Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

Loading...
Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2017 volume:29 issue:1

Article
Comparative Study of The Amount of Apically Extrusion Of Debris During Root Canal Preparation Using Wave One™, Trushape 3D™, Hyflex™ CM and One Shape™ Instrumentation Systems (An In Vitro Study)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Many types of instruments and techniques are used in the instrumentation of the root canal system. These instruments and techniques may extrude debris beyond the apical foramen and may cause post-instrumentation complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris resulted by using 4 types of nickel-titanium instruments (WaveOne, TRUShape 3D conforming files, Hyflex CM, and One Shape files) during endodontic instrumentation. Materials and methods: Forty freshly extracted human mandibular second premolar with straight canals and a single apex were collected for this study. All teeth were cut to similar lengths. Pre-weighted glass vials were used as collecting containers. Samples were randomly divided into four groups with 10 samples in each group: Group A instrumentation by WaveOne reciprocating file, Group B instrumentation by TRUShape 3D rotating files, Group C instrumentation by Hyflex CM rotating files and Group D instrumentation by One Shape rotating file. A total volume of 7 ml of sodium hypochlorite was used for irrigation in each sample. Apical patency confirmed and maintained by a size #15 K-File. All canals were instrumented up to a size #25. After completion of endodontic instrumentation, vials were then stored in an incubator for 5 days at 68o C for dryness. Then vials are weighted again, and the pre-weight subtracted from the post-weight, the weight difference resembled the amount of apically extruded debris from the apical foramen during root canal instrumentation. Data obtained were statistically analysed by using ANOVA and LSD tests. Results: The results showed that the Hyflex CM Group (C) has statistical significant lowest apically extruded debris as compared to other groups of this study (P ≤0.05), while the TRUShape Group (B) has statistical significant lowest apically extruded debris as compared to One Shape Group (D) and WaveOne Group (A), while the WaveOne Group (A) showed the highest value of apically extruded debris (p ≤0.01). The result showed that all groups resulted in apical extrusion of debris. Significance: Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file system


Article
The Influence of Chlorhexidine Diacetate Salt Incorporation Into Soft Denture Lining Material on Its Antifungal And Some Mechanical Properties

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: One of the most common problem associated with the used of soft denture lining material is microorganisms and fungal growth especially Candida albicans, which can result in chronic mucosal inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chlorhexidine diacetate (CDA) salt Incorporation into soft denture lining material on antifungal activity; against Candida albicans, and the amount of chlorhexidine di-acetate salt leached out of soft liner/CDA composite. Furthermore, evaluate shear bond strength and hardness after CDA addition to soft liner Materials and methods: chlorhexidine diacetate salt was added to soft denture lining material at four different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% by weight). Four hundred and fifty specimens were made and divided into four groups according to the test to be performed. Disk diffusion test was used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the soft liner/CDA composite after four different periods of incubation in artificial saliva. UV spectroscopy was used to evaluate the amount of accumulative and periodic CDA released in artificial saliva after 2 days, 2 weeks and 4 weeks incubation in artificial saliva. The shear bond strength and shore A hardness was measured after 2 and 4 weeks incubation in artificial saliva and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: All experimental groups showed a highly significant increase in diameter of inhibition zone around the test specimen in compare with control group. The release of Chlorhexidine showed to be dose dependent. The shore A hardness a highly significant increase with the addition of CDA and as for shear bonding strength, the addition of CDA at 0.5% and 1.5% percentage resulted in a highly significant decrease in bond strength, while 2.5% and 3.5% percentage showed non-significant differences in compare with control. Conclusion: soft denture lining material with antifungal properties was the result of CDA salt incorporation which indicate that chlorhexidine was released in affected concentration from soft liner/CDA composite. This incorporation resulted in Hardness increase and did not affect the shear bond strength for 2.5% and 3.5% percentage. Keywords: Soft denture liners, antifungal activity, chlorhexidine diacetate salt


Article
Gingival microleakage of composite restorations with different bonding protocol in class II cavity treated with chlorhexidine (an in-vitro study).

Authors: Aliaa M. Jabbar
Pages: 16-19
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: One of the challenges to use chlorhexidine is its effect on the amount of microleakage after restoration; however, use of the materials with antibacterial properties after tooth preparation and before restoration has been widespread. The objective of this, in-vitro, study was to evaluate the influence of consepsis (chlorhexidine gloconate disinfectant) application on microleakage in class II cavities restored with light cured composite using universal adhesive system; etch and rinse technique –self etch technique. Materials and Methods: Forty class II cavities were prepared on mesial and distal surfaces of 20 non-carious mandibular third molars. The cavities were divided into four groups; (n =10 for each group). G1: cavities were bonded with (single bond universal adhesive, 3MESPE) after etching with 35% phosphoric acid - etch and rinse technique, without chlorhexidine , G2: chlorhexidine was used after etching with 35% phosphoric acid, then cavities were bonded with (single bond universal adhesive, 3MESPE) - etch and rinse technique . G3: cavities were bonded with (single bond universal adhesive, 3MESPE) - self etch technique, without chlorhexidine, G4: The chlorhexidine was used before bonding. All groups were restored with non – hybrid composite resin (Z 350, 3MESPE). Micrlerackage was evaluated at gingival margin using methylene blue dye penetration method. In each cavity the dye penetration in millimeters was measured by strereomicroscope. Statistical analysis for the data was carried out using one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results: Group G2 produced the least microleakage which is statistically highly significantly different than the remaining groups. Group G3 produced the highest microleakage which is statistically high significant difference than G1 and G2, but the difference is not significant with group G4. Conclusions: Consepsis can be used as cavity disinfectants when restoring the cavities with single bond universal adhesive as etch and rinse technique. However, its effect seems to be lower when using the single bond universal adhesive as self-etch technique.


Article
Effect of The CO2 Laser as Surface Treatment on The Bond Strength of Heat Cured Soft Liner to The High Impact Acrylic Denture Base Material

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Soft liner material is become important in dental prosthetic treatment. They are applied to the surface of the dentures to achieve more equal force distribution , reduce localized pressure and improve denture retention by engaging undercut . So the aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of different surface treatment by air-abrasion AL2O3 and laser treatment with CO2 laser on improving the shear bond strength of the denture liner to acrylic denture base material . Materials and methods: the 30 specimens of heat cured acrylic denture base material (high Impact acrylic )and heat cured soft liner (Vertex ,Nether Lands )were prepared for this study .They were designed and divided according to type of the surface treatment 10 specimens for each group and as follows :Group I without any treatment (control group ), Group II was treated with air-abrasion (AL2O3). While group III was treated with CO2 laser which has continuous pulses with wave length(10.6) micro-meter for (15) seconds . Results: The results revealed that lowest mean values in shear bond strength the specimens treated with AL2O3 (0.498 N/mm2)and control group (0.569 N/mm2)and the highest mean values for the specimens treated with CO2 laser (0.648 N/mm2) . Conclusion: within the limitation of this study ,CO2 laser surface treatment of the heat cure acrylic denture resin with soft liner material resulted in highly significantly increased in shear bond strength values than control and AL2O3


Article
A study to compare the internal fitness and marginal gap between single crowns and crowns within three-unite bridge of zirconia substructure fabricated by CAD-CAM system. (An In vitro study)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Purpose: the aim of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal gap and internal fitness between single crowns and the crowns within three-unit bridges of zirconium fabricated by CAD-CAM system. Materials and methods: A standard model from ivoclar company was used as a pattern to simulate three-units bridge (upper first molar and upper first premolar) as abutments used to fabricate stone models, eight single crowns for premolar and eight of three units bridges. Crowns and bridges fabricated by CAD-CAM system were cemented on their respective stone models then sectioned at the mid-point buccolingaully and misiodistaly and examined under stereomicroscope. Result: the marginal gap in premolar crowns and premolar within bridge were within the acceptable value 120μm, one –way ANOVA showed that there was significant differences in the internal gaps among the areas. Independent t- Test showed there was significant differences between the premolar crowns and premolar crowns within bridges in marginal opening and cusp tip (lingually and distally) Conclusion: the marginal and internal gaps were in the bridge higher than those in the crowns. The areas of sloped surfaces such as chamfer area, occlusal area and cusp tip had high gap values in comparison with areas of flat surfaces such as axial wall and when the surface area of abutment increased, the marginal and internal gaps of abutment was increase.


Article
Assessment of Calcium Carbonate Coating on Osseointegration of Commercially Pure Titanium Implant by Torque Removal Test and Histomorphometric Analysis

Authors: Mustafa S. Mahmood --- Shatha S. Al-Ameer
Pages: 32-38
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: One of the most important methods to replace lost teeth is dental implants. In order to increase the strength of connection of the implant with the jaw bone to provide early loading after placement, implant is coated by different coating materials that achieved that purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of coating CP Ti implant with calcium carbonate on the strength of bone-implant interface after two and six weeks of implantation in rabbit femur bone by torque removal test, histological and histomorphometric analysis. Materials and methods: Coating the surface of commercially pure titanium screws with extra pure synthetic calcium carbonate via electrophoretic deposition method (EPD) was done. The surface of disc samples after coating was checked by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction examination and measurement of coating thickness. Ten male white French rabbits were prepared for implantation. Forty screws were implanted in the femur bone, two implant screws in each femur bone. The first screw is coated with calcium carbonate and compared with the second uncoated screw. Rabbits are divided into two groups according to the healing periods 2 and 6 weeks. By torque removal, the osseointegration is measured. Single screw from each group was used for histological and Histomorphometric analysis. Results: There was significant increased mean torque removal for screws coated with calcium carbonate compared with uncoated screws. Histological examination showed an increase in the growth of bone cells for coated screws, and the histomorphometric analysis showed an increase in new bone formation percent (NBFP). Conclusion: Coating the surface of the CP Ti implant with calcium carbonate via electrophoretic deposition method had great effect in increasing the osseointegration than uncoated surface.


Article
The Effect of Artificial Accelerated Aging on The Color of Ceramic Veneers Cemented With Different Resin Cements (A Comparative In Vitro Study)

Authors: Shatha Kh. Hussain --- Inas I. Al-Rawi
Pages: 39-46
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Color changes that are detectable to human eye can affect the esthetic appearance of ceramic veneers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of artificial accelerated aging on the color of ceramic veneers cemented with different resin cements. Materials and Methods: Sixty discs were prepared with 0.5 mm thickness, 30 discs made from IPS e.max press (Ivoclar Vivadent) and 30 discs were made from VITA Enamic (VITA Zahnfabrik). The discs were cemented with three resin cements: Variolink Veneer MV 0 shade (Ivoclar Vivadent), Rely X veneer Translucent shade (3M ESPE) and NX3 Nexus Clear shade (Kerr Corporation) with 0.1 mm thickness. The spectrophotometer Easyshade Advance was used to measure the color parameters (Lightness, axis a* of chroma and axis b*of chroma) immediately after cementation, after 150 and 300 hours of aging. The specimens were subjected to artificial accelerated aging in Accelerated Weathering Tester. Color change greater than 3.3 was considered unacceptable. One-way ANOVA, paired t-tests and Bonferroni adjusted t-test were used for statistical analysis (p <0.05). Results: Artificial aging caused high significant color change in both ceramic types, but there were non-significant difference in color change among the three resin cements used. The color change was between1.997-14.8 after 150 hours and it was between 2.179-15.68 after 300 hours. The color change of e.max discs after aging were within acceptable limit<3.3 whereas Vita Enamic specimens had shown unacceptable color change >3.3 after aging. Conclusions: The majority of color change after aging related to veneering materials while resin cement have only slight effect on color change after aging. IPS e.max had shown an acceptable color change after aging, so it is suitable for fabrication of restorations in esthetic zone while Vita Enamic should not be used in esthetic zone since it has poor color stability according to the results of this study


Article
Testing Different Properties of A Light-Cured Denture Base Material After Addition of Silicon Oxide Nanofiller (An in Vitro Study)

Authors: Mohammed Moudhaffer M Ali
Pages: 47-54
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Improving the properties of heat- cured and self-cured acrylic resin have been studied by many researchers. However, little studies concerned with visible light cured resin (VLCR) improved through addition of nanofiller are available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some properties of (VLCR) after addition of SiO2 nanofiller. Materials and Methods: SiO2 nanofiller were added to (VLCR) tray material after being dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent. According to the pilot study 2% SiO2 nanofiller addition exhibited better properties than the other percentages (1%, 3%). The main study conducted involved (100) specimens divided into 5 groups according to the test included. (20) Specimens were selected for each test (10 samples for the control group and 10 samples for the experimental 2% SiO2 nanofiller group). The properties investigated were transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness, surface roughness, water sorption and solubility. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to assess nanofiller distribution and identification of elements. The data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis and independent sample t-test. Results: The mean value of transverse strength of experimental group increased significantly, while the impact strength of experimental group decreased significantly when compared to control group. A significant increase in surface hardness was noticed in the experimental group, while non-significant increase in surface roughness was observed. The water sorption values were decreased significantly, while a non-significant decrease in water solubility was observed in the experimental group. Conclusion: Addition of SiO2 nanofiller to (VLCR), slightly improve the transverse strength and surface hardness, while water sorption and solubility slightly decreased. The impact strength was significantly deteriorated, while the surface roughness shows non-significant increment


Article
Effect of Tea Tree, Thymus Vulgaris and Nigella Sativa Oils on The Elimination of Enterococcus Faecalis (In Vitro Study)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The main goal of chemomechanical endodontic treatment is the reduction or elimination of microorganisms from root canal system. The intracanal medicaments were used to enhance the disinfection process. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of thymus vulgaris, tea tree essential oils and cold pressed black seed oil (BSO) against E.faecalis. Materials and methods: E.faecalis was isolated from ten patients in need for endodontic treatment. The sensitivity of E.faecalis to the tested oils was evaluated in different concentrations in agar well diffusion method and compared with calcium hydroxide. The sensitivity of E.faecalis to vapor of the tested oils was also evaluated, in disk vaporization method using inverted agar plate and compared to tricresol formalin (TC) and camphorated monochlorophenol (CMCP). The micro broth dilution method was used to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the tested oils against E.faecalis. The presence of biologically active volatile components of two samples of BSO with different origins was evaluated by the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: All the tested oils exhibited antibacterial activity against E.faecalis in different concentrations with different levels in agar well diffusion and disk vaporization methods. The MBC was 2μl/mL, for thymus vulgaris oil and 32μl/mL for tea tree and Black seed oils. The vapor forming medicaments (TC and CMCP) induced effective antibacterial action but calcium hydroxide showed a low antibacterial action against E.faecalis. The active volatile components were present in one sample of BSO only (the Iraqi one). Conclusion:The three oil extracts were active against E.faecalis, and the origin, condition of storage and method of extraction may affect the components of cold pressed black seed oil


Article
Variation in Immunohistochemical Expression of Neuropilin1 among Oral, Laryngeal and Skin SCC

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Neuropilin 1(NRP1) is considered a novel non - tyrosine kinase co- receptor for the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF). First discovered on migrating neurons. NRP1is suggested to be up-regulated in cells of different types of cancer and implicated with advanced disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in expression of NRP1 in oral, laryngeal and skin squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods: Tissue sections from 120 formalin fixed- paraffin embedded blocks histopathologically diagnosed as oral, laryngeal and skin SCC (40 blocks for each),immunohistohemically stained in immunoperoxidase method with monoclonal antibodies to NRP1, the localization of expression was examined and the resulting scores were analyzed according to age, sex, and histopathological grades. Results: The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the NRP1 expression in oral, laryngeal and skin squamous cell carcinoma was (87.5%), (92.2%) and (82.5%) respectively, with no significant variation in expression among them(P=0.44), but, NRP1 up-regulation in all the three types correlated positively with degree of differentiation (P=0.009), (P=0.002) and (P=0.007) respectively. Conclusion: Angiogenesis play an important and similar role in carcinogenesis of oral, laryngeal and skin squamous cell carcinoma, and NRP1 is significantly associated with degree of differentiation in the three types of carcinomaso it can be act as a prognostic marker


Article
Localization of Maxillary Impacted Canine Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Assessmentof Angulation, Distance From Occlusal Plane, Alveolar Width and Proximity to Adjacent Teeth

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Backgrounds: Maxillary canine impaction is complicated and time consuming to treat, for being highly diverse in inclination and location; it may be a companied by root resorption of the neighboring teeth. CBCT has been used for its' diagnostic reliability in localization of impacted canine and revealing its' serious local complications. Objectives: Localization of maxillary impacted canine using cone beam computed tomography for assessment of angulation, distance from occlusal plane, alveolar width and proximity to adjacent teeth. Subjects and Methods: The study sample was 33 subjects 16 females and 17 males attended to Al-Wasitti general hospital in Baghdad city-Oral and maxillofacial radiology department for CBCT scan investigationfrom November/2015 to April/2016. By using theCS 9000 device, 3D images and coronal, axial and sagittal views obtained to perform the selected measurements. Results: Contact of impacted canine to the nearby teeth had a strong effect on their root resorption. Vertical or horizontal angulation measurement in axial view, was not possible for a number of cases.Comparison of the angulation measurement validity between axial and coronal views, had showed an obvious statistical difference in coronal view for vertical angulation, and in the axial view for horizontal angulation calculation. Correlation of the canine localizations found in the study with the measurements, showed a significant statistical difference with age and vertical angulation (coronal view). Age or gender correlation with the measurements wasnon significant statistically, except for age with vertical angulation (coronal view). Conclusion: utilization of CBCT provides a worthy data about the impacted maxillary canine localization, for more explanation and treatment of these cases surgically and by orthodontics.

Keywords

localization --- canine --- maxillary --- CBCT --- impaction


Article
The Value of Ultrasonography in The Diagnosis and Evaluation of Early Therapeutic Response of Cervical Tuberculous Lymphadenitis

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis is a worldwide infectious disease in spite of advancement in health care system. Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most prevalent form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis with predilection of cervical lymph nodes. Objectives: To evaluate the reliability of grey scale ultrasonography together with color Doppler in the diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymph adenitis and evaluation of early therapeutic response. Subjects and methods:From July 2015 to May 2016 in Al-Karama teaching hospital /Kut city- Wasit-Iraq, 25 patients (14 males and 11 females) with ages range from (6-50) years. Ultrasonography examination was done for all patients and grey scale criteria (distribution, size, shape, echogenicity, echogenic hilum, intranodal necrosis and ancillary features) and vascular distribution were recorded to help in tuberculous lymphadenitis diagnosis. Excisional biopsy was done to confirm the diagnosis histopathologically. After chemotherapy the Patients were followed up after 46 days of treatment, again the grey scale criteria were recorded and compared with the 1st reading. Results: Ultrasonography could identify 88% of the patients (22/25) as having cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis while histopathology proved that only 80% of patients really have the disease. This mean that ultrasonography had good sensitivity (100%), specificity (60%) and accuracy (90%) with no false negative and 8% false positive.In following up the patients, grey scale ultrasonography criteria showed a significant difference for the same patients before and after 46 days of treatment. Conclusions: Ultrasonography was found to play a paramount role in detection, localization and delineation of cervical tuberculous lymph nodes hence grey scale and color Doppler are reliable in diagnosis of the disease and the evaluation of therapeutic response of the patients

Keywords

diagnosis --- lymph node --- neck --- sonography --- tuberculosis


Article
Computer Assisted Immunohistochemical Score Prediction Via Simplified Image Acquisition Technique

Authors: Salam N. Jawad --- Bashar H. Abdullah
Pages: 83-88
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: techniques of image analysis have been used extensively to minimize interobserver variation of immunohistochemical scoring, yet; image acquisition procedures are often demanding, expensive and laborious. This study aims to assess the validity of image analysis to predict human observer’s score with a simplified image acquisition technique. Materials and methods: formalin fixed- paraffin embedded tissue sections for ameloblastomas and basal cell carcinomas were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibodies to MMP-2 and MMP-9. The extent of antibody positivity was quantified using Imagej® based application on low power photomicrographs obtained with a conventional camera. Results of the software were employed to predict human visual scoring results with stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results: the overall prediction of epithelial score depicted as r square value was 0.26 (p<0.001) which was obviously higher than that of stromal score (0.10; p<0.01). Epithelial and stromal MMP-2 score prediction was generally higher than that of MMP-9. Collectively, ameloblastomas had a more efficient score prediction compared to basal cell carcinomas. Conclusion: there is a considerable variability in the prediction capacity of the technique with respect to different antibodies, different tumors and cellular versus stromal score


Article
Periodontal Health Status and Assessment of Osteocalcin levels in Saliva of Diabetic Patients and Systemically Healthy Persons (Comparative study)

Authors: Zina Ali Daily --- Ayser Najah Mohammed
Pages: 89-95
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Diabetes and periodontitis are complicated prolonged disorders through a recognized two-way association. There is elongated-conventional mark that hyperglycaemia in diabetes is affected on immune-inflammatory response and disturb the action of osteoclast and in balance bone turnover, which might rise the person vulnerability to the progress of prolonged periodontitis. Osteocalcin is one of the greatest plentiful matrix proteins originate in bones and produced absolutely there. Small osteocalcin crumbles are noticed in regions of bone remodeling and are in fact degradation products of the bone matrix, that is released outside cells into the Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) and saliva after destruction of periodontal tissue during periodontitis Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with Type2Diabetes Maleates (T2DM), males and females, were recruited for the study, with an age range of (30-50) years were divided into four groups, (20 subjects each): poorly controlled Type 2Diabetes Mellitus with chronic periodontitis group (CP+pT2DM ) and well controlled Type 2Diabetes Mellitus with chronic periodontitis group(CP+wT2M) , group of patients with only chronic periodontitis (CP )and control group with healthy periodontium and systemically healthy. From all subjects five ml of unstimulated whole salivary samples were collected, then, the samples were centrifuged and the supernatants were collected and kept frozen until the biochemical analysis to measure OC concentrations then clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss) were recorded for all subjects at four sites per tooth except for the third molars. Results: The results of this study revealed highly significant differences among all study and control groups for all the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss) ,and OC concentrations. Additionally patients had chronic periodontitis with poorly controlled Type 2Diabetes Mellitus(CP+pT2DM )demonstrated the highest median values of all clinical periodontal parameters and highest increase in levels of salivary OC followed by CP+wT2M group then CP and Control groups. The current study demonstrates the correlation between OC concentrations with each one of the clinical parameters.It revealed highly significant strong positive correlations with PLI, GI and BOP score 1, while highly significant strong negative correlations with PPD. Also, non-significant weak positive correlation existed with CAL in CP+pT2DM group. Also, high significant strong positive correlation with PLI, GI, BOP and CAL; while, non-significant weak positive correlation with PPD in CP+wT2M group . High-significant strong positive correlation with BOP and CAL, as well as, high significant moderate positive correlation with PPD and significant weak positive correlation with PLI, while non-significant weak positive correlation with GI existed in CP group .Finally, high significant moderate positive correlation with PLI and GI existed in the Control group. Conclusion: Patients with poor glycemic control had more severe periodontal tissue break down with increase in levels of OC than well controlled type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients all of them with chronic periodontitis. So, this biochemical marker may be useful of periodontal tissue destruction and allowed practitioners for early diagnosis, prognosis and efficient management of periodontal diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus


Article
Evaluation of Osseointegration of Dental Implants Prepared by Piezosurgery (Clinical Study)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Piezosurgery device is a system developed recently to overcome the limitation of the traditional surgical technique in implant site preparation, which use the principle of ultrasonic microvibrations to create precise & selective cut in bone in harmony with the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of implants inserted by ultrasonic implant site preparation protocol (UISP) using piezosurgery device, regarding the survival rate, stability and other related factors, at 16 weeks postoperative follow up period. Materials and Methods: A total of (24) patients, (6) males and (18) females, aged between (19-51) years old, contributed in this study receiving a total of (42) implants, all of these implants bed were prepared by means of special tips mounted in piezosurgery device. For each patient thorough clinical and radiographical preoperative assessment was applied. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were measured at baseline, 8 weeks and at 16 weeks. Postoperative clinical and radiographic evaluation was applied for each patient for 16 weeks postoperatively. Results: (24) patients received (42) implants accomplished the follow-up period, After 16 weeks all implants (42) were osseointegrated and the overall implants survival rate was 100% with no failure and no complication was observed. The mean ISQ value at baseline was (74.32±6.42), the mean ISQ value at 8 weeks was (72.62±9.05) and at 16 weeks the mean ISQ (±SD) value was (76.68±7.35) the changes in the mean stability during the healing period showed significant increase in the implant stability (P≤0.05). At the 16th week the number of implants that achieved ISQ≥70 was 35 (83.3%), and 7 implants attained ISQ> 70 (16.7%). Conclusions: high and significant survival rate, significant secondary stability, early positive shifting of the mean ISQ value, no remarkable complications in implants inserted by ultrasonic implant site preparation indicated that piezosurgery is a reliable alternative and safe method used in dental implant osteotomy


Article
Serum Level of TNF-α and IL-17 in Patient Have Chronic Periodontitis Associated Rheumatoid Arthritis

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis are widely prevalent diseases and are characterized by tissue destruction due to chronic inflammation. Recently, there is growing evidence that the two diseases share many pathological features the aims of the study To determine the periodontal health status in patient have chronic periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis and compare it with those having chronic periodontitis without Rheumatoid arthritis and determine the serum levels of interleukin -17(IL-17), tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α ) in both groups and compare with the control group (subject samples neither have periodontitis nor arthritis ) and correlate these immunological markers with the periodontal parameters Plaque index , gingival index , bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment level and number of missing teeth. Materials and methods: Eighty (80) males and females subjects with age range (30-45) years were recruited in this study they were divided into three main groups The chronic periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis group consist of thirty (30) subjects and second group consist of thirty (30) subjects have chronic periodontitis and third group consist of twenty (20) subject case control group. All subjects had normal weight and height range according to BMI (body mass index) that it value is (18.5-25), Clinical periodontal parameters used in this study were Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level index, probing pocket depth and number of missing teeth was measured in all groups at four surfaces of all presented teeth Blood samples were collected from all individuals and examined to determined serum level of interleukin -17 and tumor necrosis factor-a by mean of enzyme-linked immune–sorbent assay. Results: The present study showed patients with chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis had higher prevalence of sites presenting dental plaque, a higher rate of gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing greater probing depth, greater attachment loss and high number of missing teeth compared to those had chronic periodontitis only and control subjects . Also highly significant differences between studied group regarding serum level of IL-17 and TNF-α atp < 0.001, as well as, it revealed that mean serum levels of IL-17 were statistically higher in chronic periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis group (607.9 ± 79.9) than Chronic Periodontitis group (421.4 ± 5.9) and Control groups (15.9 ± 2.7) similarly serum level of TNF-α (402.2 ± 41.2 319.4 ± 526 85.3 ± 4.9) respectively at p < 0.001. Regarding correlation, the current study observed strong positive correlation between serum levels of IL-17 andTNF-α with PL.I, GI, BOP, PPD CAL and the number of missing teeth in the PRA at p<0.001. Also this study reveal significant correlation between the two immunological markers (TNF-α and IL-17) in chronic periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis group and in Chronic Periodontitis group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there was higher potentiality to chronic periodontitis involvement among rheumatoid arthritis patients, that correlated positively with increase the level of serum levels of IL-17 and TNF-α accordingly with high score of clinical parameters that had recorded. That mean TNF –a and IL-17 may play an important role in increase the severity of periodontitis as well as rheumatoid arthritis


Article
The Effect Of Treatment Protocol and Implant Dimensions on Primary Stability Utilizing Resonance Frequency Analysis

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: According to Branemark’s protocol, the waiting period between tooth extraction and implant placement is 6–8 months; this is the late placement technique. Achieving and maintaining implant stability are prerequisites for a dental implant to be successful. Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA) is a noninvasive diagnostic method that measures implant stability. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of treatment protocol and implant dimensions on primary implant stability utilizing RFA. Materials and methods: This study included 63 Iraqi patients (37 male, 26 female; ranging 22-66 years). According to treatment protocol, the sample was divided into 2 groups; A (delayed) & B (immediate). Dental implants were inserted and the implant stability quotient (ISQ) measures for primary stability documented by Osstell device. Results: For both groups fixtures introduced in the mandible showed a higher stability (74 and 71.85) respectively and was lower in maxilla. The mean primary stability of group A was 70.21 (ranged from 51-83), while for group B was 68.55 (46.5-81). Conclusion: primary stability influencing osseointegration and subsequent long term success. It was higher in association with delayed implant placement, mandible, and increased implant diameters


Article
Oral health status in relation to nutritional status among institutionalized autistic children and adolescents in Baghdad city, Iraq

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a wide range of symptoms, including difficulty with social interaction and communication skills. Controversial thinking about oral health of children with ASD, in general may have a lower hygiene level than healthy individuals, low caries rate and high body weight in comparison to healthy children. This study was conducted to assess the oral health status in relation to nutritional status among institutionalized autistic children and adolescents. Materials and methods: From 12 institutes in Baghdad, the study group contained 364 child and adolescent with ASD (Male= 294, Female=70), while control group included 441 normal child and adolescent (Male=357, Female=84) from primary and secondary schools. The age range (6-15) years old categorized to two age groups, children age group (6-10) years and adolescents age group (11-15) years. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces (dmfs, DMFS), plaque (PlI), Gingival (GI) and calculus (CI) indices were used to measure oral health status for both groups. Assessment of nutritional status performed by using BMI for age z-score value. The data of current study was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: Mean rank values of (dmfs, DMFS) were lower in study group than control group with high significant differences. The mean rank values of PlI, GI, and CI in study group were found to be higher than control group with high significant differences. A moderate positive high significant correlation was found between ds, dmfs, DS, DMFS and PlI, GI, CI in both groups. The mean rank values of body mass index (BMI) for age z-score were higher in study group than control group. Very weak negative high significant correlation between BMI for age z-score and ds, dmfs, DS, DMFS in study group. Conclusion: Dental caries severity, oral hygiene and gingival health were lower in ASD group than control group. Dental caries severity was related to oral health status in both groups. Possible of overweight, overweight and obesity were most common in children and adolescents with ASD than control group. Body weight of autistic children was related to dental caries severity.


Article
Selected Salivary Biomarkers in Relation to Work-related Musculoskeletal disorders among a Group of Dentists in Baghdad City

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: work-related musculoskeletal disorders represent an important occupational health issues among dentists especially neck and low back complaints. Biomarkers of tissue damage as results of occupational physical demands could be used for detection of work related musculoskeletal disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess work- related musculoskeletal disorders, physical work load index, selected salivary biomarkers (Creatine kinase and C - reactive protein) and to find the relation among them. Subjects and Methods: Study participants are consisted of 112 dentists. They were selected from college of dentistry /Baghdad University, health care center in Bagdad city. They were of both gender and aged between 40-45 years .they should fit the study criteria. Self-administered standardized Nordic questionnaires were used to evaluate musculoskeletal complaints. Physical work load was evaluated by used physical work load index. Stimulated saliva were collected from subsample (87) dentists drawn randomly from the total sample, for whom biochemical analysis (measurement of creatine kinase and C - reactive protein) were done. Results: Results showed that low back and neck complaints is the most complaint experienced by the dentists with percentages of ( 69.6% and 66.1% ), followed by the shoulder complaint (49.1% ) while the hip complaint showed the lowest percentage (13.4%).According to severity scores ,both low back and neck musculoskeletal complaints were of score 3 severity (score 3 constituted the highest percentages in both area (27.7% ,23.2%respectively) as compared to other severity scors.For shoulder complaint it was of score 2 severity (score 2 constituted the highest percentage 23.2% as compared to other severity scores, The musculoskeletal complaints(proximal ,neck, shoulder and low back) had higher mean rank values in the highest quartile of Physical work load index with non – significant differences (P<0.05). Regarding salivary creatine kinase the proximal ,total and low back complaints had higher mean rank values among dentists with highest Creatine kinase quartile , while distal manifestations ,neck and shoulder complaints had higher mean rank value in the average interquartile range of Creatine kinase with non – significant differences( P<0.05). For c- reactive protein almost all the complaints(proximal , total ,neck and shoulder) had higher mean rank values in the first lowest quartile with non – significant differences( P<0.05). Conclusions: Physical work load increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders occurrence. Salivary creatine kinase could serve as a biomarker that reflects the underlying of musculoskeletal complaints more than C - reactive protein. Further studies that used more objective tools for assessing musculoskeletal disorders is needed


Article
Gingival health condition and salivary physical properties among a group of patients with intermaxillary fixation in tow times intervals (Follow up study)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: One of the methods used in the treatment of maxillofacial fracture is intermaxillary fixation(IMF), the most common type is the Erich arch bar with interdental wiring. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of intermaxillary fixation on gingival health condition among a group of patients with facial fracture in relation to salivary physical properties. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with an age range of (17-37) years old with facial fractures and indicated for IMF. Plaque index and gingival index (Loe, 1967) were used to assess both of them before application and after removal of IMF. Unstimulated saliva sample collection was carried out under standardized conditions according to Navazesh and Kumer (2008) before IMF application and after removal to measure salivary flow rate and viscosity. Analysis of data was carried out using SPSS (version 18). Results: A higher mean values of plaque and gingival index were recorded after IMF removal than that before IMF application, with highly significant changes (p<0.01). In regarding to salivary physical properties, salivary flow rate mean values was lower after IMF removal than before IMF application with statistically highly significant changes ( p<0.01). Concerning salivary viscosity, it has been found that a higher mean values after IMF removal than before IMF application with highly significant changes (p<0.01). Conclusion: The results of current investigation revealed that intermaxillary fixation (Arch bar) have a significant effects on gingival health in addition to disturb normal level of certain salivary physical properties


Article
Stressful Life Events In Relation to Dental Caries and Selected Salivary Constituents Among Secondary School Students in Baghdad City

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: stress is the reactions of the body to forces of a deleterious nature, infections and various abnormal states that tend to disturb its normal physiological equilibrium; It is described as adverse emotions or reactions to unpleasant experiences; Thus, any real or perceived physical, social, or psychological event or stimulus that causes bodies to react or respond have deleterious effects on the general and oral health. The aims of this study were to assess the severity of dental caries among the students with different categories of stressful life events in relation to physicochemical characteristics of whole stimulated saliva. Materials and Methods: the total sample is composed of 300 students (males only) aged 17-18 years old, who are randomly selected from 10 school in the First Al-Karkh/Baghdad. The total sample classified into three categories (less stress, more stress, accumulative stress) according to stressful life events scale (SLE); the sub sample consist of 60 students who are randomly selected from the total sample each category composed of 20 students. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries was assessed according to Decay, Missed, Filled surface index (D1-4MFS) of Muhlemann (1976). Stimulated salivary samples were collected from the 60 students then measuring salivary flow rate; and chemically analyzed to determine salivary interlukin-6 (IL-6), cortisol, and total protein. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: Results recorded the highest mean rank value of (DMFS) was among the accumulative stress category of stressful life events scale followed by more stress category, the lowest mean rank value was among less stress category with statistically high significant difference (P< 0.001). For the severity of dental caries (DS) Fraction was higher among the accumulative stress category than more stress and less stress categories respectively (P< 0.001). According to the grades of lesion severity, for all fractions the higher mean rank values was among accumulative stress category with no statically differences except for (D2) was significant (P< 0.05). The data from salivary analysis showed that, the highest values of salivary total protein and (IL-6) were among the accumulative stress category, followed by more stress then the lowest value among less stress category, while the cortisol showed the opposite picture, however all these differences were not significant. DMFS correlated positively with flow rate among less stress and accumulative stress categories and negatively with more stress category, while for (DS) correlated negatively with flow rate with highly significant for more stress category and accumulative category and positively related with significant for low stress category. The salivary constituents showed negative correlation with (DMFS) for all categories of stressful life events scale except for IL-6 and cortisol were positively correlated for accumulative category with non-significant difference. Conclusion: The study revealed that, stressful life events have a significant deleterious impact on the oral and dental health including caries experience as well as the effect on the normal levels of salivary constituents


Article
Dental anomalies in permanent teeth and the associated etiological factors among fifteen years-old students in Basrah cityIraq

Authors: Nadia Azzam Al-Sheraydah --- Zainb Al-Dahan
Pages: 148-152
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Dental anomalies of teeth are major issue that contributes to dental problems encountered in general practice. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of dental anomalies and the associated etiological factors among 15 years old students in Basrah city –Iraq. Materials and methods: The total sample composed of 1000 students (435 males and 565 females) from urban area selected randomly from different high schools in the city. Diagnosis of dental anomalies were recorded by present or absent, diagnosis and recording of enamel defects were done according to the criteria of WHO (1997). Results: The prevalence of hypodontia was 4.6%, Females have higher prevalence than males (5.8% females and 3.0% males), talon cusp prevalence was 37.0% (males 38.6% and females 35.8%), the prevalence of microdontia was 1.4% (males were equal to females 1.4%), the prevalence of supernumerary teeth, fusion, macrodontia and gemination was 0.8%, 0.7%, 0.1% and 0.1% respectively. The prevalence of enamel defects was 30.5%, demarcated opacities prevalence was 23.8%, it is the most prevalent type of enamel defects (males 20.5% and females 26.4%) followed by diffuse opacities 9.1% then enamel hypoplasia 0.4%. Conclusion: This study revealed that secondary school students have dental anomalies, some of them with high prevalence, while other has very low prevalence.


Article
Photographic Analysis of Macro- Aand Micro-Aesthetic Appearance in a Sample of Iraqi Adults With Class I Normal Occlusion

Authors: Dana R. Mohammed --- Iman Al-Sheakli
Pages: 153-159
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Generally, the facial esthetics depends on the esthetic appearance of the maxillary anterior teeth. The purposes of this study were to analyse the macro-aesthetic appearance of the face and the micro-aesthetic appearance of the maxillary anterior teeth to establish the normative values for class I normal occlusion and to detect possible gender differences. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 120 Iraqi adults (60 males and 60 females) aged (18-23) years. Each individual was clinically examined, then with cephalostat based head position, extraoral and intraoral photographs were taken for each subject. The facial and dental measurements were measured using AutoCad program 2014. Descriptive statistics was obtained for the measured variables for both genders and independent samples t-test was performed to evaluate the genders difference. Results and conclusions: The results showed that there is a highly significant gender difference in most of the measured variables regarding the macro-aesthetic appearance, since the males have a larger facial dimensions than females, while for the micro-aesthetic appearance, there is a non-significant gender difference in most of the measured variables, that means the proportions of maxillary anterior teeth does not affected by gender difference


Article
Effect of Different Fluoride Agents on the Load Deflection Characteristics of Heat Activated Nickel Titanium Arch Wires (An in Vitro Study)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background:Hydrogen absorption and related degradation in the mechanical properties of Ni-Ti based orthodontic wires has been demonstrated following exposure to fluoride prophylactic agents. This study was designed to investigate the effects of three fluoride containing agents on the load deflection characteristics of heat activated nickel titanium arch wires during unloading phase. Material and method: Eighty specimens of heat activated nickel titanium arch wires were obtained from Ortho Technology Company, half of which had a 0.016 inch round and 0.019x0.025 rectangular. Ten specimens from both wire size were immersed in one of the tested fluoride prophylactic agents (neutral sodium fluoride gel, stannous fluoride gel or phos-flur mouth rinse) or in the controlled medium “normal saline”, and incubated at 37˚C for sixty minutes. A Wp 300 universal material testing machine was modified and used to perform a three point bending test in a water path at 37˚C ±1˚C.The statistical difference between the different agents were analyzed using ANOVA and LSD tests. Results: The unloading forces at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm where significantly reduced especially in neutral sodium fluoride treated specimens. Conclusion: Based on the results founded in th study it might be preferred to use prophylactic agent with the least fluoride ions concentration.It can be concluded that the tested agents have only a limited effect on the load deflection behavior of the heat activated Ni-Ti wires, in a way that they do not have a clinically significant effect on the mechanical behavior of these wires.


Article
Salivary Free Testosterone and Gingival Health Condition among a Group of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: AndalusAbid HassanTahir --- Baydaa Hussien
Pages: 165-169
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting women in their reproductive age.It is characterized by anovulation or oligo-ovulation and hyperandrogensim.Androgen excess is the central defect in polycystic ovary syndrome. It is a complex disorder affects general health in addition to oral health.This study aimed to assess the gingival health status among a group of women with polycystic ovary syndrome as well as to estimate the levels of salivaryfree testosterone in unstimulated saliva in relation to gingival health condition. Materials and methods: Sixty two women with an age range 20-25 years old and with a body mass index range18.5-24.9 (normal weight) were included in this study. They were divided into two groups; the study group which included thirty one women with polycystic ovary syndrome, those women. nattended Babylon Teaching Hospital/ Infertility Center and the control group which included thirty one women with regular menstrual cycles,without clinical or biochemical features of hyperandrogenism and ultrasound exclusion of polycystic ovary (without polycystic ovary syndrome). Collection of unstimulated salivary samples was carried out under standardrizedconditions, salivary free testosterone levels were estimated. Plaque index of Silness and Lӧe (1964) was used to assess dental plaque. While gingival index of Lӧe and Silness (1963) was used to assess gingival inflammation. Data analysis was conducted through the application of the (SPSS version 18). The analysis of data included: Mean, Standard deviation, t-test, Pearson Correlation (r), Receiver Operative Characteristics Curve (ROC curve). Results:Results showed that the mean value of plaque index was found to be higher in the control group (1.18±0.03) than that in the study group (1.00±0.08) with statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01).While the mean value of gingival indexwas higher among the study group (1.52±0.06)than that in the control group (1.31±0.05)with statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01).Salivary levels of free testosterone among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (44.12±1.37 pg/ml) were found to be higher than that of control (18.50±0.87) with statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01).The results in this study showed that the correlations between salivary free testosterone with the oral variables (plaque index, gingival index) were statistically not significant (P>0.05). In order to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the use of salivary free testosterone as a diagnostic tool, statistical analysis of Receiver Operative Characteristics Curve (ROC) was used and predictive Value Measurmentswere done in this study. The results showed that the area under the curve for salivary free testosterone test was (1.000) with highly significant p-value (p<0.01). The best optimal cut off point for salivary free testosterone was (30.86) with (100%) sensitivity and specificity, indicating a very good predictive capacity for using salivary free testosterone as a marker for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Conclusions : It was concluded that gingival inflammation was high among women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Furthermore, salivary levels of free testosterone were found to be high among women with polycystic ovary syndrome


Article
The Effects of Enamel Protective Agents on Shear Bond Strength After Rebonding of Stainless Steel Orthodontic Bracket (An in Vitro Study)

Authors: Ruaa Ali K. Al-Sarkhi --- Dheaa H. Al-Groosh
Pages: 170-176
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Bracket rebonding is a common problem in orthodontics which may result in many drawbacks. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of application of two enamel protective agents “Icon” and “ProSeal” on shear bond strength before and after rebonding of stainless steel orthodontic brackets using conventional orthodontic adhesive and to assess the site of bond failure. Materials and methods: Fifty sound extracted human upper first premolar teeth were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups; the first time bonding and the rebonding groups (n=30). Each group was subdivided into control, Icon and ProSeal subgroups. The enamel protective agents were applied after etching (preconditioners). Shear bond strength before and after rebonding of stainless steel brackets were assessed using the Universal testing machine and the adhesive remnant index was used to find out the bond failure site using a stereomicroscope. Then the results were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA analysis test and T-test. Results: There were no significant differences in the shear bond strength mean values in either group or their corresponding subgroups. Forty percentage of the bond failure in ProSeal groups occurred away from the enamel where 75% of those were at the enamel protective agents/adhesive interface. Conclusions: The application of Icon and ProSeal did not compromise the shear bond strength and the application of the ProSeal may protect the enamel surface from trauma (cracks, chipping or detachment).


Article
White Spot Lesions Among Patients Treated With Fixed Orthodontic Appliance at Different Time Intervals

Authors: Elaf Abdul Kareem Alidan --- Nadia A. Alrawi
Pages: 177-182
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background:- White spot lesions are common esthetic problem that compromise the success of orthodontic treatment. This study aimed to assess white spot lesions in patients with fixed orthodontic appliance at different time intervals. Materials & Methods:- Thirty two patients (24 females and 8 males) were included in this study and they underwent clinical examination for white spot lesions using enamel decalcification index at four time intervals: (2-3 weeks after appliance insertion, 2, 4 and 6 months). Results:- The patients were free of white spot lesions at the appliance insertion visit. The mean of white spot lesions was 2.22 which were increased significantly during six months to reach 24.59 at the end of study. There was a significant difference between the maxillary and the mandibular arches, however, there was no significant difference found between the right and the left sides in both arches. The total numbers of teeth affected by white spot lesions were 74.61% after six months of treatment. Maxillary second premolar and mandibular canine were the most affected teeth; whereas the gingival area around the orthodontic brackets was the most affected area. Conclusion:-Orthodontic patients had a high risk for development of white spot lesions


Article
Buccal Cortical Bone Thickness in Iraqi Arab Adults by Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Orthodontic Mini-Implants

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Cortical bone thickness is important for the stability of mini implants. Placing mini implants in sites of favorable cortical bone thickness would guarantee better initial stability and long-term success. The aim of this study was to investigate gender, side and jaw differences of the buccal cortical bone thickness as a guide for orthodontic mini screw placement. Materials and Methods: The sample was selected from the patients attending the Specialized Health Center in Al-Sadr City / 3D department. Thirty patients (15 males and 15 females) were selected and cone beam computerized tomographic images were done. Then the buccal cortical bone thickness was measured at thirteen inter radicular sites in the maxilla and mandible from the mesial side of the second molar to the mesial side of the second molar on the other side. The resulting data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test on SPSS program. Results: The buccal cortical bone thickness of the males was more than the females for both jaws. The mandibular buccal cortical bone thickness was thicker than in the maxillary and in the anterior region was thinner than in the posterior region for each jaw. The thickness of the buccal cortical bone was generally greater on the left side


Article
Dental Caries Experience and Salivary Elements Among A Group of Young Adults In Relation to Age and Gender

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Dental caries is a most common social and intractable infectious disease in human. Saliva is critical for preserving and maintaining oral health and salivary elements had many effects on caries experience. Aim of study: This study was conducted to assess dental caries severity by age and gender and their relation to salivary zinc and copper among a group of adults aged (19-22) years. Materials and methods: After examination eighty persons aged 19-22 years of both gender. Caries severity was documented according to DMFS index. Stimulated salivary samples were collected and chemically analyzed under standardized condition to detect salivary elements zinc and copper. Concentrations of Zinc and copper were measured by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: The finding revealed that the total males had higher mean value of DMFS and DS fraction than that of the total females with statistically non-significant differences at p> 0.05 regarding of DMFS, while significant difference was found regarding DS fraction. Frist age group (19-20) had a lower mean value of DMFS than that of the second age group (21-22), while it had a higher mean value of DS fraction with statistically non-significant differences. There were statistically non-significant differences at p> 0.05 between males and females regarding salivary zinc and copper concentrations.Non-significant positive weak correlation between DMFS index and salivary zinc and copper. Conclusion: Saliva is the one of important factors in prevention of dental caries. Therefore, chemical changes in salivary composition play an important role in development and progression of caries


Article
Assessment of Different Techniques to Detect Recurrent Carious Lesion Around Amalgam Filling

Authors: Noor M. Kadhim --- Ban A. Salih
Pages: 193-198
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: This in-vitro study was to evaluated bitewing radiograph and tactile examination for detection secondary caries adjacent to amalgam restorations. Material and method: Sixty primary extracted molars with class I and class II amalgam restorations were selected from children, and examined by bitewing radiographs were taken by using film holders and interpreted on a backlit screen without magnification. Then, we used tactile examination with blunt probe. Result: The result of this study showed that the best cut-off points for the sample were found by a Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis, and the area under the ROC curve and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the techniques were calculated for enamel (D1) and dentine (D2) thresholds. These parameters were found for each techniques and then compared by the Cochran's Q test. The tactile examination presented the fair techniques for detecting secondary caries at enamel thresholds for both occlusal and proximal surfaces, While, bitewing radiograph presented good techniques at dentin thresholds. Conclusion: Tactile examination represented the best performance for detecting enamel secondary caries. While, bitewing radiograph represented the best performance for detecting dentin secondary caries

Table of content: volume:29 issue:1