups using SMART medium with special additives involving: (G1) group: contained gonadotropins (Gn) only, (G2) group: supplemented with Gn and sucrose (4%), (G3) group: consisted of Gn, sucrose (4%) and follicular fluid (FF) (5%), and (G4) group: contained Gn, sucrose (4%) and FF (10%).Then, assessed the results of in vitro maturation. Results: The results of in vitro maturation for control group shows non significant differences (P>0.05) among all groups. While, a significant increase (P<0.05) in percentage of IVM was achieved when compared G3 and G4 groups with G1 and G2 groups in vitrification technique. Therefore, comparison the results of IVM between control group vitrification technique group appeared a significant difference (P<0.05) in G1 groups and also between G2 groups. However, non significant difference (P>0.05) was appeared between G3 groups and also between G4 groups when comparing between control group and vitrification technique group. Conclusions: Vitrification of immature oocytes were appeared as a promise technique for preservation of oocytes. As well as, the addition of follicular fluid (FF) to maturation medium produced the best results for in vitro maturation (IVM).

Table of content: volume:5 issue:1