Table of content

Journal of Oral and Dental Research

مجلة طب الفم والاسنان

ISSN: 23106417
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research
Faculty:
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal of Oral and Dental Research (JODR) is an international peer‐reviewed scientific journal. The aim of the JODR is to publish high standard original papers related to dental, oral and craniofacial structures in health and disease. Basic research, clinical case studies and reviews will be considered for publication. The journal will be published biannually online. The JODR is the official journal for the Iraqi Association for Oral Research, the Iraqi Division of the International Association for Dental Research.
The publication will be on a rolling basis, with manuscripts being published on the site as soon as they make it through the peer-review process. This increases the exposure of the articles and keeps the JODR current. Manuscripts are now being accepted and submissions are welcome from authors from around the world, for basic research, case reports and literature reviews.

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Table of content: 2017 volume:4 issue:2

Article
Effect of Some Medicines on Caries of Deciduous Teeth

Authors: Manar M. Mahmoud --- Saher S. Gasgoos
Pages: 52-61
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Abstract

Background Dental caries in addition known as tooth decay is a breakdown of teeth due to actions of bacteria. The cavities may be a number of dissimilar colors from yellow to black. Symptoms may contain pain and diffculty with eating. Aims To determine the direct effect of the oral medicines which were used for long time by children on the teeth. To reduce the negative effect of these drugs. Material and Methods the study used medications that are prescribed for children for long time that administrated only orally to determine the direct effect of these drugs. The study sample included lower deciduous molars, which were obtained from children who required extraction of their mobile molars after taking the agreement of parents. Sample size was (50) freshly extracted, caries-free lower molar of patients aged 10-12 years old. Teeth were divided into fve groups with 10 samples in each group, natural saliva was collected from a number of children and was added to the solution to simulate the oral cavity. The incubation period was 32 days then sectioning the samples and measure the lesion depth by polarized microscope. Results Verapamil produced maximum lesion depth in enamel while Dexamethasone was associated with minimum lesion depth. Conclusion it is obvious that all test medications affect the enamel of tooth by different degree.

Keywords

deciduous teeth --- enamel --- caries --- medications


Article
Dental Caries and gingivitis associated with Mutans Streptococci among children

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Abstract

Background Dental Caries is the most prevalent oral disease among children caused by Streptococci mutans, which produces acids that cause tooth surface breakdown and subsequent formation of cavity which encourage growth of bacterial bioflms and cause the gingivitis. Objective The aim was to assess the prevalence of dental Caries and severity of gingivitis among school children and to correlate it with the Streptococcus mutans counts. Materials and Methods Five hundred and eighty (580) school children participated in this study. Dental caries was evaluated by the decayedmissing flled Index (dmft) while gingival index was used for assessed gingival health status. Snyder test was used to determine dental caries activity, Microbial counts of Streptococcus mutans were recorded for each group. Results the study indicates that the prevalence of dental caries had decreased with age from (93.2%) in group A students (7-9 years) to (88.3%) and (85.7%) in group B (10-12 years) and group C (13-15 years) respectively. The mean dmft values have increased with age from 4.5 in group A students to 4.8 in group B and 5.1 in group C. Prevalence of gingivitis increased with age, the mean gingival score were between 1.7 and 2.2. The count of Streptococcus mutans had been increased with age ranged from 4.2×104 cfu/ml to 2×105 cfu/ml and children with severe inflammation gingivitis are more likely to have high counts of Streptococcus mutans. Conclusion Bad oral hygiene and moderate gingivitis are highly prevalent among school children. No correlation was found between the mean dmft and the number of Streptococcus mutans (cfu), High Streptococcus mutans levels showed directly co-associated with increased severity of gingivitis at older ages, indicated a positive correlation was found between the presence of gingivitis and the number of S. mutans.


Article
Factors influencing Management Outcome of Hospitalised Patients with Odontogenic Infection

Authors: Suha Aloosi --- Hydar Abdullah --- Faaiz Alhamdani
Pages: 72-81
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Abstract

Introduction: Facial cellulitis and abscesses are common in public health problems and early recognition and management is critical, as they are becoming more severe with a noticeable increase in hospitalization. Despite the plethora of studies on odontogenic infections, there are no previously published studies about odontogenic infection outcome of the Iraqi population. Aim: This study was conducted to determine factors influencing the clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients with odontogenic infections. Material and methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the oral and maxillofacial surgery department in Sulaimani teaching hospital, Kurdistan-Iraq. Sixty patients with odontogenic infection were hospitalised and treated surgically by incision and drainage, removal of the cause and antibiotic. Treatment outcomes were evaluated. The data were statistically analyzed and compared. Results The highest incidence of infections was found in the sub-mandibular and infra-orbital spaces (28.3% and 28.3% respectively). A signifcant relationship was found between trismus severity and the space involved (p= 0.000). Sub-masseteric space was more associated with grade III trismus and the longest duration of hospitalization. The relationship between type of involved space and duration of hospitalization was signifcant (p=0.000). Patients treated with Amoxicillin showed statistical reduction in the duration of the drain need (p = 0.022), hospitalization time (p = 0.002). A signifcant negative relation between the time of removal of infection cause and duration of hospitalization (p=0.001) was seen. The study showed a positive correlation between severity of trismus and duration of drain placement (p=0.001), duration of antibiotic and hospitalization (p=0.00). Conclusion Early removal of the causative tooth and severity of trismus seem to influence the odontogenic infection management outcome in terms of duration of antibiotic use, duration of drainage and hospital stay.

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Article
Effect of Class II Amalgam and Composite Restorations on Periodontal Health of Posterior Teeth: An in vivo study

Authors: Saher S. Gasgoos --- Sarra A. AL-Sanjary
Pages: 82-92
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Abstract

Background Periodontal health at the restorative gingival interface continues to represent one of the most diffcult challenges. Unfortunately, they only mimic the physical and morphological aspects of teeth, as they are limited by the absence of the ‘ideal material’ that would provide characteristics similar to the normal tooth structure. Aims To determine the influence of class II amalgam and composite restorative materials on plaque accumulation, gingivitis and periodontal pocket depth. Materials and Methods One hundred patients were included in the study. The age ranged between (21-24) years old. The sample was composed of two groups (50 patients each), with an equal ratio of males and females. The tested restoration types were: amalgam class II (MO) and composite class II (MO) of 2-3 years. The following periodontal parameters: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and pocket depth (PD) in mm were recorded for each restored tooth compared with non-restored tooth on the other side of the mouth as a control. Results The results showed that amalgam induce the higher means of plaque, gingivitis and pocket depth compared with composite. The mean of the three parameters, as compared to control group, were statistically higher in the restored amalgam surfaces (p<0.05). For composite restoration the means of the three parameters were also higher but not in signifcant levels for both plaque index and gingival Index, except for pocket depth of the restored surfaces were signifcantly higher than the controlled surfaces. However, there were no signifcant differences in the ranks of the three mesial indices of patients having amalgam in comparison with those having composite. Conclusion This study suggests that composite restorations did not have a signifcant advantage on periodontal health over amalgam restorations for Class II posterior teeth.


Article
Relation of Maxillary Central Incisors Width to some Facial Measurements

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Abstract

Background Using the extraoral indicators is a common method to determine the size and shape of the artifcial teeth. Aim This study was conducted to assess the relationship between the mesiodistal width of maxillary central incisors and some facial anatomical landmarks (Bizygomatic and Inter-canthal distance) Materials and Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 adult students, with the age range between 18-25. Mesiodistal widths of maxillary central incisors and two facial widths (bizygomatic and inter-canthal) were marked and measured by digital caliper to the nearest of 0.01mm. Data were analyzed statistically using SPSS (V-18) software. Results The statistical Analysis demonstrated the correlation of the mesiodistal width of a right central incisor with bizygomatic and inner-canthal widths was signifcant at P-Value of (P< 0.05), Spearman›s correlation of bizygomatic for male was 0.358 and female was 0.305, and the spearman›s correlation of intercanthal for male was 0.318 and female was 0.312. In the male, the correlation of the mesiodistal width of a left central incisor with bizygomatic and intercanthal widths was weak; Spearman›s correlation was 0.043 for bizygomatic and was 0.123 for intercanthal. While for female, it showed a strong correlation, spearman›s correlation was 0.349 for bizygomatic and was 0.298 for intercanthal. Conclusion The results proposed that the inter-canthal and bizygomatic widths are both good prognostic factor in determining the mesiodistal width of the maxillary right central incisor. Also concluded that the correlation between maxillary central incisor width and bizygomatic and inter-canthal widths could be differed by gender.


Article
The Effect of Green Tea Polyphenol (EGCG) on Orthodontic Micro-Implant Stability: An experimental study

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Abstract

Background Increasing the orthodontic micro-implant stability and enhancing bone response around it, is a fundamental objective of successful therapy. Materials and Methods Thirty orthodontic micro-implants, 1.3 mm in width and 5 mm in length (Dentos, AbsoAnchor, South Korea), were used with three implants were inserted in the right tibias of ten New Zealand rabbits, the rabbits categories into two groups, fve each. The primary stability was measured once the implant inserted, using Periotest. The experimental group fed (0.5% wt/vol/day) Green Tea, using the loading technique, for four weeks interval. At the end of the experimental period, the rabbits were sacrifced, and the secondary stability measurement was taken. Results Using paired t-test, the results showed a signifcant increase in secondary stability for the experimental group after four weeks experimental period when compared with the primary one. While the control group showed a non-signifcant increase in the secondary stability compared with the primary one. Conclusion This study concluded that the Green Tea could enhance bone response around orthodontic micro-implant within four weeks healing period and consequently increase the stability of orthodontic micro-implant

Keywords

Green Tea --- Micro-Implant --- Stability


Article
The Association of Salivary Calcium, Inorganic Phosphorus, Zinc and Copper in Children and Early Childhood Caries: A case-control study

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Abstract

Background Dental caries in children is the most common disease worldwide. It remains the most prevalent chronic disease in young children in some developing countries. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in the saliva of pre-school children aged 4-5 years and to evaluate their plausible association with Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Materials and Methods Sixty children were divided into two groups; thirty children with ECC and thirty children without dental caries experience. Two milliliters of unstimulated whole saliva were collected from each child using spitting method. The Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAP) was used to measure the levels of Ca, Zn, and Cu in saliva while Molybdenum Vanadate method was used to estimate the level of salivary P. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and Pearson’s correlation analysis were done. Results Children with ECC demonstrated a higher Ca levels than caries-free children with a highly signifcant difference (P<0.001) whereas higher levels of P, Zn and Cu were found in caries-free children compared to children with ECC. A positive correlation to ECC was observed in salivary Ca while the correlation was negative in salivary P, Zn, and Cu. Conclusions Considerable variations in the levels of salivary elements between ECC and caries free children were noted. The correlation between salivary P, Zn, and Cu and ECC was negative and more studies are needed to determine the maximum effcacy of these elements in preventing ECC in children.


Article
A Microleakage evaluation of Sonicfll, Silorane-based and nanofll methacrylate-based composites (a comparative study)

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Introduction Resin composites have been improved greatly nowadays, and many advancement has been reached. However, polymerization shrinkage is still a challenging drawback of composite resin restorations. Objectives this study was conducted with aim of comparing, in vitro, the marginal adaptation of three different, low shrinkages, direct posterior composites. Materials and Methods The following composites, Sonic fll® (nanohybrid composite), Filtek® P90 (Silorane-based composite) and Filtek® Z350 (nanofll composite) utilizing a standardized Class V cavity preparation followed by thermal cycling. Sixty human premolars prepared with standardized Class V cavities. The specimens were divided into three groups (n=20) according to the material used. All specimens were subjected to thermocycling at (5° to 55°C), then immersed in 2% methylene blue dye for 24hrs. For each group microleakage at the occlusal and gingival regions was measured by determining dye penetration using scoring system under steromicroscope at 100x. Results The statistical analysis of the results showed that, silorane-based composite exhibited the lowest microleakage, with statistical signifcant difference (p< 0.05) when compared with Sonicfll® composite and Filtek® Z350 XT nanofll composite. On the other hand, the results of this study showed non-signifcant difference between Sonic fll® composite and Filtek® Z350 XT. Also, there is a signifcant difference ( < 0.01) in dye penetration between occlusal and gingival regions within each group. Conclusion Taking into consideration the types of composites tested in this study, we recommend the clinical use of Siloran-based composite material for higher microleakage resistance and better marginal seal.


Article
Diagnostic Value of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in Salivary Gland Tumors

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Introduction Salivary gland tumors represent the most complex and diverse group of tumors encountered in the head and neck region. The diagnosis of these tumors is challenging and the histological examination in the form of incisional biopsy is the standard preoperative diagnostic method, but for major salivary glands this technique harbors the potential for facial scar, facial nerve injury, development of fstula and tumor cells spillage. This is why it is restricted to the minor gland pathology It is restricted to the minor gland pathology. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), on the other hand, does not have such complications and therefore it is more accepted and preferable as a preoperative diagnostic method. Aim Assessment of diagnostic value of fne needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in salivary gland tumors. Patients and Methods Twenty patients were involved; FNAC was performed. The study was conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Alshaheed Ghazi Alhareery for Specialized Surgeries Hospital at Medical City_ Baghdad, in the period from November 2015 to November 2016. FNAC was performed as preoperative diagnostic tool Results There was no signifcant difference between benign and malignant salivary gland tumors in terms of patients’ age and gender. The majority of tumors were in the parotid and minor salivary glands in the palate respectively. The malignant tumors showed higher prevalence, Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma followed by Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma were the most common malignant tumors while Pleomorphic Adenoma was the most common benign tumor. The values of FNAC Accuracy, Sensitivity, Specifcity, Positive predictive value (PPV) and Negative predictive value (NPV) were: 85%, 84.62%, 85.71%, 91.7% and 75% respectively. Conclusions FNAC has a reasonable reliability in differentiating benign and malignant salivary gland tumors with accepted level of accuracy, sensitivity, specifcity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. The high positive predictive value of FNAC in this study indicates the good reliability to confrm the malignancy.


Article
Localization of Infra Orbital Foramen in Kurdish skulls

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Background Precise localization of infraorbital foramen is important for the better outcome of diagnostic, surgical or therapeutic procedures relating to maxillofacial region. Objectives it was to fnd the exact anatomical location of infraorbital foramen (IOF) in relation to infraorbital margin (IOM), piriform aperture (PA), anterior nasal spine (ANS), nasion (N), rhinion (RH), and frontomalare orbitale (FMO) in Kurdish cadaver skulls. Materials and Methods This study was performed on 40 human Kurdish dry skulls (total of 80 sides) irrespective of age and gender. The skulls were collected from department of anatomy, college of medicine, University of Sulaimani, Hawler, and Duhok. The study performed between 2013 and 2016. Special digital vernier caliper was used to measure the distance between IOF and each of the IOM, PA, ANS, N, RH, and FMO. Results There was a signifcant difference between right and left measurements of the skull (P<0.05). Almost all measurements were higher on the right side except the dimension between IOF-IOM which was higher on the left side. Conclusion location of IOF relating to the anatomical landmarks that have been used in this study was determined and should be considered while the following procedures; diagnostic procedures, giving local anesthesia and surgical intervention are performed in this anatomically important area.


Article
Salivary and Serum Oxidant/Antioxidant Level in Behçet’s Disease Patients

Authors: Noor H. Mohammad
Pages: 149-157
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Background Behçet’s disease (BD) is a multi-systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulceration. Free oxygen radicals may have a role in the pathogenesis of BD and can relate to the existence of the disease. Objectives This study had been designed to assess salivary and serum lipid per-oxidation as malondialdehyde (MDA) and status of antioxidant as total glutathione (GSH) in patients with BD in comparison with healthy subjects to detect the possible involvement of oxidative stress in BD. Materials and methods This is a case–control study, salivary and serum samples were taken from ffty BD patients with an age range 20 to 56 years with mean age 35.3 ± 7.6 years and ffty healthy control subjects with age range 16 to 58 years and mean age 34.8± 9.1 years. All were analyzed for MDA and GSH spectrophotometrically. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, P (ANOVA) test, Chi-square (2X) test, Pearson correlation and Receiver Operating Characteristic statistical analyses. Results The study showed that salivary and serum MDA level was higher in BD patients than in healthy subjects (P<0.05 and P<0.001 respectively). The levels of saliva and serum total GSH were signifcantly lower in BD patients than in healthy subjects. (P <0.001). Conclusion The results of this study revealed that BD patients were subjected to oxidative stress damage and saliva could be used as pain-free alternatively to serum in determining oxidative stress in Behçet’s disease.

Keywords

Behçet’s disease --- MDA --- GSH --- saliva --- serum


Article
The Effect of Carrageenan on Lymphoma Patients under Chemotherapy (A case series study)

Authors: Israa A. Al-Mamory --- Fawaz D. Al-Aswad
Pages: 158-168
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Abstract

Background There are three types of carrageenan available (iota, kappa, and lambda) which differ in composition and degree of sulfation in polymeric structure. A malignant lymphocytes that accumulate in lymph nodes causes a group of diseases called Lymphomas causing the characteristics lymphadenopathy. These may pelt over into the blood or infltrate organs outside the lymphoid tissue. They are Hodgkin›s lymphoma and non–Hodgkin›s lymphoma and this is based on the histologic presence of Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin›s lymphoma. Objectives The present study designated to determine the oral manifestations after application of carrageenan in patients with Hodgkin›s& Non-Hodgkin›s lymphoma receiving chemotherapy and to determine the effect of topical carrageenan on the levels of salivary immunoglobulin A, interleuekin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in Hodgkin›s & non-Hodgkin›s lymphoma patients. Results The oral manifestations was in Non-Hodgkin›s lymphoma patients (64%) and in Hodgkin›s lymphoma patients (36%) taste alteration, followed by burning mouth syndrome, dry mouth and lastly candidiasis with signifcant differences after application of carrageenan p>0.05.The levels of salivary immunoglobulin A, interleuekin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were slightly decreased but not signifcantly differences after carrageenan application. Conclusions The carrageenan effects on oral lesion may allow the use of Κ –carrageenan as a base or primary compound in dental practice besides the other compounds like chlorhexidine. The salivary immunological markers level slightly decreased in lymphoma patients after receiving carrageenan which indicate that there is no absorption from oral mucosa.


Article
Evaluation of The Cleaning Effciency of Oneshape, Waveone, Reciproc and Protaper Systems Using Digital Image Morphometric Analysis (An in vitro study)

Authors: Luma A. Al-Dulaimi --- Hikmet A. Al-Gharrawi
Pages: 169-183
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Background Complete removal of debris during the process of root canal therapy is of paramount importance in order to achieve the objectives of endodontic treatment. Objectives This in vitro study was conducted to compare the effciency of four different rotary instrumentation systems in removing dentin debris at three levels of root canals. Materials and methods Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular premolar with single straight root canals were selected and randomly divided into four groups of fهfteen teeth each; Group I: prepared by rotary ProTaper system (Full rotary technique), Group II: prepared by single fle Reciproc system (Reciprocating technique), Group III: was prepared by single fle WaveOne system (Reciprocating technique), and Group IV: was prepared by single fle OneShape system (Full rotary technique). These groups were prepared to an apical preparation corresponding to size 25 K-fle. Sodium hypochlorite (3%) was used as an irrigant in all cases. After canals preparation, the roots were split longitudinally and photographed with a professional digital camera. The images of root sections were then magnifed to 100x and the percentage of remaining dentin debris was calculated for the apical (0-3 mm), middle (3-6 mm) and coronal (6-9 mm) levels through dividing the pixels occupied by debris at each level by the total pixels representing the entire area of the canal using Adobe Photoshop CS6. Data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and LSD tests. Results Reciproc, WaveOne and OneShape systems showed signifcantly better cleaning effciency than Protaper system in the apical and coronal levels (p < 0.05). While in the middle level, no signifcant differences were obtained among all systems (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion Under the conditions of this study, the use of OneShape, WaveOne and Reciproc systems was signifcantly more effective than ProTaper system in eliminating debris from root canals at all levels.

Table of content: volume:4 issue:2