Table of content

Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies

مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية

ISSN: 22205381
Publisher: Ministry of Oil
Faculty:
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The first issue of "Journal of petroleum Research and studies" was in August 2010.
How to publish .
After getting the demanded approval from the assessors on the Research , the Research will be ready to publish in the journal .
The journal is publishing annually.

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Contact info

prdc_journal@prdc.gov.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume: issue:14

Article
تحسين قابلية الخرسانة على العزل الحراري في درجاتالحرارة العالية بأضافة مواد نانوية

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Abstract

يتضمن هذا البحث دراسة عملية لمدى تأثير اضافة مواد نانوية ( غبار السيلكا النانويوالميتاكاؤولين النانوي) على قابلية الخرسانة للعزل الحراري في درجات الحرارة العالية مع تحسين الخواص الميكانيكية للخرسانة بأضافة تلك المواد النانوية ، اي الحصول على خرسانة ذات قابلية جيدة في العزل الحراري مع خواص ميكانيكية جيدة وهو نوع جديد من الخرسانة يختلف عن الخرسانة الخفيفة الوزن او الخرسانة التقليدية وبذلك يمكن الاستفادة من التحسينات التي تحدثها المواد النانوية على الخرسانة والمونة السمنية من ناحية العزل الحراري في المنشآت الحرارية والافران والمراجل من أجل الحصول على مواد عازلة جديدة ويمكن للقطاع النفطي والصناعي الاستفادة منها. تم في هذا البحث اضافة المواد النانوية الى الخرسانة بنسب وزنية مختلفة من وزن السمنت كما تم استخدام ملدن فائق لغرض المحافظة على قابلية تشغيل جيدة مع عدم تغيير المحتوى المائي للخلطات الخرسانية مع اضافة نسبة من الياف الكاربون المقطع ، تم أجراء فحص مقاومة الانضغاط ومعاير الكسر لمكعبات ومواشير الخرسانة النانوية قبل وبعد تعرضها لدرجات حرارة مختلفة تراوحت بين ( 25 – 750 درجة مئوية ) ولمدة ساعتين لبيان تأثير درجات الحرارة العالية على الخواص الميكانيكية للخرسانة النانوية . كما تم ايجاد معامل التوصيل الحراري للخرسانة النانوية المسلحة بمشبك الياف الزجاج (مشبك تسليح) (Fiberglass mesh) حيث اظهرت النتائج بصورة عامة تحسن كبير في قابلية الخرسانة على العزل الحراري .


Article
The impact of closed perforation zones and damaged sections on flow dynamics and pressure behaviors of horizontal wells

Authors: Salam Al Rbeawi
Pages: 1-28
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Abstract

Horizontal wells with multiple completion parts have become a common completion technique in the oil and gas industry. Sand and asphalt production problems, damaged zones and water cresting or gas coning are the main reasons for using this technique to sustain or improve oil and gas recovery. However, using such completion technique introduces negative effects on pressure behavior of horizontal wells. This paper introduces new mathematical models for horizontal well containing several closed completed sections acting in finite and infinite reservoirs. These models can be used to evaluate the impact of the completion techniques on both pressure behaviors and flow regimes either in the vicinity of wellbore or at the outer boundary of reservoirs. They can be used also to investigate the change in productivity index that would result due to the usage of certain type of completion technique. In this research, the completed sections (cemented or isolated parts) and the places where packers are installed are considered as no-flow sections. These sections are expected to increase pressure drop required for flowing reservoir fluid toward wellbore. They are also expected to change flow regimes mainly in the vicinity of wellbore. Several models have been developed and solved in this study for different completion techniques, wellbore conditions and reservoir configuration. It has been found that the great impact of completion techniques is observed on flow regimes that commonly develop in the drainage area close to wellbore. This impact shows similar trends to the skin factor. Several new flow regimes have been observed, one of them has been developed due to the existence of closed completed sections which is intermediate or second radial flow regime. This flow regime can be found for some cases of long wellbore having multi-short perforated sections. The study will introduce the mathematical models for known and newly developed flow regimes for horizontal well including the completion technique.


Article
معالجة العناصر الملوثة في التربة في مصفى الدورة

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Abstract

في هذا البحث تم دراسة امكانية إزالة بعض العناصر الثقيلة من التربة الملوثة بها كالرصاص , الفناديوم , النحاس , الزرنيخ , والقصدير , بعد غسل التربة الملوثة بالماء لمدة ثلاثة ايام , حيث كانت نسبة إزالة العناصر مقاربة إلى 30 %, ومن ثم استخدام طريقة استخلاص هذه العناصر باضافة المحلول المائي لملح(Na2EDTA) بتراكيز مختلفة (0.01 , 0.014 , 0.02 , 0.024 , 0.03 M)حيث وجد ان اعلى نسبة إزالة كانت لعنصر القصدير 89 % , الرصاص 82 % , النحاس 92 % , الزرنيخ 84 % , والفناديوم 94 % , خلال فترة 11 يوماً من المعالجة وعند دالة حامضية مستقرة على التعادل عند تركيز(0.03 M) من المحلول المائي لملح(Na2EDTA), والتي وصل عندها تركيز العناصر إلى مستوى اقل من الحد المسموح به في التربة حسب المحددات البيئية


Article
Removal of Benzene and Toluene from their Polluted Aqueous solutions by using Natural Adsorbent

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Abstract

Low cost activated carbon was produced from available consumed black tea with microwave technique and employed as an effective adsorbent for removal of benzene (Bz) and toluene (T) from water. The resulted activated carbon was characterized by utilizing dye (methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV)) adsorption procedures and several techniques such as Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Rays diffraction (XRD). Commercial activated carbon and filter sand as individual and blend samples were also subjected to adsorption of MB, MV, Bz, and T. All obtained results were tabulated and discussed after qualitative and quantitative determinations by applying ultraviolet- visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) for MB and MV dyes, and gas chromatography (GC) instrumentations for Bz and T.


Article
المحتويات الشمعية في النفوط الخاملحقول شركة نفط الشمال (وسط وشمال العراق) والعوامل المؤثرة عليها

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Abstract

اعتمد البحث الحالي على تحاليل مختبرية للنفط الخام في حقول شركة نفط الشمال وقد تم اختيار (20) حقلاً تتوفر فيها التحاليل المطلوبة , وقد توخينا دراسة اربعة محاور رئيسية هي :- 1- نسب الشمع في النفوط الخام لحقول شركة نفط الشمال ونشأته وتوزيعه الجغرافي . 2- العلاقة بين نسب الشمع والصخور المولدة ( نوعية المادة العضوية ونضوجها الحراري ) . 3- تأثير عمليات الهجرة والفصل الوزني على نسب الشمع . 4- تأثير عمليات التدني ( الالتهام البكتيري والغسل المائي والاكسدة الهوائية ) على نسب الشمع. وقد تم تحديد نسب الشمع للعصرين الثلاثي والطباشيري في النفوط الخام للحقول قيد البحث . ان المحتوى الشمعي قد يعكس تأثير نوع معين من المواد المصدرية , وقد تكون الشموع الواقية لأوراق النباتات الخضرية القارية هي الاسلاف الاساسية للشمع البارافيني المتواجد في النفوط الخام للحقول قيد الدراسة . ان نسب الشمع في النفط الخام للحقول قيد الدراسة وللعصرين الثلاثي والطباشيري تتراوح مابين ( 0.75%-6.00 %) . وان هذه النسب وبصورة عامة تقل من الشرق الى الغرب , ومن الشمال الشرقي باتجاه الجنوب والجنوب الغربي وصولا الى نهر دجلة . ان اختلافات نسب الشمع قد تكون ناتجة عن العوامل التالية : 1- الصخور المولدة ونضوجها الحراري . 2- الهجرة والفصل الوزني . 3- عمليات التدني ( الاكسدة الهوائية و الغسل المائي والالتهام البكتيري ) .

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Article
Increasing production of gasoline and diesel fuel in medium and small refineries to meet the needs of Iraqi market

Authors: Aed Jaber Imran --- Adnan Abdul jabbar
Pages: 46-57
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Abstract

Iraq is considered one of the countries exporters of oil in the world, but the output of motors fuels from the refined crude oil less than (45 wt %), which is associated with the lack of Iraqi refineries with secondary processes. Iraq consist of five big capacity crude oil refineries which include (atmospheric crude distillation, hydrotreating, catalytic reforming and isomerization) and produce high quality motors fuel, in addition five medium and five small in capacity crude oil refineries include only atmospheric crude distillation which produce low quality raw products (light and heavy naphtha, light gasoil and reduced crude). The total capacity of Iraqi oil in the last years changed from 28 to 35 million ton/year. Most of our refineries include old equipment, but in spite of the annual maintenance for these refineries the motor fuels products could not able to cover all the Iraqi requirements of motor fuels 27 million ton/year. In these refineries produce reduced crude (fuel oil) in large quantity and because of this, Iraq imports gasoline fuel (30 wt%) of its requirements and LPG (17 wt%) of its requirements. This situation impose on us to increase the output products quantity from the Iraqi crude oil by development the medium and small capacity refineries via installation thermal processes units instead of vacuum distillation units, by this actual research we will find that the deep of refinery will increase from 54 to 70 wt%, and production of motor fuel will change from 45 to 68 wt%. Purpose of the work: development of the flowchart which is applied in Iraqi small capacity refineries (1.3 – 1.4 million Ton/year) by installation thermal cracking units to produce maximum allowable yield and quality of motors fuels. This research depends on actual experiments which are done by me in Ufa state petroleum technological university on actual crude oil and reduced crude brought from Iraqi’s refineries from the oil fields Basrah (Zubair) and Kirkuk.


Article
Effect of Soil on Refinery Buried Cooling Water Pipe

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This work is focused to investigate soil parameters (resistivity, PH, sulfate, moisture) that affect the corrosive nature of soil toward the buried cooling water pipe carbon steel used to supply the water to refinery units and the work include on line survey of this unprotected pipe to measuring the potential at each unit of refinery to evaluate the pipe coating. The soil resistivity measuring at two depth (2&4) meter at many sites, it is found that the soil resistivity at the depth (2) meter (pipe depth) either slightly corrosive or moderately corrosive and other soil parameters were measured at summer and winter seasons, found they change seasonally. The average pipe potential at each unit of refinery is around (-410mV) and that is mean the carbon steel pipe coating is poor.


Article
Catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil by using the aerosol nanocatalysison new modification catalyst WO3/Si-Zr

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Abstract

Ukrainian scientists have formulated a new direction in the technology of gas-phase chemical processes – it was calledthe aerosol nanocatalysis(AnC).The purpose of this research is development of the theoretical foundations of technology aerosol nanocatalysis in the cracking of vacuum gas oil with the use of technology in aerosol nanocatalysis vibration layer of the catalyst system to obtain gasoline and diesel fraction The temperature in the new process is at 250Cº lower than in industrial cracking process , and the amount of catalyst is reduced to a concentration of 2.38 g/m3 reactor . the WO3/Si-Zr – catalyst at conditions of the new technology displayed higher than 99 % of selectivity of light products formation


Article
The Prediction of Future Oil Wells Production from Decline Curve Pattern

Authors: Dhorgham Skban Ibrahim
Pages: 80-95
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Abstract

The production decline analysis is a traditional method of identifying wells production pattern and predicting its performance and life based on real production data. The study of the application the production decline curves using one of the empirical models either the exponential, hyperbolic or the harmonic decline curves which occur often in the later life of production units has been done. Decline curve analysis applies oil production versus time plots to extrapolate an estimation of the future production rates for wells. Production data were plotted in different ways to identify a representative decline model. In this study, the historical data were provided from five oil wells of the 4th pay formation reservoir in Zubair field in southern Iraq (Basrah region). These data were used to estimate the total future recovery of petroleum and the end of a productive life to the economic limit. The relationships between production rate, time, and cumulative production for each well were studied. The production data points for each well were analyzed separately to evaluate the effect of the change in the production and reservoir conditions on the remaining reserves. The typical decline curve was applied in each oil well and the estimation of total reserves isn’t changing with the time or by the workover action.


Article
Review on Applications of Nanocatalyst in Refineries and petrochemicals

Authors: Taha Mahdi Abdul Hamza
Pages: 96-107
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Abstract

In the nanoscience where all the devices and technologies are going to smaller in size with improved properties, catalysis is an important field of application. In recent years, nanocatalysis has become more emerging field of science due to its high activity, selectivity and productivity. In this mini-review, we are trying to summarize data reported in literature for application of nano sized catalyst in Refineries and petrochemicals industries. By decreasing the size of the catalyst, advantages such as large surface area would be exposed to the reactant. Main applications of nanocatalysts in steam reforming, bio diesel production, and several other point of application are discussed here in detail.


Article
Production of Bio-Ethanol from Iraq Date Crop

Authors: Haroun A.K. Shahad --- Adnan Kahtan Ebraheem
Pages: 108-126
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This research studied the possibility of producing bio-ethanol from Iraqi date crop. The juice of the Zahdi species of Iraqi dates is chosen for this purpose since it is available in large quantities in Iraq and has good sugar contents. The production procedure consists of fermentation, distillation and dehydration processes. A special rig is designed and assembled for the production. The fermentation process involved the use of three different types of yeast (the bread yeast, cheese Yeast and whey) to choose the best type that requires shorter fermentation time. It is found that the fermentation times for these yeasts are 25, 40 and 34 hrs respectively. The fermentation process is followed by the distillation process, which was performed in three stages. Finally, the dehydration process which is the most important and difficult process because it takes a long time to produce the required concentration of ethanol. This process involved the use of two different types of drying materials (ethylene glycol and calcium oxide). Experimental results show the importance of using dates as a source of bio ethanol in Iraq. It is found that 1 ton of Zahdi yields 300 L of bio-ethanol. It is also found that the cost of 1 L bio-ethanol is about 1022 ID which is about 85 cents. This cost can be reduced in case of mass production. This price is comparable with ethanol prices worldwide. This work proved that date crop in Iraq is an important source of renewable energy comparable to crude oil.


Article
Energy Losses Resulting from the Flaring of the Associated Gases of the (North&South) Jambour Oil Fields

Authors: Sinan A.Baker
Pages: 127-143
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This research includes a study of the components of the associated gases in Jambour fields (North and South) using Gas Chromatography instrument type (Varian cp-3800),The associated gases of The Southern Jambour contains small amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) and it is a sweet gas, while the associated gasesof Northern Jambour field is much higher up to 4 % Mole according to the analysis that has done on the associated gas for both fields by (GC), also the results of the analysis show that methane ratio is 80% for both fields gases (north, south) and can take advantage of the associated gas of Southern Jambour fields to feed the operating units in North Oil Company, North Gas Company, and Mulla Abdulla Power plant. The productivity of Southern Jambour field at the present time of the associated gas is (130 MMSCF/day) while the production of Northern Jambour field is (60 MMSCF/day) and can take advantage of the associated gas of SouthernJambour field to operate gas stations, because it is asweetgas.The amount of the associated gas burned in (flare) of Jambour fields is (1-4 MMSCF / day), and assuming the density of the associated gas rate is 0.00086 gm / cm3) where (mgas = ρgas * vgas), the (1 MMSCF) of gas equivalent to (25 ton), the flaring associated gas rate in Jambour fields equivalent to (25 ton/ day).


Article
Matching Well Test Data with Computer Model

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This project concerning with matching the well test data for one of Buzurgan wells the objective of make matching is to see if the observed data of the well test as same as the calculated one by using the mathematical model we made by using computer program. The well test data was available for matching was consist of three build up test two of them have a record for the well head pressure and bottom hole pressure and one just contain a record for the well head pressure so after matching we can make correlation to find the bottom hole pressure for the test haven’t BHP values . By using Eclipse program we build a mathematical model for the well BU-6 The model consist of six layer (MA, MB11, MB12, MB21, MC1and MC2) and we take r=1, theta=10, we use the available data in Buzurgan field reports and then we enter the well test data and see the result of matching between the observed and the calculated one. From the matching we see that there was good matching between the two data, the matching was for the production and the bottomhole flowing pressure and the two was matched with the observed one. In order to make the matching very well we make change in permeability and increase its value by 20% and this change was very good to the matching of the production data and we also change the skin factor to -3.6 and that effect on the pressure matching and make it very well

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Article
A Critical Review on Corrosion and its Prevention in the Oilfield Equipment

Authors: Mothana Ghazi Kadhim --- Mushtaq Taleb Ali
Pages: 162-189
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Corrosion in the petroleum industry is one of the crucial failure has to take in consideration in the design of the oilfield equipment due to not only reducing economic losses but also to safe and protect the resources. Thus, various experimental and numerical studies were performed to understand the mechanisms and rules of corrosion types occurred in the oil and gas production fields and determine the factors affecting these types. The current investigation is aimed to comprehensively review different types of corrosion took place in the oilfield and flow line equipment and how they can be prevented. The effect of diverse harsh working environmental representing by the existence of high content of corrosive gases (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2)and hydrogen sulfide (H2S)) is also considered. Additionally, different types of protection methods used to prevent the corrosion or at least reduce the corrosion rate including inorganic inhibitors (e.g., anodic and cathodic protection methods), organic inhibitors (e.g., film former or coating) and maintain the environmental conditions (e.g., scavengers and biocides) are considerably presented.


Article
Utilizing OF Thermal Energy OF Gas Turbines Exhaust Gases Workingin Petroleum Sector

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The gas turbine stations are used in petroleum sector for different application, such as compressing of gas, pumping of crude oil or water, and power generation. The main parts of these stations are compressor, combustion chamber, and gas turbine. The compressor provides a compressed air for combustion process, and for cooling process of different parts of the station. The fuel (liquid or gas fuel) is injected into the combustion chamber to perform the combustion process. The resulted hot flue gases are passed to the gas turbine to convert its' thermal energy into rotational mechanical energy to operate the air and gas compressors, crude oil or water pumps, and to generate electricity. This work concerns with the applicability of utilizing the thermal energy content in flue gases exit from the gas turbine by adopting a field data received from one of the operating stations in north Oil Company in Iraq. The flue gases mass flow rate, and its' available energy have been calculated. Different operational conditions have been selected to produce superheated steam such as operating pressure range of (0.36-1.4 MPa), with a range of superheated temperature differs than the corresponding saturation temperature by (10-60 oC) for each selected pressure. This work is also concerned with the possibility of producing of hot water for a pressure range of (0.36-1.4 MPa) with a temperature lower than the corresponding saturation temperature by (5 oC). The results show that the power produced reaches (1.4-3.3 MW). Also the hot water produced reaches 90000 kg/hr at operating pressure of 0.36MPa. The obtained results in this work are interesting since an elimination of thermal pollution by exhaust gases is accomplished. The available energy in these gases has been utilized to produce either superheated steam or hot water without consuming a conventional fuel.

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Article
Improving Gas to Liquid production by Associated Gases

Authors: Hadi Ebrahimi --- Akbar Zamaniyan --- Khaled Forsat
Pages: 211-225
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Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) is a process for converting natural gas into synthetic oil, which can be further processed into fuels and other hydrocarbon-based products. The total GTL plant is self-sufficient. Therefore most of the required utilities provided, too. High energy cost is the main driving force behind currently increasing interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of GTL. The catalytic synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H2 Syngas mixtures leads to a large variety of products such as paraffins, olefins, alcohols, and aldehydes. The process uses mainly natural gas. However, other gases fuels could also be employed. Three-fourths of Iraq's natural gas resources are associated with oil. Meanwhile, Majnoon oil production is generating significant amounts of associated gas that was usually flared while different options to abate flaring are under review. The current article presents using a 10 MM m3 annually associated gases in the southern part of Iraq in 3000 BPD GTL plant. The simulation of the plant shows that the added associated gas which is currently flared could increase the productivity and there is no need to send it to the flares. Research Institute of Petroleum Industry has a license of the GTL process, both fixed-bed and slurry types.


Article
Theoretical Performance Study of an Indirect- Expansion Solar Assisted Heat Pump

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This work presents a theoretical performance study of an indirect- expansion solar assisted heat pump SAHP. The theoretical analysis included a simulation of the IX-SAHP using TRNSYS software. These tests were conducted by varying the controlling parameters to investigate their effects on the thermal performance of the IX-SAHP such as the evaporating and condensing temperatures, compressor speed, refrigerant type and the solar collector area. A significant effect of the compressor speed on the thermal performance of the system is indicated. An increase of compressor speed causes a decrease of coefficient of performance COP. The performance of refrigeration system largely depends upon the characteristics of the refrigerants.COP was affected by the solar collector area and type where the COP increases with increasing collector area, but for a given heating load there is a required minimum solar collector’s area, also evacuated tube solar collector lead to higher COP than flat plate collector for a given collector area.Compared to the conventional heat pump system, the present indirect expansion solar assisted heat pump system has the advantage that the collector can absorb the radiation and ambient energy and lead to increase the superheat level at the compressor inlet, so that reduced the work input of compressor in comparison to the conventional heat pump system.

Table of content: volume: issue:14