Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2017 volume:29 issue:2

Article
Effects of Two Different Colorant Solutions on the Color Stability of Bleached Enamel in Association with CPPACPF: An In Vitro Study

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Background: One of the drawbacks of vital teeth bleaching is color stability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of tea and tomato sauce on the color stability of bleached enamel in association with the application of MI Paste Plus (CPP-ACPF). Materials and Methods: Sixty enamel samples were bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide for two weeks then divided into three groups (A, B and C) of 20 samples each. After bleaching, the samples of each group were subdivided into two subgroups (n=10). While subgroups A1, B1 and C1 were kept in distilled water, A2, B2, and C2 were treated with MI Paste Plus. Then, the samples were immersed in different solutions as follow: A1 and A2 in distilled water (control); B1 and B2 in black tea; and C1 and C2 in tomato sauce for half an hour/day for seven days. Using a colorimeter, Teeth color measurements were recorded at baseline, after bleaching, staining, and polishing. Color changes were recorded according to the Vita shade guide and the CIE Lab system. Student's t-test was used to analyze differences between the subgroups at p<0.05. Results: Significant color changes were recorded for the tea group after staining, but not after polishing (p<0.05). No significant differences in color measurements were recorded between the subgroups of each group at all periods (p>0.05). Conclusion: Only tea produced clinically perceivable color change of bleached enamel after staining as well as after polishing. MI Paste Plus did not affect enamel color change for all the groups.


Article
Marginal Discrepancy and Fracture Resistance of CAD/CAM Ceramill Sintron Metal Copings with Different Porcelain Materials

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Background: This study was performed to compare the marginal fit changes and facture resistance of metal ceramic crowns constructed from Ceramill Sintron metal coping veneered with three different porcelain veneering materials (Vita Master Koromikos VMK, Willi Geller Creation CC and GC initial MC), also to evaluate the influence of thermocycling on load at fracture. Materials and Methods: Master brass die was scanned ,then metal coping was designed and milled from Ceramill Sintron blank to get 60 metal copings, then divided randomly into three groups(20 sample), then veneered with porcelain: VITA, Creation or GC. The marginal gaps were measured before and after porcelain veneering then marginal fit changes was calculated. Fracture resistance test was done by Instron®, the master die was duplicated to sixty analogs then each analog was fixed into acrylic base. After that each crown was cemented onto the corresponding die analog. Ten samples of each group were subjected to compressive loading to fracture and other ten subjected to thermocycling followed by compressive loading to fracture. Result and Conclusion: The result of marginal fit changes showed that GC group had the lowest marginal gap follow by VITA and Creation. While VITA group showed the highest fracture resistance follows by GC then Creation. Thermocycling process did not significantly reduce the load at fracture for all groups


Article
The Effect of Different Light Cure Systems on Microhardness of Bulk Fill Composite Materials

Authors: Linz A. Shalan --- Samer Awn Thiab
Pages: 13-20
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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three types of light curing devices QTH, LED and Flashmax on the surface microhardness of three types of bulkfill composite resins; Filtek Bulkfill posterior composite ( 3M), Tetric Evo Ceram ( Ivoclar Vivadent) and Sonicfill composite ( Kerr) Materials and methods: Total number of 90 samples was prepared, 30 samples for each type of bulkfill composite, were divided into three main groups, group A: Filtek posterior bulkfil (3M), group B: Tetric Evo Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent) and group C: contain Sonicfill composite (kerr). Which then divided into three subgroups (n= 10) (1) Samples cured by QTH system (2) Samples cured by LED system and (3) samples cured by Flashmax system then all samples were subjected for microhardness test (by Vickers hardness tester). The data were recorded and statistically analyzed, by the ANOVA and the Tukey test. Results: the data was subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Tukey test, the result revealed that there was a high significant difference among the tested units with LED had high VHN values followed by QTH while Flashmax had lowest VHN values, also there was high significant difference among the tested materials in which Sonicfill composite had higher VHN value followed by Tetric EvoCeram while Filtek bulkfill posterior composite had the lowest VHN. Conclusions: microhardness of the composite resin materials depend upon energy of the curing device, time of exposure, composition of the composite material


Article
Evaluation of the effect of preheating on micro leakage of Class II composites Restoration (A comparative in vitro study)

Authors: Wasan M. Hasson --- Zainab M. AbdulAmeer
Pages: 21-25
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Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of preheating microleakage among three different filler size composites which include Filtektm Z250 micro hybrid, Z250xt Nano hybrid and nanocomposite Z350xt. in Class II cavity preparation . Materials and methods: sixty maxillary first premolars were prepared with class II cavities. Samples were divided into three groups according to material used group A (FiltekZ250 micro hybrid). Group B(Z250xt Nano hybrid). Group C (nanocomposite Z350xt)and each group divided into two subgroups of ten teeth according to temperature of composite: Group A1 Teeth are restored by composite at room temperature(24±1˚C), A2 Teeth are restored by same composite at preheated temperature(54±1˚C). After 24 hrs. immersion in 2% in methylene blue, samples were sectioned and micro leakage was estimated. Results: The greater scores of micro leakage mentioned in Group A( Z250 micro hybrid) in cervical margin while in Group B( Z250xt Nano hybrid) and Group C (Z350xt nanocomposite) have least score of micro leakage especially in occlusal margin. Conclusions: The scores of micro leakage for all groups varied with different material, margin and temperature. Generally, preheating decreased micro leakage in all groups of composites ,but Preheating decreased micro leakage effectively in Z250 micro hybrid more than Z250xt Nano hybrid and Z350xt nanocomposite micro leakage


Article
Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Premolar Teeth with Extensive MOD Cavities Restored with Different Bulk Fill Composite Restorations (An In vitro Study)

Authors: Bilal H. Ibrahim --- Haitham J. Al-Azzawi
Pages: 26-32
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Background: The present in-vitro study was undertaken to evaluate and compare fracture resistance of weakened endodontically treated premolars with class II MOD cavities restored with different bulk fill composite restorations (EverX posterior, Alert, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, and SDR). The type and mode of fracture were also assessed for all the experimental groups. Materials and Method: Forty-eight human adult maxillary premolar teeth were selected for this study. Standardized extensive class II MOD cavities with endodontic treatment were prepared for all teeth, except those that were saved as intact control. The teeth were divided into six groups of eight teeth each (n=8): (Group 1) intact control group, (Group 2) unrestored teeth with endodontic treatment, (Group 3) restored with (TetricEvoCeram Bulk Fill), (Group 4) restored with SDR bulk-fill flowable composite, (Group 5) restored with EverX Posterior composite and (Group 6) restored with Alert composite. . All specimens were subjected to compressive axial loading until fracture in a universal testing machine. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and LSD test. Macroscopic fracture type were observed and classified into favorable and unfavorable. Specimens in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were examined by stereomicroscope at a magnification of 20× to evaluate the mode of failure into adhesive, cohesive or mixed. Results: The mean fracture load was (1.2505Kn) for group 1, (0.371Kn) for group 2, (0.512 Kn) for group 3, (0.6435 Kn) for group 4, (0.608 Kn) for group 5, and (0.8315) for group 6. Using one way ANOVA test a highly significant difference (P < 0.01) were found among all groups. The use of Alert composite (which contain micro glass fiber) improved the fracture resistance significantly in comparison to other groups. SDR bulk-fill flowable composite showed better improvement in fracture resistance but with no significant differences in comparison to EverX composite restoration (which contain Short E-glass fiber filler). The type of failure was unfavorable for all the restored groups. Conclusion: All experimental composite restorations showed significant improvement in the resistance to cuspal fracture in comparison to unrestored one (group 2). However, under the conditions of this study, direct composite restorations should be considered as a valid interim restoration for weakened endodontically treated teeth before cuspal coverage can be provided


Article
A Comparison of Vertical Marginal Fit of different Brands of Translucent Zirconia Crown Restorations

Authors: Sattar J. Abdul-Zahra Al Hmedat
Pages: 33-41
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Background: As the development of zirconia crown using CAD/CAM technology, the usage of full zirconia crown is gradually increased. The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate and contrast the vertical marginal fit of single allceramic translucent zirconia crowns constructed from different brands translucent zirconia blanks. Materials and Methods: An acrylic resin model of a left maxillary premolar was prepared all around the tooth with (1 mm) depth and 3D scanning to get fifteen STL files, then distributed into three groups (Imes-icor, Whitepeaks and Dental direct), 3D scanning and milling machine by Imes-icor CAD/CAM devise. Marginal gaps along vertical planes were measured at four indentations at the (mid mesial, mid distal, mid buccal, mid palatal) using a light microscope at a magnification of x100. One-way ANOVA, LSD tests were performed to determine the mean and standard deviation of the three blanks groups. Results: Statistically high significant difference (p < 0.00) was found between the groups. The marginal gap value of the groups varied Whitepeaks crowns was (105.42 ± 7) μm, which was significantly higher than the two overall mean marginal gap measured for the Imes-icor crowns (59.3 ± 4) μm and Dental direct crowns (54.5 ± 4.9) μm, the Dental direct which was lowers overall mean vertical gap measurement. Conclusions: The marginal gap values of Dental direct crowns is considerably lower than that of Whitepeaks crown, The marginal gap values of all the groups made of monolithic high translucent Y-TZP demonstrated acceptable marginal gaps values.


Article
Mechanical evaluation of nano hydroxyapatite, chitosan and collagen composite coating compared with nano hydroxyapatite coating on commercially pure titanium dental implants

Authors: Sabreen W. Ibrahim --- Widad A. Al Nakkash
Pages: 42-48
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Background: Dental implants act as infrastructure for fixed restoration to look like as a natural tooth. Osseointegration is a biological events and considered as a base for success of dental implant. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bond strength between bone and Ti implant coated with mixture of nano hydroxyapatite-chitosancollagen compared with Ti implants coated with nano hydroxyapatite implanted in rabbit tibia, after different period of implantation time (two and six weeks) by torque removal test. Material and methods: 36 screws of commercially pure titanium; 8mm in length and 3mm diameter , 18 screws coated with mixture of nano hydroxyapatite-chitosan-collagen and18 screws coated with nano hydroxyapatite by dip coating. Structural characteristics was assessed by scanning electron microscope, and FTIR analysis. The screws were implanted in 18 healthy adult male New Zeeland rabbits each tibia received one screw, right tibia received screw coated with nano hydroxyapatite while left tibia received screw coated nano hydroxyapatite-chitosancollagen composite. Removal torque test was done by torque meter to determine the highest torque value necessary to remove the implants from tibia bone after different period of time of implantation(2 and 6 weeks). Result: Nano hydroxyapatite-chitosan-collagen composite coating was resulting in higher torque removal value than nano hydroxyapatite coating for two periods of time. Conclusion: Concluded that addition of collagen and chitosan to nano hydroxyapatite was more efficient in rapid bone formation than nano hydroxyapatite only


Article
Effect of modified nanohydroxyapatite fillers addition on some properties of heat cured acrylic denture base materials

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Background: Poly (methylmethacrylate) is not ideal in every aspect and has disadvantages such as insufficient surface hardness, increase water sorption and poor impact resistance and the latter being the primary cause of fracture of denture base resins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of silanized nanohydroxyapatite (HA) on some properties of heat cured acrylic denture base material. Materials and methods: HA nano particles were first silanized with MPS (tri methacryloxypropyletrimethoxy silane coupling agent) then ultrasonicated with methylmethacrylate (monomer) to disperse agglomerated nano particles and mixed with polymer. 2% by wt of HA nano particles was selected as the best concentration that added to the denture base material according to the pilot study.(100) specimens were prepared by conventional water bath processing technique and divided to two groups: 50 specimens for control group or 0% HA and 50 for experimental group or 2% HA then each group was subdivided to five groups with 10 specimens for each test: impact strength, transverse strength, surface hardness, surface roughness, water sorption and water solubility. Results: highly significant increase in impact strength and surface hardness after addition of 2% HA nano particles but not significant decrease in water sorption whereas solubility was significantly decreased. Surface roughness was significantly increased as compared with control group but remained within the acceptable limit less than 2m. HA nanoparticles addition highly decreased the transverse strength value. Conclusion The addition of 2% HA nano particles considerably improved the impact strength, surface hardness and had positive effect on water sorption and solubility. Whereas the same concentration tend to highly decreased transverse strength and increase surface roughness


Article
The Value Of 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging In Assessment Of Clinically Diagnosed Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

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Background: Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) is a general term that describe a wide variety of conditions that include myogenic pain, internalderangement, arthritic problem, ankylosis of the joint and growth disorders. The aims of study was to evaluate the value of 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in assessment of articular disc position and configuration in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders and to evaluate the correlations of these MRI findings with the clinical signs and symptoms. Materials and methods: A total forty six (30 study and 16 control) participants aged between18 and 49 years, were examined according to Helkimo anamnestic index (questionnaire for anamnesis) and clinical dysfunction index scoring criteria which include clinical examinations of the range of mandibular mobility, impaired TMJ function, muscle pain ,TMJ pain and pain during mandibular movement. Results: There is statistically high significant difference between Helkimo anamnestic and clinical dysfunction indices in the cases group (with temporomandibular joint disorders) and controls group with MRI findings of disc position and disc configuration, that as the severity of indices increased, there were progression of disc displacement and disc deformity score and shows positive association expressed by significant probability (p) value. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between Helkimos’ anamnestic and clinical dysfunction indices and MRI findings in patients with internal derangement of temporomandibular joint

Keywords

TMJ --- Helkimo indices --- 3 T MRI


Article
Assessment Of Vascular And Lymphatic Vessels Density In Benign Vascular Lesions Using CD34 And D2-40 Immunohistochemical Markers

Authors: Jawaher M. Tater --- Bashar H. Abdullah
Pages: 61-64
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Background: Vascular tumors and malformations, comprising a broad category of lesions often referred to as vascular anomalies. Hemangioma, represents a variety of vascular lesions (both malformations and tumor), while lobular capillary hemangioma is a common vascular lesion of the skin and mucous membranes that occurs mainly in children and young adults. Lymphangiomas are malformations of the lymphatic system. At the level of light microscopy the small lymphatics vessels may be similar to capillaries and sometimes are only tentatively identified by the nature of their contents or by immunohistochemical staining procedure. This study aimed to assess the vascular and lymphatic vessels density in benign vascular lesions using CD34 and D2-40 immunohistochemical markers. Materials and Methods: Twenty two formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of Hemangioma/vascular malformation, thirty of lobular capillary hemangioma and another twenty of lymphangioma. Results: Lymphatic vessel density expressed by D2-40 immunomarker was found in all cases with mean (24.01±14.74) in lymphangioma ,for lobular capillary hemangioma it was (12.67±6.66) and for hemangioma was (9.77±6.82) where as the mean of microvessel density count measured by CD34 immunomarker was (49.87±31.97) for lobular capillary hemangioma , in hemangioma it was (37.42±23.40) and (25.90±12.23 ) for lymphangioma. Conclusions: All vascular lesions are a mixture of blood and lymphatic vessels with different proportions, hemangioma shows high percentage of blood vessels and lymphangioma shows high percentage of lymphatic vessels.


Article
Oral Health Status, Salivary MMP-8& Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor (SLPI) Among Uncontrolled Type-I Diabetes Mellitus In Iraqi Patients

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Back ground: diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that results in deficiency or absence of insulin production. The dental caries and gingivitis/periodontitis are widespread chronic diseases in diabetes. The aim of the present study was determined the salivary matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8), Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor (SLPI) and oral health status among uncontrolled diabetic group in comparison with healthy control group. Materials and Methods: The total sample composed of 90 adults aged (18-35) years. Divided into 60 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c >7%) and 30 healthy control group. Unstimulated saliva was collected from each subject with type-I DM, BMI, duration of diabetes, HbA1c%, DMFT, gingival index (GI) and periodontal disease index were recorded during clinical visit. Level of salivary MMP-8 and SLPI was measured by using ELISA immunoassay analysis. Results: The DMFT was highly significant higher among type-I DM group than control group (p<0.001),GI and pocket depthwas significant difference (p=0.002, p<0.001 respectively) between two groups except the attachment loss with no significant difference (p=0.06). The Salivary MMP-8 was elevated, whereas SLPI was lowered in individuals with type I diabetes mellitus in comparison to the healthy controls, but statistically was non-significant. Analysis among uncontrolled diabetic patients revealed that the HbA1c% correlate positively significant with salivary MMP-8 (r=0.321, p=0.012), SLPI (r=0.276, P=0.033) andattachment loss (r=0.353, p=0.006); however the correlation between MMP-8 & SLPIwas a significant in negative direction (r=-0.395, p=0.002). Conclusion:The DMFT, pocket depth and gingival index was higher in uncontrolled diabetes group. HbA1c% was positively correlation withMMP-8, SLPI and attachment loss in uncontrolled diabetic group. Salivary SLPI associated inversely with significant correlation with salivary MMP-8


Article
Comparison Of Oral Health Status And Behaviorbetween First And Fifth Years Of Al-Mustansiriyah Dental Students

Authors: Athraa A. Mahmood
Pages: 71-77
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Background:Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common oral diseases, but they can be adequately prevented by adopting a specific health behavior and plaque control.The study was carried out to determine and compare oral health status; it included both caries experience, gingival health and oral hygiene behavior betweenfirst and fifth yearsof Al-Mustansiriyahdental students. Materials and methods: Total sample of the study consisted of 50 students at first year (25 males, 25 females)and 60 students at fifth year (30 males, 30 females). Plaque andgingival indices,dental caries indices (DMFS and DMFT) wererecorded to evaluateoral health status for each student. Further questionnaires were given to evaluate different oral hygiene habits. Results: The mean values of plaque and gingival indicesin the first year were higher than fifth year for males and females with highly significant difference at (P ≤0.01);whereas the mean values of plaque index were (1.17, 0.83 for males of first and fifth years respectively and 1.02, 0.47 for femaleof first and fifth years respectively)and the mean values of gingival index were(0.89, 0.51 for males of first and fifth years respectively and 0.78, 0.31 for femalesof first and fifth years respectively). As well as, the mean of (DMFS and DMFT) were showed higher values among females than maleswhere (8.88, 6.48 for males and 10.16, 7.08 for females)in first year, while(11.90, 8.73for males and 13.33, 9.16 for females) infifth year. The percentagesof tooth brushing, mouthwash, dental floss, and tooth picks usingfor fifthyear students were higher than first year students. Conclusion: Differences of oral health statusand behavior rates between first and finalyearsstudents can be attributed to low level of dental education infirst year studentswhoseneed the improvements of oral hygiene education in futurewhich include the importance of proper tooth brushing and using of interdental aids to prevent the periodontal diseases and dental caries


Article
Anti-Microbial Effect Of Different Time’sexposureofozonized Gas And Ozonized Water Onperiodontalpathogens (In Vitro Study)

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Background: the oral cavity is consider to be an open ecosystem, with the balance between the microorganism’s entrance and the defenses of the host. The initiation of periodontitis has been associated with restricted kinds of anaerobic bacteria, such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g) in plaque subgingivally. Ozone has a biological effects on bacteria due to oxidation of bio-molecules and its toxins. The aim is to determine and compare the antimicrobial effect of gaseous ozone and ozonized water on the growth of isolated anaerobic bacteria (A.a and P.g) when exposed to different time intervals. Materials and methods:This experiment is done byozone generator OLYMPIC- III(600mg/hr) to generator the gaseous ozone (218ppm/W-air)which bypassed around the agar plates containing on of the isolated bacteria with different time intervals (1-10 minutes).And with special aeration stone for generation of ozonized water (0.6 ppm) with different time intervals (1-15 minutes). Results: Gaseousozone have a significant reduction in the bacterial growth on the agar plates for (A.a) was 7 minutes and (P.g) was 4 minutes. While ozonated water have also a significant reduction in the bacterial growth on the agar plates for (A.a) was 5 minutes and (P.g) was 4 minutes. Conclusion: Bothgaseousozone and ozonized water are a powerful antimicrobialeffects on anaerobic microorganism isolated from chronic periodontitis patients


Article
Evaluation of Stainless Steel Intermaxillary Fixation Screws in Treatment of Favorable Mandibular Fractures

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Background: Numerous methods have been described for achievement of Intermaxillary fixation in the treatment of fractures of facial skeleton. Conventional methods like Erich arch bars and eyelet wires are currently the most common methods for achieving intermaxillary fixation (IMF), however, they have their own disadvantages. Since 1989, IMF using intraoral self-tapping IMF screws has been introduced for treatment of mandibular fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, advantages, disadvantages and potential complications associated with using of selftapping IMF screws in the treatment of mandibular fractures. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with favorable mandibular fractures, attended to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery unit, AL-yarmuk Teaching Hospital between November 2014 and October 2015, they were treated with IMF screws. The parameters considered were duration of the procedure, perforations in the gloves, patient acceptance, oral hygiene, iatrogenic dental injuries, mouth opening, healing outcome, occlusal discrepancy and needle stick injuries during IMF. Results: The patients included in this study were 20 (17 males and 3 females). The extremes of age in this study ranged from 12 to 37 years. Three patients had 2 fracture lines. Assault was the most common cause of fractures. The most common site of fracture was the body and parasymphysis regions. Two screws (2.5%) from 80 screws became loosened. One patient (5%) ended with malunion and malocclusion. One patient (5%) developed infection at screw site. Three patients (15%) developed screws soft tissue burying. Conclusion: IMF screws considered to be a useful modality of treatment to establish maxillomandibular fixation. It is safe, and time-sparing technique; however, it is not without limitations or potential consequences in which the surgeon must be aware of in order to provide safe and effective treatment


Article
The effect of nano-hydroxy apatite on re-mineralize white spot lesions prior to orthodontic adhesive removal by different techniques (An In vitro comparative study)

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Background: White-spot lesion is one of the problems associated with the fixed orthodontic treatment. The aims of this in-vitro study were to investigate enamel damage depth on adhesive removal when the adhesive were surrounded by sound, demineralized or demineralized enamel that had been re-mineralized prior to adhesive removal using 10% Nano-Hydroxy apatite and to determine the effect of three different adhesive removal techniques. Materials and methods: Composite resin adhesive (3M Unitek) was bonded to 60 human upper premolars teeth which were randomly divided in to three groups each containing ten sound teeth and ten teeth with demineralized and re-mineralized lesions adjacent to the adhesive. A window of 2 mm was prepared on the buccal surface of the tooth and painted with an acid resistant nail varnish except for the window.The demineralized enamel produced by immersion of teeth in demineralization buffer for 12 days.half of the demineralized window, was covered with acid – resistant red nail varnish, and the samples were then subjected to re-mineralization with 10% of nano hydroxyapatite. The adhesive was removed with either :(1) fiber reinforced composite bur in slow speed handpiece (SS); (2)12 fluted long flame carbide bur in high speed handpiece (HS); (3) ultrasonic scaler (US).damage to the enamel was assessed using stereomicroscope with grid eye piece. Results: the greatest to least mean depth of damage with three different adhesive removal techniques to sound enamel was HS˃ US ˃SS and to demineralized and re-mineralized enamel were SS ˃US˃ HS. Sound enamel had the least amount of damage. Re mineralization before the adhesive removal highly significant reduced the amount of damage produced by all techniques compared with demineralized enamel. Conclusions: When the demineralized enamel was present 12 fluted long flame carbide bur were found to be the least damage in adhesive removal technique and re-mineralization further reduced the amount of enamel damage


Article
Discoloration of Stretched Clear Elastomeric Chains by Dietary Media (An in vitro study)

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Background: With the increasing demand on esthetic orthodontic appliances, discoloration of clear elastomeric chains and modules remains an issue which concerns both orthodontics and patients. This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of exposing stretched clear elastomeric chains from six different companies (Ortho Technology, Ormco, Ortho Organizer, American Orthodontics, Opal and G&H companies) to three types of dietary media (tea, coffee and turmeric). Materials and methods: A total of 960 lengths of six modules were cut from short type elastomeric chain; 160 pieces from each brand. The specimens were stretched 50%, placed on plastic boards, and incubated in water at 37°C for 1 day, 7 days, 14 days and 28 days. Once a day, the specimens were immersed for ten minutes in the testing dietary media, washed and then returned back to the water container. Color measurements were made before and after incubation of the specimens. Digital image were taken by an SLR digital camera and the color changes were calculated according to CIE L*a*b* color space system by Adobe Photoshop program. The resulting data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and LSD tests. Result: Elastomeric chains from AO, Opal and G&H companies were the most brands prone to discoloration. Ortho Organizers and Ortho Technology chains were the least prone to discoloration. Tea, coffee and turmeric solutions discolored elastomeric chains from all companies in a variable degree, however turmeric caused significantly more discoloration, followed by tea and least by coffee. The amount of discoloration caused by tea and coffee increases gradually to peak at 28 days, while most of the discoloration caused by turmeric was in the first day and reached a plateau in a week. Conclusion: To decrease the discoloration of clear elastomeric chains the consumption of colored dietary media especially spices like turmeric are to be discouraged


Article
Assessment of mandibular third molar position by using computed tomography and reconstructed lateral radiograph

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Background: Consideration of mandibular third molar is important from orthodontic perspective due to several factors such as, lower anterior arch crowding, relapse in lower anterior region, interference with uprighting of mandibular first and second molars during anchorage preparation and molar distalization. The aims of this study were to assess of gender differences in the mandibular third molar position and compare and evaluate whether there is any differences in the results provided by CT scan and lateral reconstructed radiograph. Materials and Methods: The sample of present study consisted of 39 patients (18 males and 21 females) with age range 11-15 years. CT images for patients who were attending at Al Suwayra General Hospital/the Computerized Tomography department. Computed tomographic images were obtained for The distance from Xi point to distal surface of permanent mandibular second molar was measured in both three dimensional volumetric images and two dimensional CT derived lateral image. The statistical analyses included: means, standard deviations. Paired t-test was used to compare between the two methods and independent t-test was used in verifying the genders difference. Results: The results showed that there was high significant method difference between 3D CT and 2D image and gender differences was observed in values of linear measurements of present study, as males showed higher mean values than females. Conclusion: There is high accuracy of measurement on CT images, so CT scan is advisable during the diagnosis and treatment plan of orthodontic cases


Article
Dental caries and treatment needs in relation to nutritional status among children with congenital heart disease

Authors: Marwa Jamal Al-Haidary --- Nada J. Radhi
Pages: 108-114
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Background: Congenital heart disease is one of the most common developmental anomalies in children. These patients commonly have poor oral health that increase caries risk. Dental management of children with congenital heart disease requires special attention, because of their heightened susceptibility to infectious endocarditis. The aims of this study were to assess the severity of dental caries of primary and permanent teeth and treatment needs in relation to nutritional indicator (Body Mass Index) among children with congenital heart disease. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, case group consisted of 399 patients aged between 6-12 years old with congenital heart disease were examined for dental status in Ibn Al-Bitar specialized center for cardiac surgery in Baghdad/Iraq. A case-matched group (healthy control) of 485 children was also examined from primary schools in Baghdad city. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries and treatment needs were recorded according to the criteria of WHO (1997). The assessment of nutritional status (BMI) was performed following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart (2000). All data were analyzed using IBMSPSS version 23. Results: Results recorded the highest mean rank value of (DMFS)and (dmfs) were among CHD cases than control group with statistically high significant difference. Results revealed the mean rank values of (ds, ms, fs and dmfs) were higher at age group 6-7 years among CHD cases, while the mean rank values of (DS, MS, FS and DMFS) were higher at age group 12 years with statistically high significant difference among age group. The mean rank values of all types of treatment needs were recorded to be higher among CHD cases than control group, except for children no treatment needs, these differences were statistically highly significant. Also this study found that the mean rank values of caries experience (ds, ms, fs and dmfs) were higher among wasted than well nourished CHD cases with statistically highly significant for dmfs. Moreover, the mean rank values of all types of treatment need required were higher among wasted CHD cases than well nourished; however, the differences were statistical highly significant. Conclusion: The study revealed that these children are “at risk” from dental disease and malnourished, the primary focus should be on oral hygiene instructions, the awareness of infective endocarditis and they required a development of preventive programs.


Article
Dental caries severity in relation to selected salivary variables among a group of pregnant women in Baghdad city/Iraq

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Abstract

Background: During pregnancy many physiological, anatomical and biochemical changes take place that affect almost all body systems. In the oral pregnant women have serious changes such as more sever dental caries. This study was conducted to measure dental caries severity and selected salivary variables (salivary flow rate, PH and viscosity)and to find the relation of dental caries with these salivary variables. Subjects, materials and methods: The study group consisted of 60 pregnant women that were divided into three equal groups according to trimester (20 pregnant women in each trimester).They were selected randomly from the Maternal and Child Health Care Centers in Baghdad city, the age range was 20-25 years. In addition to 20 unmarried women as a control group and matched with age. Stimulated salivary samples were collected .Then salivary flow rate, pH and viscosity were measured. Dental caries severity was recorded by using Decay, Missing and Filled index (D1-4MFS) using the criteria described by Manjie et al, (1989). Plaque index system by Silness and Löe, (1964) was used for measuring dental plaque thickness. For measuring dental calculus the calculus index component of the periodontal diseases index (PDI) by Ramfjord (1959) was used. Results: Results of the current study revealed that dental caries parameter represented by (DMFT ,DMFS,DS and MS) were higher among pregnant than non –pregnant women with significant differences (p<0.05) for DMFT,DMFS and DS also all grades of lesion severity(D1-4)were higher among pregnant than non –pregnant women with nonsignificant differences(p>0.05).Almost all dental caries parameter were higher in the 2nd trimesters with highly significant difference (p<0.01) for D1,DS ,DMFS and DMFT among four groups . Concerning oral cleanliness both plaque and calculus indices recorded higher values among pregnant than nonpregnant with highly significant difference for both (p<0.01). Values were higher during 2nd trimester with high significant and non-significant differences among four groups .Regarding the relations of dental caries with oral cleanliness ,it was found that all dental caries parameters recorded positive correlations with both plaque and calculus indices with significant and highly significant relations Regarding salivary variables ,results revealed that salivary flow rate was higher among pregnant (especially in the 2nd trimester)than non-pregnant women but with non-significant difference (p>0.05).On the other hand salivary PH value was lower among pregnant than nonpregnant women with highly significant difference (p<0.01)among them. Salivary PH was lowest in the 2nd trimester with highly significant difference (p<0.01) among four groups .Also Salivary viscosity was higher among pregnant than non-pregnant women with highly significant difference (p<0.01) and it recorded higher mean value in the 3rd trimester with highly significant difference among four groups (p<0.01). Salivary PH recorded inverse relation with almost all dental caries parameters with significant relations with D4, MS and highly significant relations with DS,DMFS and DMFT ,while salivary flow rate and salivary viscosity revealed non-significant relations with dental caries parameters (p>0.05). Conclusion: Dental caries severity was higher among pregnant women probably due to the effect of pregnancy itself on oral hygiene (higher plaque and calculus indices) and salivary variables (increased salivary acidity and viscosity).Therefore, intensive education and preventive programs should be directed for pregnant women

Table of content: volume:29 issue:2