Table of content

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Contact info

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2017 volume:20 issue:4

Article
Polyether Hexadentate Schiff Base Ligand with Trivalent Chromium, Iron, Cobalt Ions

Authors: Farah M. Ibrahim
Pages: 1-6
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Abstract

Williamson etherification method used to prepared ether compound from salicylaldehyde with 1,3-dibromopropane and potassium carbonate as base, this compound used with 2-amino-4-chlorophenol to prepare polyether hexadentate Schiff base ligand (HSL) by the 1:2 molar condensations. Cr 3+, Fe 3+, Co 3+ ions were reacted with HSL and characterized by 1H NMR and 13CNMR technique, infrared, electronic spectra, elemental analysis, thermal analysis, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements, from results the metal ion was bonded to the HSL through the phenol oxygen, imine nitrogen and ether oxygen atoms to suggest octahedral configurations. The biological activity of HSL with its complexes have been studied.


Article
Electrodeposition of Antimony from Hydrated Ammonium Aluminum Sulfate-Urea Room Temperature Ionic Liquid

Authors: Hadi M. A. Abood --- Azal U. Ahmed
Pages: 7-12
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Abstract

The electrochemical stability of antimony in a water stable room temperature ionic liquid composed of 1:5 mole ratio of hydrated ammonium aluminum sulfate – urea ionic liquid at 30 °C was investigated at 0.3 M antimony (III) chloride solution. The electroplating of antimony at -0.8 V showed black coating on copper substrate. The stability of this cation in this ionic liquid was studied by cyclovoltammogram. The electrodeposition was followed up by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The nanoparticles size of the metal were in the range of less than 500nm


Article
Preparation Pilocarpine Hydrochloride Selective Electrodes

Authors: Amina M. Abass
Pages: 13-19
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Abstract

New eight selective electrodes of pilocarpine hydrochloride deepened on complexes of (PCH) -molybdophosphoric acid and (PCH) – phosphotungstate were prepared with varied plasticizers. Electrode with complex (DBPH-MP) was used as an active material, gave linear range from 5.0×10-2 to 6.0×10-5 M, and slope was 62.01 mV/decade, with detection limit was 2.0×10-5M, lifetime was near to 60 days. Electrode,s membrane made with active material (DBP-MP), showed concentration range was 2.1×10-3-6.3×10-5M, the slope was near to 52.34 mV/decade. Detection limit was 1.0×10-5M, 55 days was the life time of this electrode. The parameters of electrode deepened on (DBPH-PT), concentration range was from 5.0×10-2 to 6.5×10-5 M with slope 50.41 mV/decade, 2.2×10-5 M was the detection limit.Life time was determined around to 52 days.


Article
Magnesium and Aluminum Oxides Formation Via Conversion Coating of Magnesium Metal in Alcl3/Urea Room Temperature Ionic Liquid

Authors: Hadi. M.A. Abood --- Rasha. H. Alwan
Pages: 20-26
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Abstract

A highly adherent conversion coating has fabricated on pure magnesium by the treatment with AlCl3/urea room temperature ionic liquid. The conversion coated surface was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated and coated Mg metal was evaluated in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The coating was homogenous, rough, and was covered the entire magnesium substrate surface. The resulted coating was achieved in 40 min at room temperature as thin films of about 5µm thickness and composed of Al2O3 and magnesium aluminum mixed oxide. Polarization study of the coated specimen showed decreasing in the corrosion potential with remarkable lowering of the corrosion current comparing to that of bare Mg metal.


Article
A study on Antitumor Effect of 1, 2, 4-Thiadiazole Derivatives in Liver and Breast Cancer Cell Lines Hep G2 by Using (HCS) Technique

Authors: Sarah A. Mahdi
Pages: 27-31
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Abstract

Multi-parametric investigation of composite poisoning at the level of specific cells, by using cellular and pour cytometry showing constructed tactics for example high-content screening, play key roles to find the poisoning and arrangement of components deepened on notice forms reversible and irreversible cellular disadvantage. To probe the effect of 1,2,4-triazole derivative cultured cellular model (liver carcinoma cell line) using HCS, this work was achieved. By an induction of apoptosis, with cells then was tested by Annexing V spotting and cell decrease as demonstrated .The products indicated that the derivative lead in the disturbance of membrane mitochondrial potential (MMP), cell tissue perviousness, nuclear abbreviation, shatter and freedom for cytochrome c of the mitochondrial addicted on cytosol. This finding suggests that derivative is a potential liver carcinoma inhibitor matched to doxorubicin as affirmative control. Also the data indicated that 1,2,4-triazole derivative possibly will have therapeutic importance in liver cancer treatment which value more development.


Article
Aggregation and Characterization of ZnO Nano Particles Using Laser Ablation Technique in Ethanol

Authors: Wisam J. Aziz --- M.A.Abid --- Hanan Kh. Mutlk
Pages: 32-39
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Abstract

In this work, ZnO nanoparticles were snthyesis using pulse laser ablation of zinc target (purity of 99.99%) immersed in ethanol with wave length of Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) operating at different laser energies (700, 800, 900 mJ) with 1Hz and (2000) pulse. A matching of the observed and standard (hkl) planes confirmed that the product is ZnO having a polycrystalline in nature with hexgonal structure perferention in (101) direction. FESEM images showed that NPs have different morphologies and not uniform consist of many small irregular nanoparticles. The surface structure, in the energy 700 mJ has been more uniform compared with others energy.


Article
CAD of Ion Mirror as an Aberration Corrector

Authors: Hussain A. Waheeb --- Hala F. Abass
Pages: 40-43
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Abstract

The present work have has been focused on suggesting a mathematical form of an axial potential distribution for an ion mirror. The equation that has been found gave us the best value of the mirror function. The Bimurzaev techniques had been investigated to find mirror trajectory using Runge-Kutta method. The profiles of the mirror that had been applied under Bimurzaev techniques lead us to conclude that the mirror has two electrodes. The coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberrations of the mirror have been computed and normalized in terms of the focal length. The choice of the mirror depends on the operational requirements, i.e. whether it is intended operate the electrostatic mirror in an optical system at low spherical aberration mode or at low chromatic aberration mode.


Article
The Effect of Additives on Denture Base Resin Properties

Authors: Wafaa A. Hussain --- Furqan Salim Hashim
Pages: 44-50
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Abstract

Numerous studies have been carried out on studying the effect of glass fiber and ZrO2 Nano-particles alone on the mechanical properties of PMMA, to date, no investigations were made that have studied the mechanical properties of PMMA reinforced with glass fiber and zirconium oxide together as a hybrid composite. In this research the effect of addition of glass fibers (woven and chopped) and Zirconium oxide Nano-particles (ZrO2) with different weight percent to the conventional poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has been evaluated. The conventional acrylic resin was used as 2:1 powder to liquid ratio to prepare pure sample, laminate composite prepared by using woven glass fiber (8wt%, 12wt%), fiber-reinforced composite fabricated by chopped glass fiber (8wt%, 12wt%), particle-reinforced composite prepared by using ZrO2 Nano-powder (1, 2, 3) wt%, and the hybrid composite fabricated by using glass fiber as woven or chopped of the two form with ZrO2 Nano-particles. The flexural strength (F.S.) was measured by using three point-bending test. The mechanical test done in order to compare the flexural strength between pure and composite samples. The form of glass fiber with the same weight percent affects the mechanical properties values. Reinforcing PMMA with woven glass fiber and zirconium oxide increase flexural strength, while incorporation of chopped glass fiber decrease the flexural strength. Using the two materials together as a hybrid composite recorded very high raises of flexural strength values. From the results, it's possible to syntheses a denture base resin with good aesthetic and high mechanical properties from fiber and ZrO2 Nano-particles


Article
Natural Radioactivity Measurements in Vegetables at Al-Diwaniyah Governorate, Iraq and Evaluation of Radiological hazard

Authors: Anees A. Al-Hamzawi
Pages: 51-55
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Abstract

The effective technique of γ-spectroscopy using high purity germanium detector (HPGe) has been applied to determine the specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in essential vegetable samples collected from farms of Al-Diwaniyah governorate in the south of Iraq. The specific activity of natural radionuclides was measured in Tomato, Cucumber, Okra, Potato, Radish, Turnip, Spinach, Lettuce, Cauliflower and Onion. The results show that the highest specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in potato product was (11.46, 9.12 and 120.54) Bq/kg, respectively. The average value of specific activity of radium, thorium and potassium in vegetable samples was (7.67, 5.75 and 98.39) Bq/kg, respectively. The results of the radiological hazards were compared with the published data and they were found to be within the safety levels.


Article
Synthesis and Optical Characterization of Ag/PVA Nanocomposites Films

Authors: Hussein T. Salloom
Pages: 56-63
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Abstract

Silver- Poly vinyl alcohol Ag/ PVA nanocomposite films were prepared by casting method at room temperature with different amount of AgNO3 solution (0.001, 0.0015, and 0.002ml). The prepared nanocomposites were characterized using UV–VIS spectrophotometer and the optical properties were investigated in the wavelength range 300-800 nm. The absorption peaks showed a shift towards higher wavelength with increasing AgNO3 concentration while the energy band gap and absorption edges shifted towards lower energies with the increase of AgNO3 concentration.


Article
Studying the Kidney Textural Using Statistical Features and Local Binary Pattern

Authors: Alyaa Hussein Ali
Pages: 64-76
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Abstract

The structural of image either medical or any other images is describe by their texture, thus the texture is consider as the characteristic information of the image. In this search the Computed tomography (CT) images is used, the images size are 512×512 of (12) images for different kidney cases, four for Cyst, four for Fibrosis and four for Stone case. The watershed segmentation used to segment the Cyst, Fibrosis and Stone from the healthy texture as well as, the “Local Binary Pattern” (LBP) which is a texture descriptor used for locating the Cyst, Fibrosis and stone from the rest images, finally the textural spectrum is used as statistical features, more over the geometrical features are calculated in order to describe the shape and geometry of Cyst, Fibrosis and Stone of the Kidney by finding the irregularity value. The texture features accuracy which are obtained in this search are, for the Fibrosis, the Local Binary Pattern is 89.91%, the Textural Spectrum 92.65% and Local Binary with the Textural Spectrum is 94.55%. For the Cyst texture features accuracy are, the Local Binary Pattern is 93.65%, the Textural Spectrum 94.56% and Local Binary with the Textural Spectrum is 96%. And for the Stone the texture features accuracy are, the Local Binary Pattern is 88.4%, the Textural Spectrum 91.36% and Local Binary with the Textural Spectrum is 95%.


Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Nanochitosan Derivatives and Streptomycin on RD Cell Line and Leishmania Tropica

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Abstract

The study aimed to evaluate in vitro the efficiency of the nano-encapsulated streptomycin within carboxymethylnanochitosan synthesized by an acid-base method on Rhabdomyosarcoma RD cell line and Leishmania tropica. Results showed that the concentrations 100 and 50 µg/ml of encapsulated streptomycin were more effective than 50 and 100 µg/ml of streptomycin alone and inhibited the growth of RD cells to 56 and 35 vs. 19.45 and 23% respectively after 24 hrs of incubation. Carboxymethylnanochitosan at a concentration of 50 µg/ml has the anticancer ability since it inhibited the growth of RD cells up to 20% in comparison with 19% for streptomycin at the same concentration. The growth inhibition of L. tropica in the presence of streptomycin, carboxymethylnanochitosan and streptomycin encapsulated within carboxymethylnanochitosan at 100 µg/ml for each was 34.4, 36 and 29.5% respectively. Carboxymethylnanochitosan is then considered the most effective inhibitor of L. tropica growth.


Article
Effect of Unsteady Magnetic Hydrodynamic on Oscillating Flow for Fractional Burgers’ Model

Authors: Amaal Mohi Nassief
Pages: 81-88
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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is studying the effect of magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) of unsteady flow with fractional Burger’s model between two oscillating parallel plates. The fractional order derivative in described in the Riemann-Liouville sense. The solutions which we obtained of the velocity field and the shear stress by using Laplace transform and Fourier transform in the expression of Mittage-Lefller function. Furthermore, the influence of the parameters on the velocity field spotlighted by means of the several graphs.


Article
On Principally Generalized Lifting Modules

Authors: Aseel Amer Hassan
Pages: 89-93
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Abstract

In this paper we introduce principally generalized lifting as a generalization of principally lifting modules and we prove under certain conditions some relations between Mj-projective (quasi- discrete) and PGD1


Article
Simulation Approach for Estimating the Parameters of the First Type Extreme Value Distribution

Authors: Hakeeem Hussain Hamad Salih
Pages: 94-101
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In this paper, the two parameters of type I extreme value distribution are estimated for the maximum values by using moment’s method and the weighted least square method. The simulation approach is used to compare the obtained results of the applied methods in order to get the best method to estimate the parameters, in which the simulation process starts by generating random samples follows the extreme value distribution. This algorithm is based on three samples of the real parameters and with different sample sizes. The results are tabulated for comparison purpose in connection with the mean square error.


Article
Steganography Using TCP / IP's Sequence Number

Authors: Jamal M. Kadhim --- Abeer E. Abed
Pages: 102-108
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Abstract

The exchanging process inside LAN or through the Internet may be exposed to be stolen, altered or damaged by a baleful person who was represented as real threats to transport process and also to information especially if this information was sensitive, important and must be accessed by only authorized person. Therefore this data must be secured against such threats. Steganography is classified as the art of hiding information in a suitable carrier like image, text, audio and video. It can also be applied to network protocols whether to header or payload of the packet. In this paper, steganography was implemented on the header of IP packet protocol and/or TCP segment protocol by exploiting the sequence number field of this header for hiding information inside it. In addition, four characters would be sent in every connection. So to increase the amount of information which could be sent, the number of connections must be increased.


Article
Hand Geometry and Palmprint Classification System Based on Statistical Analysis

Authors: Sarah Jasim Mohammed
Pages: 109-116
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Abstract

Biometric system is considered of an important type of security systems nowadays, because it relays on the individual traits (physical or behavioral) non-participation between any two people that can't be lost on lifetime and can't be stolen. This paper, will present the individual classification system based on hand geometry and palm texture feature where it is one of the parts of the human body, which has an impressive set of information capable to distinguish and identify individuals. Utilize Principal Component Analysis PCA for palimprint texture feature extraction. The proposed system consists of three phases: image preprocessing, hand feature extraction and pattern classification. Utilize Principal Component Analysis PCA for palimprint texture feature extraction. The proposed system utilized complete hand image inside database consists of 600 pictures, include 100 people, each one has six images. Experimental results show that 98.3% is achieved and that illustrate the applicability of the system in the security's average of different environments.


Article
Offline vs. Online Digital Forensics of Cloud-based Services

Authors: Nidaa F. Hassan --- Haider M. Jaber
Pages: 117-124
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Abstract

Digital forensics has become important due to the daily use of digital devices in our life, which may lead to evidence that can be useful to law enforcement in legal cases. When using cloud services, a lot of artifacts that might be useful for investigations are stored in the cloud which means that the extraction must be from cloud computers systems. So, the legacy forensics tools may not be usable or less effective due to the geographically distribution of data and legal issues among other issues. The challenges of the cloud digital forensics are discussed in this paper. Also, this paper shows the types of extracting data from cloud services that are offline and online extraction. The offline extraction is concerned with extracting data from a local device that used to access cloud services. While online data extraction is concerned with remote extraction of data from cloud services. A comparison between such two types are demonstrated from many ways according to the result of recent papers to show the situations that each type is useful in.


Article
Signal Denoising Using Double Density Discrete Wavelet Transform

Authors: Zainab Sh. Al-Timime
Pages: 125-129
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Abstract

Reality signals do not exist without noise. Wavelet transform based denoising seem to be a powerful tool for suppressing noise in signals. In this paper, we investigate the using of double density discrete wavelet transform “DD-DWT” which based on one scaling function and two wavelet functions, for signal denoising and comparing its performance with the traditional DWT. Three groups of additive White Gaussian Noise levels (5 dB, 3 dB, 2 dB) are added to some standard test signals with both hard and soft threshold function to evaluate the performance of each method in term of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). Experiment results show that DD-DWT performs better than traditional DWT in both RMSE and SNR especially at low SNR.

Keywords

DWT --- DD-DWT --- Signal --- Denoising.


Article
Knowledge Upgrade to Wisdom by Using Knowledge Broker Agent for Web Application, Based on Users’ Experiences

Authors: Hasanen S. Abdullah --- Roaad A. Ali
Pages: 130-141
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Knowledge is an important factor in conduct individual’s life and decision-making process, so decision’s efficiency and power is dependent on knowledge deepen which is possess by individual. The aim of this paper is to build an improved intelligent web application system to provide web service which upgrades and raises knowledge level to wisdom level by aggregate knowledge with experience. The web service is implemented by using the brokerage approach through agent-based knowledge broker web service system, and it related to pre-define field. Java Agent DEvelopment (JADE) platform is used in this system to provide the demand environment for knowledge broker agent to achieve its behaviors. Practical testing by submitting different query belong to the medical field (radiography) demonstrate the system efficiency in retrieving knowledge relevant to submitted query and provide level of knowledge upgraded to wisdom to sustain and support specialist users’ capabilities in making decisions reach wise decisions level.

Table of content: volume:20 issue:4