Table of content

Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences

مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية

ISSN: 19984456
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences (QJES), ISSN: 1998-4456, was established in 2008. The Journal, in its current form, is intended to contribute to the state of the art in all fields of engineering research.
The Journal is a peer-reviewed journal and is published by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Al-Qadisiyah. The journal is now published Quarterly(March, June, September and December).

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Contact info

College of Engineering - Al-Qadisiyah university - Al-Diwaniya province - Rep. of Iraq box ( 1759 ) - fax (00964 (0) 36 652663) - Tel: +964(780)1432941
E-mail: engjou@qu.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:10 issue:4

Article
FIEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE SLAB PANELS REINFORCED WITH CFRP BARS

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Abstract

The present study includes an experimental investigation of the behavior of simply supported lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) and normal weight concrete (NWC) square slabs reinforced by different ratios of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and/or steel bars reinforcement. The experimental program consists of testing nine two-way reinforced concrete square slab models under uniformly distributed load (UDL). They were of the same overall dimensions, (1050×1050×80) mm. The main variables considered in the experimental study are: type of concrete; LWAC or NWC, type of reinforcement; steel, CFRP and hybrid (steel and CFRP) bars with different ratios and arrangements, the behavior of slabs with bottom and top CFRP bars reinforcement and the efficiency of using CFRP bars for strengthening slabs in two directions by using near surface mounted (NSM) technique. In this study, a waste of clay bricks was used as a coarse lightweight aggregate (CLWA) to produce structural lightweight aggregate concrete (SLWAC). It was found that LWAC slab model reinforced by CFRP bars has a lower total weight by amount 20% in comparison with NWC slab model reinforced by CFRP bars with rather a small reduction in slab ultimate load capacity by amount not more than 6.5%. However, it was found that the CFRP reinforced LWAC slab model can achieve ultimate load capacity higher than equivalent steel reinforced LWAC slab model by about 34.62%. NSM technique by CFRP bars in two directions of LWAC slab is very effective and nearly provided the same efficiency of equivalent internal reinforcement.


Article
COMPRSSIVE STRENGTH MODEL FOR CONCRETE CONTAINING POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE(PET) BY USING ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY

Authors: Rasha Jasim --- Mohammed Qasim
Pages: 384-396
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Abstract

This research proposed a model describing the relationship between ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and the compressive strength test of concrete containing PET (Polyethylene terephthalate). This was achieved by measuring ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) on this type of concrete and comparing the result of compressive strength tests to clarify the accuracy of the ultrasonic test equation for this type of concrete. Waste bottles of water was used in this study by cutting them into laminar form of fibers with zigzag edges in different length (1,2,3) cm for each volume fraction of PET (1%,2% and 3%) by cement weight with fixed width (0.5) cm. Then, they were incorporated with the concrete. It was noticed from the laboratory tests results that the relationship UPV - strength are related together in the volume fraction of 1% for the length 3cm and the correlation factor (R) is equal to 0.94. This indicates a very good exponential relationship between UPV and compressive strength. Also, the results are compared and discussed with another proposed formula that found in literature.


Article
ENERGY SAVING OF WASTEWATER PUMPING USING PROPOSED INTEGRATED DRIVE SYSTEM

Authors: Israa Amer Dahham
Pages: 397-409
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Abstract

An integrated drive arrangement for a wastewater pumping system was designed and modeled to evaluate the energy saving gained from matching motors with Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) and Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The proposed arrangement utilizes the affinity laws of centrifugal pumps to predict the performance of a pump under different rotational speed conditions. The specific energy (Es) is used as a measure of the cost effectiveness of the proposed pumping system. Results have shown that a reduction of 10% in pump speed can save 30% in energy of maximum speed. The energy saving potential is carried out for a real-life case study, and a conclusion to replace on-off controllers currently used for most wastewater pumping systems is necessary. The total energy saving account for more than 50% when integrated drive system was applied for a combined sewer pump station.


Article
WEARABLE ANTENNAS 3.8 AND 5.6 GHZ USING FOR INDOOR CHILD MONITORING

Authors: Hayder Jawad Mohammed Albattat
Pages: 410-419
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Abstract

In latest years the progress and employment of wearable antennas have developed quickly for human monitoring applications. Due to shrink of wireless communication equipment reasons, the microstrip patch antennas with size-reduced are preferred. In this paper, two wearable antennas with different shapes (similar to the button) are introduced. These are compatible for a commercial wireless system platforms such WiFi and WiMax standards. The proposed antennas are very suitable for child indoor monitoring purposes. Here, because of the small size of these antennas (the largest dimension approaches to 25 mm), the assumption of bending the surface, substrate and ground layer are neglected. The operation frequency band for the first antenna is between 5.4 and 5.6 GHz, while its between 3.6 to 3.8 GHz for the second and both with a linearly polarized radiation. For a wearable antenna, a conductive textile was used for the substrate layer, a permittivity of 4.4 is used. A 52% size reduction result of the rose patch size (the 2nd antenna) compared to the size of a regular rectangular patch antenna (the 1st antenna) additionally, investigations had been conducted for different antenna without bending and the antenna’s performance in vicinity to human body. The proficient multiphasic COMSOL software is used for simulation

Keywords

Wearable Antenna --- patch antenna --- Wi-Fi --- Wi-Max --- WBAN --- COMSOL


Article
EFFECT OF POLISHING ON THE FATIGUE RESISTANCE AND RESIDUAL STRESSES FOR THE SHOT PEENED OF 7075-T6 ALUMINUM ALLOY

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Abstract

Aluminum alloy (7075-T6) is widely used in various industries in parts of aircraft, automobiles and other mechanical applications. It is known that the process of the shot peening leads to an increase in the value of residual stresses, which prolong the fatigue life. However, during surface peening of various metals, including aluminum alloy (7075-T6) used in this work, these surfaces become rough where the places to concentrate the stresses, which will fail when exposed to different dynamic stresses. This paper presents an study on the effect of polishing (the roughness surface induced from shot peening process) on endurance limit and residual stresses result by shot peening. In this paper was used three values of surface roughness (1.5, 3, and 5) μm. The obtained results show that the maximum increasing in endurance limit was (53%) at low roughness compared with as received and increasing value roughly to (27%) compared with alloy after shot peening. . The residual stresses gradually increased (-222.735, -229.602, -250.900) Mpa when the roughness surfaces decreased (5, 3, 1.5) μm respectively.


Article
MODELING DRIVER BEHAVIOR FOR TWO AND THREE LANE SECTIONS IN IRAQI RURAL ROADS

Authors: Hamid Athab Al-Jameel --- Ali Jihad Kadhim
Pages: 431-450
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Abstract

Modeling driver behavior is the corner stone for any traffic simulation model. Driving behavior is a complex task to mimic the reality by simulation model. This study has focused on collecting field data from several rural road sites. These data include lane utilization, lane changing and headway. Then, a simulation model has been developed for representing the driver behavior at rural roads. Car-following model developed in this study is safety one. Then, lane changing hybrid model has been developed according to the suggested assumptions by previous studies and collected field data to match the real behavior. Gap acceptance model has been adopted from previous studies which show good consistency with real driver behavior through comparing with other characteristics such as lane changing and lane utilization. The developed model has been calibrated with field data and showed encouraging results


Article
AUGMENTATION OF HEAT TRANSFER IN CORRUGATED TUBE USING FOUR-START SPIRAL WALL

Authors: Ghassan Fadhil SMAISIM
Pages: 451-467
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This article dealt with an important heat transfer field, which is passive heat transfer technique represented by corrugated tube. The study conducted numerically by ANSYS Fluent 14. The motivation behind the current study was to clarify the characteristics and merits of such tube geometry in terms of heat transfer and pressure drop. The obtained results reported under constant heat flux, temperature-dependent thermo-physical properties and Reynolds number range of 300-1500. Results show good heat transfer enhancement of 6.15-33.24% in spite of an increase in friction factor of 1.80-2.93 times the smooth values. The corrugated tube with φ =4.76×10-2 has the top thermal 1.16-1.25 for all Reynolds number. The most important finding is that the gained heat transfer is much more than the increase in pressure loss until a certain threshold of Reynolds number about 900, later, the pressure loss increase and dominates over the heat gained. The effect of Prandtl number on the heat transfer for three types of fluids produced too. A criterion correlation equation of Nusselt number developed to describe the cases of four starts spirally corrugated tubes by deviation ±3% compared with the simulation results.


Article
STUDYING THE PERFORMANCE OF A HYDRO TREATING PROCESS FOR A MIXTURE OF GAS OIL AND LIGHTER FRACTIONS

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Abstract

In the present study the applicability of hydrodesulfurization of a mixture of crude oil fractions (e.g., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil ) in a single hydrotreating reactor packed with NiCoMo/Al2O3 under various operating parameters such as temperature (310-370 oC), pressure (40-55 bars), weight hour space velocity (1.2 to 3.6 h-1), and hydrogen-to- liquid hydrocarbon ratio (150-300 vol/vol). Experimental results showed that temperature and pressure have a positive effect on process performance while weight hour space velocity gives a different trend. The optimum value of (H2/Hydrocarbon) ratio was found experimentally to be 200 vol/vol after which the increase in this ratio cause reduction in HDS% because decrease in contact between H2 gas and Hydrocarbon in reactor. Results showed that the best conditions (350 oC, 50 bars, 1.2 h-1, and 200 vol/vol) in which gave the hydrotreating (HDS) efficiency of 95.8%.The results confirmed the applicability of the NiCoMo/Al2O3 catalyst for HDS reaction of a mixture of middle distillate (e.g., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil). It was found that at higher pressure and temperature (i.e., T> 350 oC; P> 50 bars) a thermodynamic equilibrium was established. As observed, there is a 1.6% reduction in gas oil less than that of the conventional method. However, kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha undergo increases of 0.6%, 0.75%, and 2.75% respectively over these from conventional method. These results reveal that the quantity of fractions is almost the same for both methods. As it can be observed, that measured properties of the oil fractions produced by the proposed method are almost the same as those produced by conventional method. However, specific gravity (sp.gr) of the oil cuts produced by present study (i.e. sp.gr of kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha 0.785, 0.728, 0.655 respectively) is somewhat less than sp.gr of the same fractions produced by conventional methods (i.e. sp.gr of kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha 0.788, 0.738, 0.65 respectively), which gives a clear indication of properties improvement of these fractions. Experimental results confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for HDS of a mixture of Iraqi middle distillates (i.e., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil) simultaneously in a single fixed bed reactor


Article
STRUCTURE-PROPERTIES RELATIONSHIPS IN HEAT TREATED LOW CARBON STEEL

Authors: Heider Yasser Thamir Alyasiri
Pages: 486-495
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Abstract

The samples of AISI 1018 Low carbon steel were heated to austenite zone then cooled in different mediums with different cooling rates. Mechanical tests show increase in hardness, yield strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and yield/tensile ratio as cooling rate is increase. Ductility has inverse proportionality to cooling rate. The resulting microstructures show decreasing in grains sizes accompanying to cooling rate increase. The relations between mechanical properties and grains size are opposites of relations between mechanical properties with cooling rates. Hardness, yield strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and yield/tensile ratio increase as grains size decreases, while ductility decreases.


Article
STUDY OF USING THE CRUSHED CLAY BRICKS WITH NATURAL AGGREGATE AS UNBOUND SUB BASE PAVEMENT LAYER IN SEGREGATED FORM

Authors: Ali Abdulla Abed --- Zaid Abdul Zahra Mahdi
Pages: 496-504
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Construction and demolition of buildings and structures are producing excess or waste material which is including concrete, brick, steel, etc. Conservation and reuse of resources is a necessity in achieving sustainability across the globe, crushed brick could be safely added to crush rock blends in pavement sub-base applications with percent up to 25%. The experimental work was consisted of two groups of samples depending on percent volume of each material, each group samples have 6 different layering blends patterns prepared by spreading the pure materials in layers (segregated form) of Crushed Bricks Sand (CBS) and Natural Aggregate (NA), in addition to the two control samples and then experimentally tested to compare with the requirements of Iraqi specification for roads and bridges. The experimental work was consisted of Atterberg limits, sieve analysis, moisture-density relationship and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests. The results show that using of the crushed bricks as sand with natural aggregate as unbound subbase in segregated form is feasible and agreed with the Iraqi specification requirements because the CBR of CBS was improved when blended with the NA at all the patterns, the best pattern is that which containing three layers NA and two CBS (60% NA and 40% CBS by volume) and the NA was at the top, then CBS in alternated sequence that improves the CBR value to 1.6 times compared with NA control or 8 times of CBS control because the sporadic distribution reduces the effect of the low bearing material, in another words; collect the layers of the same material doesn't give best improvement.


Article
STUDYING THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND ORIENTATION ON FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF KENAF FIBRE EPOXY COMPOSITES

Authors: Mushtaq Albdiry,
Pages: 505-515
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In this paper, the effect of surface modification and fibre arrangements of kenaf fibers on fracture toughness of epoxy composite was investigated. The chemical treatment of kenaf fibers (KFs) with 6 % NaOH was achieved, and composites with two different fibre arrangements (X and Y) directions were fabricated. Values of fracture toughness (KIc) measured of the compact tension (CT) specimens for both untreated kenaf fibre-reinforced epoxy (ut-KFRE) composites and treated kenaf fibre-reinforced epoxy (treated-KFRE) were much better than the neat epoxy. The KIc value of the treated-KFRE composite in Y-fibre direction was the highest of 2.74 MPa.m1/2 while it was 1.45 MPa.m1/2 for the neat epoxy. Different toughening mechanisms were noticed in the fracture surfaces of the composites in relation to the fibre reinforcement planar, they are shear yielding and fibre splaying with the X-direction and broken fibers, fibre pullout and fibre delamination with the Y-fibre orientation.


Article
EFFECT OF DATES NUCLEUS POWDER ON SOME ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF CLAYEY SOIL IN COMPARISON TO LIME

Authors: Yahya K. Atemimi --- Abdulla T. Fahad
Pages: 516-524
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Clayey soils are widely spread over the world. The clay soils are used and need to improve it’s engineering properties.Therefore, the treatment is considered one of the available solution for this purpose. Due to the nature of clay particles a trice plasticity,highly in surface area and the ion exchangaple ...etc. these properties encourage the idea of using pozzolanic materials, particularly the lime as pozzolana source.The alternative source of pozzolan is a metakaolin materials generated from burning the organic materials which are widely available in Iraq (i.e. Dates nucleus). The Dates nuclei is a waste material, so these additives can help in reducing the contamination and improving the environment. In this study, dates nuclei powder (DNP) was used after burning it at 900oC for one hour and then mixed it with clayey soil in different by weight percentages. Hence, four percentages are selected (5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15%) to study the effect of each addition on the shear strength of the clayey soil and the results are compared with the same soil that treated with lime. Many tests were conducted on ( the natural clay, clay-DNP and clay-lime) to evaluate the engineering characteristics and to explore best percentages that can used. Curing time (0, 7, 14, 28,90 and 180 days) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of pozzolanic reaction (emerges from DNP-soil mixture) with time. Interested results are found, the shear strength was increased to about six folds for 10%-DNP-soil at 180 days of curing. The liquid limit, plasticity index and the maximum dry density decreased in all percentages of DNP-Clay mixtures. On the other hand, the shear strength increment for DNP-Clay mixture after 180 days of curing is higher than that of Lime-Clay mixture for same period of curing. Forthermore, CBR results increased by six times for 10%DNP-Clay mixture for un-soaking conditions, while at soaking conditions, the increase was more than eleven times. The lime addition increase the CBR-value about three and eight times for unsoaking and soaking conditions, respectively.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON DIRECT EVAPORATIVE AIR COOLER PERFORMANCE WITH CELLULOSIC PADS

Authors: Alaa Ruhma Al-Badri
Pages: 525-535
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Evaporative cooling is an economic and environment-friendly technique for air cooling. This technique may involve air cooling with humidification (direct evaporative cooling) or sensible air cooling only (indirect evaporative cooling). In this study, the saturation efficiency of direct evaporative cooling (DEC) was investigated with rigid media cellulose (RMC) pads and compared with that of wood straw pads. Face air velocity on pads was varied between 0.5 and 3.0 m·s-1. The time change of ambient air dry-and wet-bulb temperatures, water temperature, and outlet air dry-bulb temperature were measured. For cellulosic pad, the experimental data showed that the saturation efficiency reached 71% of its steady state value in the first 100 seconds of operation and the final steady state value was reached after 600 seconds. The saturation efficiency decreases with the increase in the air velocity. It could be shown that the DEC is more efficient with wood straw pads compared to RMC pads. Predicted data using the published literature underestimated the saturation efficiency of DEC by about 18%.


Article
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF LENGTH ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RECTANGULAR TO RECTANGULAR WAVE GUIDE TAPER

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RF Waveguide taper have a significant role in radar or communication systems through the use of it for joining two waveguides that have different cross sections, and this difference may be in dimensions of cross section or in the shape of it. the tapering may be from rectangular to rectangular waveguide (i.e. each waveguide operating at a certain frequency), or transition from rectangular to circular or elliptical waveguide. In this paper; two rectangular to rectangular waveguide tapers have been fabricated to join waveguide operating at C band frequencies with another one operating at X band frequencies. The fabricated tapers have the same shape but differ in length (8 cm, and 16 cm) in order to measure the effect of length on the most important parameters that have an effect on the performance of the taper, like voltage standing wave ratio "VSWR", return losses, and input resistance. Many tests have been done using two - port network analyzer. The results of the tests indicate that there is no effect on the performance of the waveguide taper although there is an extra 8 cm in length.


Article
MEASUREMENT OF LIQUID LEVEL IN PARTIALLY-FILLED PIPES USING A NOISE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FLOWMETER

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This paper investigates the measurement of liquid level in partially filled pipes utilizing an electrical noise signal (transformer signal) generated in electromagnetic flowmeter namely, transformer signal. The study was conducted by experiments and the collected data were analyzed statistically using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The experimental study was achieved by building a laboratory rig containing the main parts of electromagnetic flowmeter. The main parameters which have been studied were the liquid level, magnetic field strength ( = 0.00809T, 0.03308T, 0.05301T), liquid temperature ( = 11º to 21.5º ) and liquid electrical conductivity ( = 0.11225, 3.08, 210, mS/cm). The collected data were analyzed using the back propagation neural network technique included in Matlab software 2009. The results show that the transformer signal is greatly influenced by variations of the liquid level inside partially filled electromagnetic flowmeter. The electrode position of ( = 160º) has had the strongest response to liquid level. The electrode position effect on the transformer signal is the greatest compared with that of the liquid temperature and the strength of the magnetic field. Generally, the transformer signal was found to be an increasing function with decreasing of liquid level.


Article
THE EFFECT OF FIN'S HEIGHT AND CIRCULAR PERFORATED ON THE NATURAL CONVECTION OF THE VERTICAL RECTANGULAR FINS

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The safe operation of any device is necessary, but it requires a suitable condition such as dissipated the heat generated. A heat sink with vertical rectangular fins was improved using a circular perforated with diameter of 6mm for different fins height 6 cm, 8 cm and 10 cm. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of circular perforated on the natural convection heat transfer of a vertical rectangular fin. Different numbers of circular perforated 2, 3 and 5 were studied. The results showed that the heat transfer for the height 6cm is higher as compared with 8cm and 10 cm. Moreover, the coefficient of heat transfer increases with the increased of the number of the circular perforation. For the fin height 6cm with five circular perforated, the heat transfer coefficient of the natural convection is 30 W/m2 oC.


Article
EFFECTS OF ROTATIONAL SPEED, CENTER DISTANCE AND DIAMETER RATIOS ON THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF PULLEY-BELT SYSTEM DEPENDS ON VIBRATION ANALYSIS

Authors: Ali Raad Hassan --- Khalid Mohsin Ali
Pages: 574-590
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This paper presents the dynamic response related to varying in indispensable parameters of pulley-belt system, a manufactured pulley- belt system has been built and experimental results have been obtained and analyzed accurately which reveal the effects of these parameters on indicated system. Manufactured system assembled from heavy steel structure, variable speed DC motor, speed measurement tool (tachometer), two shafts of 25 mm diameter, four pillow block ball bearings, V-belts and pulleys with different diameters (10, 15, 20, 25) cm. The fabricated system presents mechanical characteristics likes serial changing in rotational speed (500 to 2000) rpm, diameters ratios (1 to 2.5) and center distance (27 to 120) cm. accelerometer ADXL335 (3-axis) mounted on bearing brackets of drive and driven shafts and connected to Arduino type mega 2560 (microcontroller) which sending the data of vibration to the laptop in order to display it in Sigview software as a time and frequency domain band by FFT (fast fourier transform). Results showed the effects of change the values of rotational speed, center distance, and diameters ratios on vibration response of pulley-belt system


Article
RESPONSE ENHANCEMENT OF DC MOTOR USING EVOLUTIONARY INTELLIGENT FRACTIONAL-ORDER PID CONTROLLER

Authors: Nasser Ali Hasson Al-Zubaydi
Pages: 591-599
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An effective intelligent controller is suggested by mixing the Fractional-Order PID (FOPID) and fast genetic algorithms (FGAs) to improve the output response of DC motor. This controller is named as FGA-FOPID controller, the classical FOPID controllers have numerous benefits in practical implementation of many systems such as DC motor control compared with classical PID controllers, where the output response of the DC motor with FOPID or with classical PID is reasonable, but it’s not satisfaysthe response enhancements. So FGAs is used to slove the problem and to improve the overall output. The suggested work is confirmed by DC motor control system, and then compared with the classical PID and FOPID controllers. The simulated results establish that, the suggested work is adeptness from previous work.


Article
HIGH ALTITUDE PLATFORM STATIONS IN DESIGN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM FOREAR COVER THE SPECIFIC A

Authors: Yousif Mohsin Hasan
Pages: 600-611
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This paper explains how to design a wireless communication system via high altitude platform stations HAPS to cover the specific area (Using Diwaniyah city area as a model). High altitude platform station HAPS is unmanned airplane provides the wireless communication service to the wider area. It is designed to work at high altitude between (17-22 Km) and coverage area 400 Km. This study illustrated for calculating the co-channel interference between HAPS ground station with a terrestrial station and satellite station. Free space losses for a HAPS ground station has been applied to meet the geographic of Diwaniyah city. In addition, explaining the relationship between elevation angles with the radius of the coverage area. Interference mitigation techniques have been given, such as improving the antenna radiation pattern, then it proposed the elevation angle for the HAPS's ground stations to reduce an interference between HAPS network with Fixed Service (FS) and fixed satellite service (FSS). Finally, this study explains the relationship between elevation angles with the radius of the coverage area. For more reliability, the Scenario for covers the city of Diwaniya. Two ground stations have been proposed to connect with high-altitude platform station.


Article
STUDY OF NOISE POLLUTION DUE TO THE SOUND AMPLIFIERS;-CASE STUDY COMPARISON BETWEEN LOCAL AND MODERN MARKET IN DIWANEYAH CITY

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The objective of this study is to identify the effect of the noise that result from sound amplifiers which have been used in Local markets on the healthy and psychology of population (vendors and pedestrian). Therefore, we measured the noise level in Local and Modern markets to identify the difference in noise level that create by sound amplifiers where we chose three points in each market at (North, Mid and South) and for a period of seven days and comparison the readings of noise level of both markets with the Iraqi standard. two questionnaires have been carried out in this study, the firs questionnaire is for the vendors. The second questionnaire represents the pedestrians.For a period of seven days, the average of the noise levels (Leq) in Local market for North, Mid and South points were (77.2, 80.2 and 73.4) decibel (dB) respectively while in the Modern market were (66.2, 69.1 and 64.8) dB respectively. The results of the first questionnaire showed that the vendors in Local marked are more harmful than the ones in the Modern market where most of them suffered from hear losing, annoying, boredom, mood flocculation, weakness of focus and other psychological effects but the harm ratio with hypertension was low in both markets. The results of the second questionnaire showed that the harm ratio of shoppers in Local and Modern markets with annoying equal to (92%, 17%), headache (58%, 25%), nervous(25%,25%), boredom (33%,25%), Weakness of focus (58%,42%), nausea (67%,58%), respectively. These results give an impression that the sound amplifiers were the essential reason for increasing the noise level in local markets and the noise level higher than 70 dB cause healthy and psychological effects for the vendors.


Article
STUDY ON HETEROGENEOUSL CATALYZED TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION

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The commercial process of heterogeneously catalyzed biodiesel production process is in its final steps due to its advantages over the old homogeneously catalyzed one, and in order to provide an economic and fast way to investigate the vegetable oil conversion into biodiesel, a relation between conversion and a parameter that can be easily measured like viscosity is developed in this paper. The variation of viscosity with increasing conversion was proved to be exponential.an equation was developed to predict conversion from dynamic viscosity values based on the experimental data. A conversion of 91% was obtained at 60 oC reaction temperature, 12:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 600 rpm in 2 hours of reaction time. The method reported in this paper is meant to save time and money since the most widely used chromatography methods are expensive and time consuming.


Article
SPIKING NEURAL NETWORKS BASED PID LIKE FLC DESIGN FOR AN IDLE SPEED CONTROL OF AN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE

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Automatic control of automotive engines provides benefits in the engines performance like emission reduction and fuel economy. The drop in idle speed problem can be seen as the disturbance rejection problem in the main engine speed. In this paper, a PID-like Fuzzy Logic Control (PIDFC) with minimum structure for the four strokes, four cylinders, gasoline engine is designed and simulated to maintain the engine speed at nominal value in idle speed mode. The speed performance must satisfy minimize fuel consumption, and as a result reduces the fuel emissions. A spiking Neural Network (SNN) trained by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to online-adapt the inputs and output gains of the PID fuzzy controller in order to achieve the required speed performance. A Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) is used to simulate nonlinear model of engine. .Results of simulation for this controller showed good improvements over the PIDFC in the idle speed response. .The peak overshoot is reduced about (70 %), the undershoot is reduced about (50 %), the settling time is. .reduced about (83%) and the fuel consumed is reduced about (53%).


Article
EXCESS MOLAR VOLUMES, SURFACE TENSIONS,VISCOCITY DEVIATION AND FTIR SPECTROSCOPY OF 1-BUTANOL-ETHYL ACETATE BINARY SYSTEM MIXTURE

Authors: Mustafa J. Nuhma
Pages: 643-653
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The physical properties (viscosity, surface tension and density) were computed in laboratory using different laboratory equipment for binary and pure system at (P=1 atm and T=25C). At mole fraction 0.5, the excess volume was found to be positive value while the deviation in viscosity and surface tension was found as negative values at the same mole fraction. Experimental excess properties were compared using Redlich-Kister equation and showed acceptable standard deviation. The inter molecular interaction of the 1-Butanol and Ethyl acetate found to be negligible and the vulnerability of the hydrogen bonds according to the FTIR spectra to a mixture of 1-Butanol and Ethyl acetate is consistent with the positive values of excess volume. Overlying the values of surface tension and the deviation in viscosity was found as negative values for all mole fractions studied.

Table of content: volume:10 issue:4