Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:58 issue:4A

Article
Application of Surfactant for Enhancing the Adsorption of Azo Dye Onto Buckthorn Tree Wood Surface
استخدام المنشط لتحسين امتزاز صبغة الازو على سطح خشب شجرة السدرة

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Abstract

Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), was used as surfactant to enhance the removal of Congo- red (C-R) dye from its solution by employing a wood of buckthorn tree as a low cost and eco-friendly adsorbent. Different factors affecting the sorption process like, time of adsorption, wood dose, initial (C-R) concentration and hydrogen ion concentration have been studied for both adsorbent wood (W) and modified wood (MW). The suitability of the two isotherm models Langmuir and frundlich to the equilibrium results was mentioned for the adsorption of (C-R) on both wood and modified wood. From the value of correlation - factor, frundlich model give a better fit than Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic function such as the changes in enthalpy ∆H°, entropy ∆So and Gibes free energy ∆Go for the adsorption process was guessed. These values illustrate that physi-sorption take place .The negative values of ∆Ho shows that the adsorption process accompany with heat releasing with decreasing the randomness of the (solid-solution) interface. Furthermore the negative values of ∆G° indicated that adsorption of (C-R) dye onto the wood and modified wood occurs spontaneously.

Keywords

adsorption --- dye --- buckthorn tree --- isotherm.


Article
Synthesis and Antibacterial Screening of New Schiff Bases Based on N-(4-acetophenyl) Succinimide
تحضير وتقييم الفعالية المضادة للبكتريا لقواعد شيف جديدة اعتماداً على -4)- N اسيتوفنيل) سكسن ايمايد

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Abstract

A series of nine new Schiff bases based on N-(4-acetophenyl)succinimide were synthesized via multistep synthesis. In the first step N-(4-acetophenyl)succinamic acid was prepared via reaction of succinic anhydride with 4-aminoacetophenone. The prepared amic acid was dehydrated in the second step producing N-(4-acetophenyl)succinimide. The prepared succinimide represents a modified methyl ketone bearing succinimde cycle and ready for introducing in condensation reaction thus in the third step the prepared imide was introduced in acid-catalyzed condensation reaction with a variety of primary aromatic amines affording the new target Schiff bases. The results of antibacterial screening of the newly synthesized Schiff bases indicated that they possess high antibacterial activity.


Article
Determination of the Liver Enzymes Level and Kidney Functions in Pregnant Women in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy at Different Age Groups
تعيين مستوى انزيمات الكبد ووظائف الكلى في النساء الحوامل في الثلث الثاني من الحمل بمجاميع عمرية مختلفة

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Abstract

The level of liver enzymes and kidney functions in pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy at different age groups was determined. This study is composed of fifty pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy and were classified into two subgroups; first group included twenty-five pregnant with an age between 22-30 years, a second group included twenty-five pregnant with an age 35-42 years. A control group included twenty-five non-pregnant, healthy women was also included. Blood samples were obtained from each group, centrifuged, serum was collected from each group to measure liver enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and kidney function tests (urea and creatinine) were measured using enzymatic kits. The results of present study illustrated significant elevation (P≤ 0.05) in AST and ALT means in the age group 35- 42 years, while there were no-significant differences in an age group 22- 30 compared with control healthy group. In addition, the ALP mean values are significantly increase(P≤0.05) in 22- 30 and 35- 42 years compared with non-pregnant women. The findings also demonstratedthat the means of blood urea is significantly declined (P≤0.05) in the age groups 22- 30 and 35- 42 years compared with healthy non-pregnant. This studyfoundsignificant decline(P≤0.05) in serum creatinine at an age group 22- 30 and significant increase(P≤0.05) in the other group (35- 42 years) compared with the control. The conclusion of the present study that hepatic and renal functions are more damaged in an age group 33- 42 years than an age group 22- 30 years through the values of parameters above. Therefore, pregnancy in the age 22- 30 years is more healthyfor both mother and fetus than an age 33- 42 years.


Article
Effect of Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) on Hyperthyroidism with and without polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in female patients
تأثير هرمون مخزون المبيض (AMH) على فرط نشاط الغدة الدرقية مع وبدون متلازمة المبيض المتعدد الكيسات (PCOS) في المرضى الإناث

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Effect Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) on thyroid levels in patients with and without polycystic ovarian syndrome PCOS was studied, The results showed an increase in AMH ,T3 ,T4 with increase of age while TSH , BMI decreased with increase of age comparing to control in hyperthyroidism with PCOS patients. Otherwise an increase in AMH, TSH, BMI, T3 and T4 with increase of Age compared to healthy group in hyperthyroidism without PCOS. Effect of ovarian hormones (AMH) on inventory levels of thyroid and perturbations in terms of increases and its impact obesity as well as fertility in women was declared in this research. Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) was assessed using enzyme linked immunosorbent kit [Elisa] while Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxin (T4) were determined by VIDAS kit method(enzyme linked fluorescent assay).


Article
Study theeffect ofTamoxifenon Lipid profilein Male Albino Rats
دراسة تأثير عقار التاموكسيفين على صورة الدهون في ذكور الجرذان البيض

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Abstract

Tamoxifen(TAM) is an effective anticancer drug. This study was conducted to evaluate the side effects of Tamoxifenon the lipid profile. 40 rats divided into 4 equal groups,3 groups were given different doses (30, 40, 50)mg/kg body weight of TAM three times a week for 8 weeks as well as control group that was given with physiological solution.At the end ofexperiment, The results showed significant differences in the treated groups were the results showed a significant degrees (p<0.05) in the HDL level in the treatment group (50mg/kg) while the three groups showed a significant increase in the levels of (Ch, TG, LDL, VLDL). The results of the study showed that Tamoxifen caused an accumulation in fats.


Article
Detection of Pan Braf in Thyroid Tumors in Iraqi Patients
التحري عن Pan BRAF في اورام الغدة الدرقية في المرضى العراقيين

Authors: Ban Jasim Mohamad بان جاسم محمد
Pages: 1820-1828
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Abstract

The B-type Raf kinase (BRAF) is a member of RASRAFMEKERK pathway and this pathway can lead to increased cellular growth, invasion and metastasis. The mutated BRAF protein activates MAPK signaling pathway, results in abnormal cellular growth, apoptosis resistance, tumor progression and metastasis. Pan-BRAF is one of available BRAF monoclonal antibodies and shared by both the wild and mutant BRAF.BRAF status is mostly determined by DNA sequencing methods. In this investigation we assessed the monoclonal Pan BRAF specific antibody that can identify wild and mutant type proteins together in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded thyroid tumor tissues by Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Archival thyroid samples from 43 iraqi patients were immunohistochemically tested with antibodies for BRAF. Out of 43 thyroid tissue cases, (23) were thyroid malignant,(12) benign, and (8) control cases(diagnosed as colloid goiter).The malignant tumors included Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma (FTC), Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC), Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) and Hürthle cell cancer (HCC).Immunohistochemical staining for BRAF was performed for all specimens. Results of the study showed that Immunohistochemical expression of pan BRAF was significantly higher in malignant thyroid tumors as compared with adenomas and control cases (P<0.05). BRAF over-expression was detected in 512 of PTC, 35 MTC, 24 of FTCas well as all cases of HCC, ATC.Whereas it was detected in 412 of adenomas, and totally negative in control cases. No association was observed between BRAF and other clinicopathological traits. We conclude from this study that IHC using BRAF monoclonal antibody is a successful way for checking of BRAF status in different thyroid tumors. IHC may be the alternative to molecular biology for the routine detection of this marker in patients with thyroid tumors.


Article
Manufacture of Graphene-based Supercapacitors
تصـنـيـع مكثفــــات فائــقـــة بأقطــــاب من الكــرافـــين

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Abstract

A graphene-based supercapacitors (SC) were manufactured. The main objective of this research was to use as possible as environmentally, clean and natural materials for the SC electrodes, electrolytes and the separators. The SC consisted of a multi-layer graphene (MLG); as the electrode material, prepared by mixing graphene powder with water/acetone mixture, then the solution deposited on metal foils (aluminum and copper) by chemical spray technique, which is a simple and inexpensive technique to prepare the MLG films. The spraying time was (2 and 4 minutes) for making two MLG films with different thicknesses. The electrolytes were used is (lemon juice, table salt dissolved in water, and distillated water). The separators were a commercial materials; PTFE polymer and cellulose based parchment paper (PP), as these separators are commercial their dielectric constant was calculated. The thickness of the deposited MLG, the Al and Cu foils, and the separators was measured by optical microscope. The assembled SC was tested and measured the capacitance by LCR meter, the voltage across its electrodes was measured by digital multi-meter, the structural properties were tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the MLG deposited on Al and Cu foils.


Article
Nonlinear optical characteristics of Nile blue films doped with the polymers PMMA, PVC and their blend by using z-scan technique
الصفات البصرية اللاخطية لاغشية صبغة النيل المطعمة مع البوليمرات كلوريد متعدد الفاينيل والبوليمربولي ميثيل ميثاكريليت ومزيجهما باستخدام تقنية المسح على البعد الثالث

Authors: Amal F. Jaffar أمل فيصل جعفر
Pages: 1839-1848
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Abstract

The nonlinear optical characteristics of the laser dye Nile blue doped with Polyvinyl chloride (Nb /PVC), poly methylmethacrylate Nb/ (PMMA) and their blend N /(blend of PMMA 50 %+PVC 50%) was studded. Free-casting technique method was used for deposited the films. The nonlinear properties of the films studded by using Z- scan technique .Z-scan experiment was performed using continuous wave (CW) diode laser at 650 nm in two parts with power of 50 mw . The first part was done using a closed-aperture placed in front of the detector to measure the nonlinear refractive index ,with the second part; the aperture in front the detector was removed (open aperture) to measure the nonlinear absorption coefficient. The open-aperture curve exhibits a normalized transmittance (valley), indicating the presence of induced absorption. The observed nonlinearity is found to be of the third order, as it fits to two photon absorption process (TPA). The closed-aperture curve exhibits a peak to valley shape, indicating a negative value of the nonlinear refractive index n2. The effective values of the nonlinear refractive index n2, the nonlinear absorption coefficient β2, real and imaginary parts of the third-order optical nonlinearity, χ(3) for Nb/PMMA+PVC films comparatively with that of Nb/PMMA and Nb/PVC has much lower optical transmittance value obtained shows that these films can be used as efficient optical limiters.


Article
The Use of Water Quality Index Technique to Assess Ground Water and Drainage Water for Irrigation in Al-yusufyiah Area – Baghdad Governorate –Central Iraq
استخدام تقنية مؤشر جودة المياه لتقييم نوعية المياه الجوفيه والمبازل للري في منطقة اليوسفية - محافظة بغداد - وسط العراق

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Ground Water Quality Index (GWQI) has been used in the present study to evaluate suitability of groundwater and drainage water for irrigation purposes in Al-Yusufyiah area - Baghdad Governorate – Central Iraq. This was carried out by subjecting thirteen groundwater samples and three samples from drainage water for comprehensive physic-chemical analysis. This technique requires several parameters to satisfy the calculation. These parameters include physical and chemical characteristics of water samples such as: pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Sodium Adsorption Ration (SAR), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Bicarbonate, Chloride, Nitrate and Sulfate. The results show that Al-Yusufyiah ground and drainage waters unsuitable for irrigation purposes except five samples of ground water are doubtful which are (W1, W2, W7, W8 and W9). The high value of GWQI has been found to be mainly due to the higher value of TDS, EC, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, Cl-, and SO4-2. Such waters are not suitable for irrigation purposes under normal condition and further action for salinity control is required.


Article
Late Pleistocene - Holocene Paleoecology of Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq
البيئة القديمة لحوض الرافدين الجنوبي خلال البلايستوسين المتأخر – الهولوسين في العراق

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Abstract

The distributions of rivers, back swamps, delta, and ancient marine shore line of Southern Mesopotamia during Late Pleistocene – Holocene have been studied depending on the ostracoda and foraminifera assemblages as ecological indicators to determine the ecofacies and paleosalinities, which diagnose different depositional environments. The data are collected from 86 boreholes (including 12 deep boreholes), covering almost the entire Southern Mesopotamia. Rates of sedimentation are calculated and corrected for compaction in this study, relative to previously measured C14 dating by some authors, for the marine and non- marine (Ur Flood) deposits. Those rates of sedimentation found in this study are varies from a borehole to another, according to the environment of deposition; fluvial, back swamps, deltaic or marine environments. The base of the Ur Flood bed is considered as a marker for correlations between the studied boreholes, and to distinguish the successive depositional cycles basing on their faunal content of ostracoda and foraminifera. Accordingly, nine paleoecological maps for the Southern Mesopotamia are made to represent the age intervals between 22000 B.P. to 1000 B.P., showing the distribution of ancient rivers, back swamps, delta and ancient marine shore line.


Article
Uses of Sand Dunes as Building Materials
استعمال رمال الكثبان الرملية كمواد بناء

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Abstract

During the past forty years, and due to the global climate changes, Iraq had and still suffering from the spreading and expansion of large dune fields in which many new generations have been accumulated, and older ones have expanded leading to the desertification of huge agricultural and urban areas and causing vast environmental problems that have a drastic effect on the life style of the population. To tackle such a problem, many methods have been suggested and even more are applied to fix the dunes or at least to limit their spreading so that to lessen the environmental impact. Such efforts were tried in many dune areas in Iraq, but it was in vain due to the classical nature of remedy that deals only with temporary and limited results, and in many cases worsening the problem. This is evidenced from the increased nature of dune fields in both area and problems. In this study four major dune fields expanding along four governorates in middle and southern Iraq were studied minerallogically, texturally, and chemically to attest their suitability as fine aggregate for concrete mixtures. These sands are composed of major quartz, feldspars, and calcite minerals, and are devoid of fines (clays), organic matters, and salts. Explicit dune sands of the studied area are not suitable as fine aggregate due to their poor grading, trial on mixing these sands with well-graded river sand (Dibhdiba Formation Sand) in different proportions show that the 35% is optimal for normal load works. Al-Muthana dune sands show the highest evaluations. Missan dune sands were further tested for producing pavement interlock bricks, the results confirmed their aptness for exploitation both economically and environmentally.

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Article
Assessment of water Quality Index of Groundwater in Al-Khadhimiya city
تقييم مؤشرجودة المياه في المياه الجوفية في مدينة الكاظمية

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The present study deals with the assessment of water Quality Index to theAl-Khadhimiya Groundwater city, by collection groundwater from 13wells during four seasons, subjecting the samples to a comprehensive physicochemical analysis. The 13 parameters have been considered: pH, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, turbidity, nitrate, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, Sulfate, Chloride, zinc, manganic, and iron, that are used for calculating the WQI. From the result shown, the most groundwater quality lies in Unfit for human drinking purpose. The wells (1 and 11) and wells (3 and 10) were a bad water quality for drinking purpose since they lie in poor and in very poor respectively according to the WQI. The prime causes of deterioration groundwater quality are turbidity, Hardness, Cl, SO4, Ca and Mg.


Article
The Oil Fields Relation to the Tectonic Boundaries that inferred from Seismic and Gravity Interpretation in Kut-Hai-Fajir and Surrounding Area, Central Iraq
علاقة الحقول النفطية مع الفوالق التكتونية المستنبطة من التفسيرات الزلزالية والجذبية لمنطقة الكوت- الديوانية- الفجر والمناطق المحيطة،وسط العراق

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The seismic reflection and gravity data were used to detect the tectonic boundaries in Kut-Hai-Fajir and surrounding areas, central Iraq. The depth maps of Dammam, Nhr Umr, and Sulaiy, formations were constructed and used to detect some boundareis in the study area. The residual gravity map and Total Horizantal derivative (THDR) also used to detected the tectonic boundaries. It is obtained that most boundaries or faults found in the deep formations; while some of them showen in the shallow fomations. The faults or boundaries obtained from gravity intrpretation mostly coincied with the deepest formation boundaries. Generally, the grvity anomalies conform the morphological feature locations within the depth maps of the formations. Many longitudinal and transverse faults were traced from the seismic and gravity interpretation. It is concluded that the oil fields in the study area lying within certain tectonic zones and coincide with the positive residual gervity anomalies of spacing window of 8 km; mostly near the zero line values. It is believed that the integrated interpretation of residual gravity anomalies with the depth maps of some formations, that inferred from seismic data, gives good results for evaluation of an area for oil exploration


Article
Microfacies Evaluation of Mauddud Formation in Ratawi Field, South Iraq
تقييم السحنات الدقيقة لتكوين المودود في حقل رطاوي، جنوب العراق

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This paper includes studying the microfacies evalution of Mauddud Formaion in four wells(Rt-2, Rt-5, Rt17 and Rt-19). Seventy-seven(77) sampels were collected of above mentioned wells. Based on fossil content of the samples under study, four main microfacies were identified: packstone , wakestone , grainstone and lime mudstone microfacies ,which deposited in shallow open marine and restricted marine environments. Petrographic examination of thin section indicated that diagenesis vary in intensity from one site to another, such as dissolution, cementation, compaction, dolomitization and micritization, which led to the improvement and deterioration of porosity. The dominant pore types are vuggy, interparticle and intercrystal.The lithology, mineralogy and the matrix were determined by using crossplot method, which showed that the predominant lithology of the formation is limestone with the presence of dolomite in very few percentages and the mineralogy is calcite. Based on the relationship between porosity and permeability the resevoir performance of the microfacies classified into four types: bad, fair, good and very good. Based on petrophysical properties and core description of well study Mauddud Formation was divided into four rock units A,B,C and D , in terms of reservoir, units A and C are considered good ,while B and D are bad.


Article
Structural and Stratigraphic Study of the Nahr Umr Formation (Lower Cretaceous) Using 3D seismic Survey in Abu Amood Oil Filed, Southern Iraq
دراسة تركيبية طباقية لتكوين نهر عمر (الطباشيري الاسفل) بأستخدام مسح ثلاثي الابعاد في حقل "ابو عامود النفطي" في الجزء الجنوبي من العراق.

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3D seismic reflection study was applied to Abu Amood oil field which is located at the southern part of Iraq within DhiQar province that carried out by oil Exploration Company to an area of 1534.88 Km2 for studying Nahr Umr Formation. Synthetic seismogram was prepared by using available data of well (AAM-1) in order to define and picking the reflectors on the seismic section. These reflectors are (Top of Nahr Umr Formation and middle unit of Nahr Umr Formation which represents the layer of sand). The seismic section time slice maps confirmed that the Nahr Umr Formation was not affected by faults and the faults may probably present in the Ratawai and Yamama Formations, where the variance attribute applied on seismic sections showed that the area was affected by normal fault, this fault was very deep. The time, velocity, and depth maps are drawn for the top of Nahr Umr Formation to get the structural picture: these maps showed that Abu Amood oil field was a semi symmetrical structure that has an axis trending NW-SE, the slope of NE limb is greater than SW limb. Isochrone and Isopach maps are drawn for Nahr Umr Formation to display thickness of Nahr Umr Formation which gradually increases to the west as well as NW and SW parts of the study area and more gradually increases to the East and NE part of the study area. Seismic attributes were applied to the study area (instantaneous phase, instantaneous frequency and variance attribute) these attributes showed the presence of Direct Hydrocarbone Indicator at Nahr Umr Formation in Lower Cretaceous age as a Dim spot at In-lines 51500 and 49500 by applying instantaneous phase and bright spot at AAM-1 well by applying instantaneous frequency.


Article
Efficient Plain Password Cryptanalysis Techniques
تقنيات كفوءة لتحليل تشفير كلمة المرور الصريحة

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Abstract

In this research work, some low complexity and efficient cryptanalysis approaches are proposed to decrypt password (encryption keys). Passwords are still one of the most common means of securing computer systems. Most organizations rely on password authentication systems, and therefore, it is very important for them to enforce their users to have strong passwords. They usually ignore the importance of usability of the password for the users. The more complex they are the more they frustrate users and they end up with some coping strategies such as adding “123” at the end of their passwords or repeating a word to make their passwords longer, which reduces the security of the password, and more importantly there is no scientific basis for these password creation policies to make sure that passwords that are created based on these rules are resistance against real attacks. The current research work describes different password creation policies and password checkers that try to help users create strong passwords and addresses their issues. Metrics for password strength are explored in this research and efficient approaches to calculate these metrics for password distributions are introduced. Furthermore, efficient technique to estimate password strength based on its likelihood of being cracked by an attacker is described. In addition, a tool called PAM has been developed and explained in details in this paper to help users have strong passwords using these metrics; PAM is a password analyzer and modifier.


Article
Solving of Chromatic Number, Chromatic Polynomial and Chromaticity for a Kind of 6-Bridge Graph Using Maplesoft
طريقة حل عدد التلوين ومتعددة حدود التلوين واللونية لنوع من بيانات الجسور الستة باستخدام برنامج Maplesoft

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Maplesoft is a technical computation forms which is a heart of problem solving in mathematics especially in graph theory. Maplesoft has established itself as the computer algebra system for researchers. Maplesoft has more mathematical algorithms which is covering a wide range of applications. A new family θ(3,3,3,4,5,5) of 6-bridge graph still not completely solved for chromatic number, chromatic polynomial and chromaticity. In this paper we apply maplesoft on a kind of 6-bridge graph (G) to obtain chromatic number, chromatic polynomial and chromaticity. The computations are shown that graph G contents 3 different colours for all vertices, 112410 different ways to colour a graph such that any two adjacent vertices have different colour by using 3 different colour, graph G has isomorphic graph which has same chromatic polynomial of graph G. The odd number of vertices located in one of these bridges made chromatic number 3. The chromatic number was the important factor that made the number of way 112410. A bijection function α created isomorphic graph H to graph G and the chromatic polynomial of H was P(H,λ)=P(G,λ).


Article
The Effect of Using Inter-Frame Coding with Jpeg to Improve the Compression of Satellite Images
تأثير استخدام الترميز الزماني بين الصور مع طريقة JPEG لتحسين ضغط الصور الفضائية

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Many recent satellite image compression methods depends on removing the spectral and spatial redundancies within image only , such these methods known as intra-frame(image) coding such as predictive and transformed based techniques , but these contributions needs a hard work in order to improve the compression performance also most of them are applied on individual data. The other trend is to exploit the temporal redundancy between the successive satellite images captured for the same area from different views, different sensors, or at different times, which will be much correlated and removing this redundancy will improve the compression performance and this principle known as inter-frame(image) coding .In this paper, a latest powerful method for compressing sequences of satellite images using inter-frame coding concept with compression method (JPEG) has been presented to satisfy higher compression performance while keeping images quality as well as preservation of significant image details. The experimented results show that the proposed method outperformed many of lossy methods including JPEG.


Article
The Effect of Using Inter-Frame Coding with Jpeg to Improve the Compression of Satellite Images

Authors: Aseel M.Mahdi --- Loay E.George --- Faisal G. Mohammed
Pages: 1970-1978
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Abstract

Many recent satellite image compression methods depends on removing the spectral and spatial redundancies within image only , such these methods known as intra-frame(image) coding such as predictive and transformed based techniques , but these contributions needs a hard work in order to improve the compression performance also most of them are applied on individual data. The other trend is to exploit the temporal redundancy between the successive satellite images captured for the same area from different views, different sensors, or at different times, which will be much correlated and removing this redundancy will improve the compression performance and this principle known as inter-frame(image) coding .In this paper, a latest powerful method for compressing sequences of satellite images using inter-frame coding concept with compression method (JPEG) has been presented to satisfy higher compression performance while keeping images quality as well as preservation of significant image details. The experimented results show that the proposed method outperformed many of lossy methods including JPEG.

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Article
The Bulk of Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) Acceleration as Seen From the Intensity-Time Profile
تعجيل الجسيمات الشمسية ذات الطاقة العالية اعتمادا على الرسم البياني للشدة مع الزمن

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In this work 27 events have been chosen for the period from (17 Feb 2000 to 10 Sep 2014) to analyze their intensity profile and find out what is the most effective reason behind the bulk of the accelerated SEPs as seen in the interval from the onset to the maximum intensity. It was found that the parameters of the associated eruptions (CME and solar flare) could play a major role in this acceleration. We considered some of these parameters such as: flare class related to soft X-ray flux, CME's speed and acceleration, site of the eruption (western, eastern) and particle transport in the IP medium. The shape of the profile showed a clear changing in ΔT1 (time from onset to maximum), as an inverse relation with the acceleration of coronal mass ejection (CME) and the class of the flare associated. While the value of the maximum intensity was found to have a direct proportional relation with the speed of CME and the class of the flare.

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