Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
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• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

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Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:21 issue:6

Article
EXPERIMENTAL AND MATHEMATICAL EVALUATION OF THE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM PERFORMANCE WITH DIFFERENT AMBIENT TEMPERATURE

Authors: Ahmed Abed Mohammed --- Ali Abas Nasser
Pages: 1-19
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Abstract

The present work includes two main parts. Firstly: the experimental part which takes respect of the effect of changing magnitude of supplied voltage to compressor ,condenser air flow rate and evaporator air flow rate on system performance . The effect of ambient temperature on system performance is also considered .The experimental study has been done on a split air- conditioner with a 1 TR nominal capacity .The experimental results show that, reducing the supplied voltage to compressor by 23% caused the refrigeration capacity and COP)tot to decrease by 7.7% and 5.7% ,respectively and when condenser air flow reduced by 35.8%, cause the refrigeration capacity and COP)tot to decrease by 1.6% and 7.1%, respectively . Also the reduce of the evaporator air flow by 46.7%, the refrigeration capacity and COP)tot decreased by 11.4% and 9.6% ,respectively . Secondly the theoretical part, in which a mathematical model has been developed for the vapor compression refrigeration cycle to predict the system performance under the various ambient temperatures. The mathematical model was performed using Matlab software. The comparison between the mathematical results and experimental results, show that, the maximum deviation of condenser capacity, refrigeration capacity, power input to compressor and COP are 1.75%, 3.2%, 3.34% and 4.84%, respectively.


Article
أثر التعليم البيئي على المعرفة والمهارات والمواقف لطلبة الجامعة

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Abstract

ل : يواجه سكان العالم اليوم مشكلة تتعلق بضعف المعلومات الخاصة بمواضيع البيئة والمناخ والاستدامة, الامر الذي يدفع للتساؤل عن الكيفية التي يمكن ان تصبح بها مدن العالم مستدامة اذا كان سكانها لايملكون تلك المعرفة ولا يتمكنون من رؤية البيئة الفيزياوية لمدنهم ومناطقهم الحضرية , وما مؤتمر الامم المتحدة للتغير المناخي الذي تم عقده في باريس عام (2015) بحضور مئة وخمسين دولة للحد من ظاهرة الاحتباس الحراري الا مؤشراً على اهمية وخطورة هذا الموضوع. ولغرض المساهمة في معالجة هذه المعضلة فاننا بحاجة لانشاء اجيال جديدة لها القدرة على التعاطي مع مشاكل البيئة الطبيعية بشكل عملي فعال. وعليه فقد تلخص هدف البحث بيان ضرورة تفعيل موضوع التعليم البيئي في المناهج الدراسية لتطوير القدرات المعرفية والمهارات والمواقف العلمية في مجال البيئة, ومن هنا ظهرت المشكلة البحثية المتعلقة بعدم الاهتمام بتدريس البيئة الطبيعية ومواضيعها وعدم تضمين موضوع (التعليم البيئي) كمادة منهجية في التدريس الامر الذي ادى الى حدوث نقص معرفي لدى الطلبة بالبيئة الطبيعية ومشاكلها وطرق معالجتها مما منعهم من تطوير المهارات اللازمة لاتخاذ المواقف الملائمة لمعالجة المشاكل البيئية مستقبلاً. فرضية البحث يمكن من خلال اضافة مادة (التعليم البيئي) كموضوع اساسي ضمن المفردات المنهجية سد النقص المعرفي لدى الطلبة المتعلق بالبيئة الطبيعية ومشاكلها وبذلك يمكن بناء قاعدة معرفية للطلبة تشجعهم على الولوج في الدراسة البيئية لتطوير مهاراتهم وتؤهلهم ليصبحوا متخصصين في هذا المجال وقادرين على اتخاذ المواقف والقرارات البيئية الصحيحة لانقاذ كوكبنا من الدمار.


Article
اثر تغيير استعمالات الأرض على الخصائص الأجتماعية للمنطقة السكنية

Authors: فرح غازي محمـد
Pages: 14-31
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Abstract

تعاني الهياكل العمرانية السكنية في مدينة بغداد من مشكلات عديده والتي ظهرت نتيجة للقرارت التي أتخذتها أمانة بغداد في تغيير أستعمالات الأرض منذ منتصف عام 1983 من سكنية الى تجارية بموجب قانون اطلاق الشوارع التجارية لمدينة بغداد ,وقد أدى الى ظهور العديد من التأثيرات السلبية على مجتمع سكان المناطق السكنية بسبب التغيير الجوهري والأساس في الوظائف العمرانية والخدمية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية للمناطق المحيطة بتلك الشوارع . لذا هدف البحث الى تحديد الآثار السلبية لهذا التغيير على الخصائص الأجتماعية للمنطقة السكنية. وتوصل البحث إلى ان السماح بتغيير استعمالات الأرض في المدينة وخصوصا الشوارع السكنية يفاقم المشكلة الاجتماعية ،اذ انها تعمل على طرد بعض الأستعمالات الأضعف والأقل قدرة على المنافسة ،مثل الأستعمال السكني الذي يتراجع لصالح التجاري والصناعي. كما ان هذا التغيير ادى الى انعدام الخصوصية على كافة مستوياتها حيث لا يستطع سكان المنطقة اللقاء في حيهم السكني وارتياد الاماكن المفتوحة والخضراء لأنها اصبحت تابعة للمنطقة التجارية. واظهر هذا التغيير قلة التفاعل الاجتماعي بين افراد المنطقة السكنية نتيجة ضعف العلاقات بالجيران ،ونزوح الغرباء على المنطقة السكنية. ،فضلا عن ضعف الانتماء المكاني نتيجة عدم الشعور بالانتساب للحي السكني لانعدام الانسجام بين مختلف الشرائح الاجتماعية وعدم تكافؤ الحالة المادية مما ولد الاختلاف فيما بينهم. واظهرت الدراسة فقدان الاحساس بالامان الاجتماعي، لكثرة المترددين على المنطقة واستغلال الشوارع التجارية كمنفذ لهم ،وحرمان الاطفال من اللعب في حيهم السكني.


Article
MATHEMATICAL FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR GENERAL ANALYSIS OF DOUBLE CURVED SHELL ACCORDING TO STRAIN BASED APPROACH

Authors: Dr. Hayder Abdul Ameer Mehdi
Pages: 20-38
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Abstract

A new mathematical finite element model suitable for the general bending analysis of double curved shell structures depending on the strain based approach has been derived. The element is simple and contains only the essential degrees of freedom. The element has the advantage over the other available double curved shell elements. The improvement obtained is due to the fact that all the displacement fields of the present element satisfy the exact representation of rigid body modes of displacements then the shape function error due to rigid body modes becomes zero. Also, the present element satisfies the full geometry of the double curved shell due to this point discretization error becomes zero. Finally, the error due to strain mode becomes very small because the present element satisfies the compatibility equations of strains and the 19 coefficients of strain mode derived exactly from partial differential equations of strains. The numerical solution of several problems by using the present element proved to be powerful in the structural analysis of double curved shells, such as cylindrical shells. Its results are better than the solution of other elements and packages with respect to analytical solution.


Article
دراسة تأثير رقم المنحنى على ذروة المخطط المائي لجابية نهر الخوصر

Authors: سحر سمير يونس
Pages: 32-40
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Abstract

المياه من الموارد الطبيعية المهمة والتي لايزال البحث قائما لتطوير سبل استغلالها والحفاظ عليها. ليس من السهل الحصول على المخطط المائي للسيح السطحي للعاصفة المطرية نظرا لتأثيرات خصائص الحوض المائي ومقدار المحتوى الرطوبي للحوض قبل العاصفة وتأثير خصائص العاصفة على ذروة وحجم المخطط المائي. طور المعنيون العديد من الطرق لتقدير المخطط المائي للجريان السطحي منها الطريقة المقدمة من قبل SCS والتي تعتمد على رقم المنحنى. اجريت معايرة النموذج (TR-55) من اجل الحصول على افضل النتائج وبالاعتماد على المخططات المائية المقاسة حقليا لجابية نهر الخوصر الموسمي في محافظة نينوى- جمهورية العراق ولعدد من العواصف المطرية. قيم أداء النموذج بالاعتماد على معايير احصائية بمقارنة القيم المقاسة والمحسوبة لكل من ذروة المخطط المائي وحجم الجريان السطحي. طبق النموذج TR-55 وضمن مدى رقم المنحنى للجابية وكذلك لحلات مختلفة من عمق المطر لمعرفة تأثير تغيير رقم المنحنى على ذروة وحجم المخطط المائي. ظهرت نتائج جميع المعايير المعتمدة لتقييم حساسية رقم المنحني لكل من ذروة المخطط وحجم الجريان السطحي متقاربة وان العامل الاهم في ذلك هو مقدار عمق المطر حيث عند الاعماق القليلة (10-25) ملم تكون الحساسية كبيرة وبالعكس. كما تبين انه بغض النظر عن عمق المطر فان زيادة رقم المنحنى اعطت حساسية اكبر عن انخفاض رقم المنحني عن القيم التي تمثل الواقع.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF STRUT AND TIE METHOD FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE DEEP BEAMS UNDER VARIOUS TYPES OF LOADINGS

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Abstract

Strut-and-tie method (STM) is a very useful tool to design the irregular concrete members. This work presents the results of the experimental tests conducted on three self-compacting reinforced concrete deep beams that had a constant cross section of 150 mm×400 mm and a total length of 1400 mm. The beams were subjected to 1-concentrated force, 2-concentrated forces and uniformly distributed load. Each test beam was analyzed by using the STM that presented by ACI 318M-14 provisions. The cracking load, failure load, deflection, crack pattern, crack width, steel reinforcement strains, concrete surface average strains and modes of failure for the tested beams were observed, recorded and discussed. The experimental results were compared with the STM results. Test results indicated that each beam carried loads greater than the STM design load. In other words, results showed that the STM is conservative that gives the designers wide flexibility. More specifically, in case of central single concentrated force, STM predicted ultimate load was less than the experimental one by 19.2%. While STM predicted ultimate load was less than the experimental one by 20.4% in the cases of two central concentrated forces and uniformly distributed load.


Article
EFFECT OF USING INTERNAL PACKAGING MATERIALS FOR NEW BUILDING WALLS ON HEATING LOAD

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:Experimental and theoretical investigation of three types of internal packaging materials(PVC, MDF, Gypsum board) for the residential building was carried out in the present work, to reduce heating load in winter. Experiments were carried out at the university of Wasit (Al-Kut city, late 32.5N), winter season by building small room from sandwich panel. The room's dimensions were 2m width, 2m length and 2.4m height.On the south wall, made two slots, the slot dimensions are 0.3m width and 1m height. Two types of walls built in the two slots. The first wall was built from common bricks. The second wall was built from bricks covered with packaging material. The radiant time series (RTS) method was used for calculating the experimental heat losses through the walls.ESP-R used to calculate the theoretical result. The results of the experimental work show that. The maximum values of percentage energy saving as follows: Internal packaging materials; 22.87% MDF, 20.48% PVC and 16.45% Gypsum board


Article
THE STRENGH AND LEACHING BEHAVIOUR OF SCRAP METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS USING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS

Authors: Dr. Khitam Abdulhussein Saeed
Pages: 69-79
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Abstract

Solidification / stabilization is one of the most efficient technologies to restrict the leaching of heavy metals. Two stabilizers had been used as solidifying / stabilizing cementitious materials. Cement adjusted by clinker kiln dust were used as cementitious materials. The contaminated soil has been collected on a scrap site located in a residential area located 15 km south of Baghdad. Depending on the structure of metal analysis indicated that the highest metals existing in the soil were aluminium (6865 mg/kg), iron (30120 mg/kg), copper (175 mg/kg), zinc (560 mg/kg), lead (320 mg/kg). The unconfined compressive strength, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were applied to estimate the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of the treatment were compared with the criteria for the admission of solidified waste, that were created on the basis of the regulatory limit on the disposal of waste at a disposal site in the United Kingdom, and the maximum concentration of toxicity contaminants, which is characteristic of Solid waste from the US Environmental Protection Agency(USEPA). The results showed that high alkalies in clinker kiln dust increase cement. setting and hydration and increased compressive strength of cement. Therefore, dust high alkali altered cement reduces the discharge of heavy metals and increases the compressive strength of the waste. form by the solidification / stabilization process. Space


Article
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF USING NEW SHAPE AUGMENTATIONS FOR ENHANCING HEAT TRANSFER IN HEAT EXCHANGERS

Authors: Nassr Fadhil Hussein
Pages: 80-91
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The present investigation aims to study experimentally the effect of using basket twisted bars as a new shape of turbulators in order to achieve better heat transfer inside tube heat exchangers. In this study, air is used as a working fluid with six different values of flow rates (Reynolds number values vary from 6000 to 13500), while the value of heat flux is kept constant in this investigation. In addition, the effect of spacing ratio (SR( between these turbulators is taken into account. Therefore, 3, 4 and 5 pieces of these turbulators are distributed along the test section during experiments. The results show that the heat transfer rate for all cases tends to increase with rising Reynolds number value, while the friction factor shows downward behavior with the same Reynolds number value. In addition, it is found that (SR=4.2) gives maximum heat transfer rate with 115.9 % above plain tube case. Friction factor values increase by 313%, 235% and 193% for SR= 4.2, 6.4 and 11 respectively comparing with plain tube). The enhancement efficiency also increases when inserting baskets twisted bars with rates 127.5 %, 134.3 % and 139.8 % for SR= 11, 6.4 and 4.2 respectively.


Article
PREDICTIVE STUDY OF LAMINAR NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUID ALONG VERTICAL FLAT PLATE Space

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The laminar natural convection in supercritical fluid along vertical flat plate with uniform heat flux was simulated in the present work. The governing equations of partial differential equations were solved numerically using the finite difference method. The thermo-physical properties calculation was based on a Van der Waals equation of state. The velocity and temperature profiles were solved with a FORTRAN code. Hydrofluorocarbons R134a, R1234yf and R404a were used as working fluids. Thermal expansivity at a reduced pressure and reduced temperature near critical point (Pr and Tr = 1.05, 1.1) showed sharp variation. The local Nusselt number as a function of the local Rayleigh number was plotted. The curve trend illustrates that the Nusselt number decreases as the reduced pressure and reduced temperature increases. The corresponding curves of supercritical conditions depict the same shape of the corresponding line of classic correlation. The velocity and temperature developing along the vertical plate was plotted and contour lines explained the fluid behavior above supercritical conditions. Space


Article
NUMERICAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW ON THE HYDRAULIC TANK

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Hydraulic systems will continue to play an important role in the industrial because of their large power to weight ratios , The paper introduce development of 128 liter hydraulic tank heat transfer and flow enhancement in order to reduce the heat that developed through the operation and keep fluid stability to reduce air bubble formation ,three cases are taken the first case with normal hydraulic tank with no addition the second with adding baffles and third case add diffuser and baffles the result show that there is enhancement in flow in the third case and enhancement in heat transfer in the second case , the theoretical result show good agreement in result of heat transfer in the first case.


Article
SIMPLE DRONE FOR OBJECT COLOR DETECTION

Authors: Malik Abdulrazzaq Jabbar
Pages: 118-130
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Abstract

Multirotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), such as quadcopters and hexacopters, have become increasingly popular in recent years. This is due to their capability to hover along with other specifications that make them viable in many applications. In this work, the development and integration of a quad-copter in X-configuration with an IP camera for object detection based on the color of an object are handled. A KK2 microcontroller is used to control the quadcopter movements. The controller has built-in gyros that provides heading rate information, which are used to control the movement of the quadcopter. The parts of the whole UAV are selected and integrated. The calibration processes are handled after installing necessary controller codes. This is to make quadcopter fly according to set commands and smoothly. The IP camera is integrated with quadcopter frame to acquire images of objects to detect a pre-specified target color. Mobile camera with GPS data is used here for the detection. Two algorithms were next implemented to acquire and analyze the images received from the IP camera. The results show that the Images were captured and analyzed successfully and the objects were remotely detected based on their color. As a result, the developed algorithms can be used as a part in remote observation systems.


Article
STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE VIERENDEEL TRUSS TO USE IN PRECAST CONSTRUCTION

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This paper present an experimental investigation of structural behavior of Vierendeel Truss use instead of bearing wall in precast construction. The experimental program contains casting and testing (8) R.C wall panels specimens with opening with right angle corner, the dimension of opening (300*350*75) mm which it is length, width and thickness respectively . The dimension of the R.C wall panel specimens were (1000*750*75) mm which they are length, width and thickness respectively and all the specimens contain nib (cantilever) portion (100*60*75) mm length width and thickness respectively. In this study the main variable is the type of concrete and the compressive strength. The wall panel specimens were test with uniformly distributed load with an eccentricity of (67.5) mm chosen by the researcher. the specimens were simply supported to represent the supports of the truss. The wall panels were divided into (2) groups, the first group is normal strength with (4) specimens and the second group is reactive powder concrete (4) specimens. The failure load, load – deflection curves and crack pattern were studied. All the panels were deflected in single curvature in the vertical direction of loading. The presence of opening lead to decrease in strength, opening causes concentrated stress at the corners of opening and initiated the cracks and failure.


Article
APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS FOR SOLVING TWO TYPES LINEAR INTEGRAL EQUATIONS BY USING BOU-BAKER POLYNOMIALS METHOD

Authors: Balasim Taha Abdilrazak
Pages: 148-154
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In this paper, Bou-baker Polynomials Method [1] are used to find an approximate solution for linear second kind Volterra and Fredholm integral equations. These polynomials incredibly useful mathematical tools, because they are simply defined, can be calculated quickly on computer systems and represent a tremendous variety of functions. They can be differentiated and integrated easily.

Keywords

Bou-Baker --- Method.


Article
GROUND WATER FLOW AND WATER BUDGET FOR THARTHAR LAKE

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Ground water inflow to Tharthar lake and leakage from it, in time and space were evaluated using hydrologic data and simulation model (Processing Modflow Pro) of the ground water system adjacent to the lake. The temporal parameters include the time unit, stress period, time steps and transport steps. The spatial parameters include the initial hydraulic head, horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities and the effective porosity. The simulation model indicates that ground water inflow to the lake and leakage from the lake to the ground water system are the dominant components in the total inflow (precipitation, surface water inflow and ground water inflow) and total outflow (evaporation, surface water outflow and leakage) budgets of Tharthar lake. Simulated ground water inflow and leakage were approximately (5 ) and (10 ) times larger than precipitation plus surface water inflow to the lake and evaporative losses plus surface water outflow respectively, during years 1992-1996. Exchange of water between Tharthar lake and the ground water system was larger than atmospheric lake exchange. A consistent pattern of ground water inflow was also evident throughout the study period. The residence time for ground water that discharge at Tharthar lake was estimated to be within a range of (4 ) to (11 ) years. Flow- path evaluations indicated that the Lower Fars formation probably has negligible influence on the ground water inflow to Tharthar lake. The water budget and flow-path evaluation provide critical information for developing the budgets for Tharthar lake, and for improving the understanding of the relative importance of various processes that regulate the movement of water for lakes in Iraq.


Article
DESIGN FUZZY PID CONTROLLER FOR NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

Authors: Sami Abdulaziz Ali
Pages: 178-185
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The Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) controller is one of the most common controllers that is used by the industry. In nonlinear systems, the PID controller performance is weak unlike its performance with the linear systems which is very well. In this research, we are dealing with the PID parameters characterization. Fuzzy PID controller is proposed to enhance the performance of the conventional PID controller. The proposed controller is done by investigate a partial fuzzy PID controller and compare it with classical PID. To distinguish the efficiency and robustness of the proposed controller for closed loop systems. The proposed controller is tested for both linear and nonlinear systems with success with both. The results show that the proposed fuzzy PID controller is performing better than classical PID controller

Table of content: volume:21 issue:6