Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:58 issue:4B

Article
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study for Pt (IV) Complexes with 4-Aminoantipyrine and Sodium Pyrophosphate
تخليق ودراسة طيفية لمعقدات البلاتين الرباعي مع 4-أمينو أنتي بايرين وبايروفوسفات الصوديوم

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Pt (IV) complexes were synthesized from 4-Aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) as a primary ligand, and sodium pyrophosphate as a secondary ligand using metal: ligand in (1:1) mole ratio with molecular formula [Pt (4-AAP)Cl4],[Pt (4-AAP)(Pyph)Cl2]. These complexes were characterized by elemental microanalysis (C.H.N), (A.A), [I.R, (U.V–Vis), mass spectroscopy], along with molar conductivity, chloride contents and melting point measurements. The ligands (4-AAP) and (Pyph) gave octahedral geometry with Pt (IV) rapid, simple, sensitive and validated spectrophotometric method has been described for the determination of platinum (IV) using 4-aminoantipyrine. The complex product was quantitatively measured at 385nm and the reaction conditions were studied and optimized.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization, Biological Activity Studies of Schiff Bases and 1,3-Oxazipene Derived from 1,1 -Bis (4-aminophenyl) -4-Phenyl Cyclohexane
تحضير و تشخيص ودراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لقواعد شيف و1و3-اوكسازايبن مشتقة من 1,1- ثنائي (4- امينو فنيل )-4- فنيل سايكلو هكسان

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A series of new Schiff bases and 1, 3-Oxazepine derivatives have been synthesised from condensation compound (1,1 -bis (4-aminophenyl) -4-phenyl cyclohexane [C1] with different aromatic aldehydes in the presence of catalytic glacial acetic acid to produce the Schiff bases [2-4]. These Schiff bases were reacted with maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride in dry benzene to give seven-membered heterocyclic ring derivatives [5-10]. The structure formula of these compounds were confirmed by using FT-IR, (1H and 13C) NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized compounds were screened for their anti‐bacterial activity using ampicillin as a standard drug.


Article
Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation of New Sulfonamid Derivatives
تحضير وتقييم الفعالية البايولوجية لمشتقات السلفون أمايد الجديدة

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New sulfonamide derivatives comprising azide, 1, 2, 3- triazole, azo , chalcone and Schiff base moieties had synthesized. The structures of the new compunds have been confirmed byFT-IR and ¹H-NMR spectra. The synthesized derivatives have been screened for antimicrobial and in vitro antioxidant properties. The results of this investigation revealed that the newly synthesized compounds have good antimicrobialand antioxidant activities.


Article
Determination of Methamphetamine Drug By GC-MS Based on Molecularly Imprinted Solid-Phase Used Meth Acrylic Acid and Acryl Amide as Functional Monomers
تقدير عقار الميثامفيتامين عن طريق كروموتغرافيا الغاز_ مطياف الكتلة بالاعتماد على الطبعة الجزيئية_ استخلاص الاطوار الصلبة باستخدام حمض الميثاكريليك وأكريل اميد كمونومرات وظيفية

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We developed a novel method characterized by high sensitivity, low cost and high stability .This method based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) using a functional monomer which is meth acrylic acid (MTAA), acryl amide (AAM), suitable cross-linker and the template which is MAMP to fabricate a monolithic solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fiber . (SPME) with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS); all these analytical methods used to extraction , pre-concentration and selective determination of methamphetamine (MAMP) and its derivatives. Firmness, stability and duration of the fabricated fiber give its fundamental and indispensable role in SPME. The aim of this study is to investigate the factors influencing the polymerization and extraction procedures also to detail the selectivity of the fabricated fiber to the template in solution containing MAMP, also the selectivity to related and unrelated compound under the optimum conditions. The relative standard deviations )RSD%) for five patients repeated experiments for three measurements are range of (at 30 to 60 ppm of MAMP) is (1.20-3.61) %. The relative recoveries obtained for MAMP in spiked human urine samples are in the range of (93.70-99.63) %.


Article
Estimate Different Bioagent as A Biofertilizer with Two Level From Chemical Fertilizer on Wheat Crop Improvement
تقييم عدد من العوامل الاحيائية باستخدامها كسماد احيائي مع مستويين من التسميد الكيميائي لتحسين محصول الحنطة

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Different formula of bioagents (Rhizobium cicceri cp-93, Azospirillum sp., Pseudomonas fluorescence, Trichoderma harzianum ) used in this study as a biofertilizer on wheat crop with two level of chemical fertilizer (0 and 12.5 kg/donm Dap) compared to 50kg/donm Dap (standard amount).the study carried out in Iraq/Diyala –Alkhales during November 2014,results showed significant increase in no. of spikes, no. of spikelet’s, length of spike ,Weight of 1000 seed and yield of one m2 when adding (Rhizobium cicceri cp-93,Azospirillumsp+ Trichoderma harzianum +12.5 kg/donm Dap) in comparison with the 50kg/donm Dap. Other formulas recorded same results with the treatment 50kg/Donm Dap with not significant differences except Wight of 1000 seed which recorded significant increased in all formula, while (Rhizobium ciccericp-93,Azospirillumsp+ zero Dap)treatment recorded significant decrease from 50 kg Dap in the most parameters in study.


Article
Risk of Obesity on Woman Health in Baghdad City
مخاطر السمنة وتاثيرها على صحة المرأة في مدينة بغداد

Authors: Faeza A. Fakhry فائزة فخري
Pages: 2041-2050
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Abstract

Maternal obesity is linked rates of high-risk obstetrical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension with higher rates of cesarean section. Pregnancy outcomes are negatively affected by maternal obesity (increased risk of neonatal mortality and malformations) . The research aims to show the effect of obesity of woman on physical and metabolisms status.

Keywords

Risk --- Obesity --- Woman health


Article
Evaluation of Trichoderma Harzianum Biological Control Against Fusarium Oxysporum F. Sp. Melongenae
تقييم المقاومة الحيوية للفطر Trichoderma harzianum ضد الفطر Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Melongenae

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The present study was conducted to biocontrol in vitro and in vivo of Fusarium oxysporum that cause Fusarium wilt diseases for eggplant plants by using biological control agent fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Fourteen isolates from F. oxysporum were isolated and identified from two fields in Iraq. Pathogenicity test indicated that all F. oxysporum isolates were pathogenic for eggplant but differed in its level of pathogenicity. Four of the fourteen isolates from F. oxysporum were selected depending on their highest pathogenicity for eggplant plants, F. oxysporum four isolates F5, F6, F13 and F14 achieved at pre emergence 83.3%, 83.3%, 86.7% and 83.3% and at post emergence 90.0%, 90.0%, 83.3% and 76.7% respectively. In vitro, the antagonistic activity evaluation of T. harzianum against F. oxysporum four isolates revealed that T. harzianum was highly significantly inhibited F. oxysporum four isolates growth (F5, F6, F13, F14) which recorded the inhibition percentage 87.00, 89.00, 89.00, and 96.33% respectively. Greenhouse (In vivo) results of the biocontrol efficiency of T. harzianum against F. oxysporum showed significant reduction in eggplant Fusarium wilt incidence compared with pathogens control treatments. The pathogen F. oxysporum treatments with T. harzianum (TF) showed that all the treatments (TF) achieved high germination rate for eggplant seeds compared with control treatment, while the treatment TF13 was significantly superior than all other treatments in number of leaflets, stem height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight and root size which recorded 8.67, 19.00cm, 20.33gm, 4.73gm, 12.00gm, 1.53gm, 17.67cm³ respectively.


Article
Prevalence and Identification of Some Ocular Bacterial Infections in Baghdad City
انتشار وتحديد بعض اصابات العيون البكتيرية في مدينة بغداد

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The study included 176 patients attended to Iben AL-Haithem hospital of ophthalmology in Baghdad city , at age of (14-77) years from the period from September 2016-April 2017, there were 138(78%) patients having a positive culture of ocular bacterial infections. Men were representing 41% while women 59%, the patients with bacterial ocular infection from Baghdad were55% while the internally displaced were 45% , the patients with ocular bacterial infections were representing 20% at mean age of 21.6±0.3y, 26% at 37.5±0.21y , 24% at53.5±0.23 y and 30% at69.5±0.10 y. The results showed 37% of the patients with ocular bacterial infections were having a history of diabetes mellitus and 44% with high blood pressure at mean age of 69.5±0.10 y. Gram positive bacteria represented 58% from the total isolates ,while gram negative were 42% . S.aureus was the common dominant isolates 29% followed by S.pneumoniae 21% , P.areuginosa 16% ,E coli 11% , Klibseilla spp 7% S.epidermidis 6%,Enterobacter spp6% , S.pyogenes 2% , Citrobacter freundii and Proteus spp 1% each of them , the mix infection was found in three samples including (E. coli and P. aeruginosa),( E. coli and S. aureus) and (P. aeruginosa and S. aureus) . S. aureus isolates were susceptible to Amikacin 88%, Doxycycline 84% and they were highly resistance to Clindamycin 76% , while S.epidermidis isolates were susceptible to each of Amikacin, Cloramphenicol , Clindamycin and Doxycycline at a percentage of 80% and they were resistance to tetracycline 60% . S.pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to Clarithromycin 94% , Ceftriaxone 88%, S.pyogenes isolates were susceptible 100% to the most types of antibiotics such as Erythromycin , Clarithromycin , Cloramphenicol , Clindamycin and Ceftriaxone . P.areuginosa isolates were susceptible to Gentamicin 100%.,Ciprofloxacin , Doxycycline , Amikacin 72% for each antibiotic ,while E.coli isolates were susceptible to Cloramphenicol 90%, Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin 80%. Klibseilla spp isolates were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin 100%, Ceftriaxone 83% while Proteus spp isolate were susceptible to all types of antibiotics 100% Enterobacter spp isolates were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin 100% ,both of Gentamicin and Cloramphenicol 80% , Citrobacter freundii isolate were susceptible to Ceftriaxone , Cloramphenicol , Ciprofloxacin , Gentamicin 100%.


Article
Evaluation of CD14 expression in Helicobacter pylori positive and Helicobacter pylori negative gastritis
تقيم التعبير البروتيني للمعلم المناعي 14 عند الاشخاص المصابين وغير المصابين ببكتريا الملويات البوابية

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Monocytes are considered a key mediator of inflammatory cytokine secretions during inflammation. This study evaluates CD 14 expression in gastritis tissue biopsies of H. pylori and none H. pylori gastritis. This cross-sectional study involved 60 gastritis patients that have been classified into H. pylori positive (n=30) and H. pylori negative (n=30). Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks were sectioned and immune-peroxidase staining with anti-CD14, then compared between study groups and clinical parameters. The results showed a marked difference in the percentage of expression in mild and severe intensity of inflammation sub-groups, the results showed a higher percentage of CD14 immunoreactivity (18.29±5.84 vs. 10.2±3.89, p=0.005) and (42.84±19.43 vs. 32.98±9.83, p=0.007) respectively. In conclusion, the percentage of CD14 immunoreactivity may closely related to the inflammatory gastritis induced by H. pylori bacterium.


Article
Molecular Detection of Suspected Leishmania Isolates Using Polymerase Chain Reaction
التحري الجزيئي لعزلتين مشكوك بهما لطفيلي اللشمانيا بأستخدام تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل

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Leishmaniasis is a widespread parasitic disease that occurs as a result of infection with a unicellular parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. Diagnosis by conventional methods is inaccurate and is not sensitive to confirm the genus infection. Here, we have investigated a methods for Leishmania genus diagnosis, which includes the technique of polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of the parasite at in vitro for promastigote cultures using three genus-specific primer pairs to amplify HSP70, ITS, and ITS2. The results showed single band of ~1422, ~1020, and ~550 respectively. This study has proved the ability of these primer pairs to detect Leishmania infection and recommend them to be used for detection of leishmaniasis in hospitals and research centers.

Keywords

PCR --- identification --- leishmaniasis --- ITS --- ITS2 --- HSP70


Article
Study the Effect of the Homemade Nitrogen Laser System in Medical Field
دراسة تأثير منظومة ليزر نيتروجين محلية الصنع في المجال الطبي

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A high power N2 laser of the three stage-Blumlein circuit designed, which consist two identical electrodes, four capacitors and three spark gaps which designed discharge geometry with minimum inductance. This system gives a maximum energy 18 mJ with a pulse time 6.65 ns and wave length 337.1 nm. The distance between spark gap terminals has large effect on the output energy. The ideal distance were 11 mm between the terminals for the first spark gap and 4 mm between the terminals for the second spark gap, the distance between the terminals of the spark gaps has a significant effect on the resulting energy, where the energy decreases when the distance between the terminals of the first and second spark gaps exceeds or Less than from the optimum distances. The effect of N2 laser on the viability of Staphylococcus that isolated from wounds, the samples of bacteria were irradiated with 337.1 nm .N2 laser using 10 pulses/second repetition rates at 10,15 minutes exposure times. The results showed that the viability of bacteria decreased with increasing the exposure time to N2 laser.


Article
Surface Plasmon Resonance study of Ag nanoparticles colloidal
دراسة رنين بلازمون السطح لسائل الفضة الجسيمات النانوية الغروية

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Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been prepared using the electro-chemical method. The experimental setup of this technique consist of two electrodes of pure silver (99.2 %), the applied voltage on the electrodes is 20 V and the current through the colloidal was about 0.4 Amp. The silver nanoparticles crystallization has been studied; the crystalline structure appears Face center Cubic. The optical properties of silver nanoparticles are strongly affected by the Local Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR). The wavelength of maximum absorption band for an Ag NPs have a range (~350nm-550nm).


Article
Theoretical Study of Nuclear Density Distributions and Elastic Electron Scattering form Factors for Some Halo Nuclei
دراسة نظرية لتوزيعات الكثافة النووية وعوامل التشكل للاستطارة الالكترونية المرنة لبعض النوى الهالة

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The nuclear matter density distributions, elastic electron scattering charge form factors and root-mean square (rms) proton, charge, neutron and matter radii are studied for neutron-rich 6,8He and 19C nuclei and proton-rich 8B and 17Ne nuclei. The local scale transformation (LST) are used to improve the performance radial wave function of harmonic-oscillator wave function in order to generate the long tail behavior appeared in matter density distribution at high r. A good agreement results are obtained for aforementioned quantities in the used model.


Article
Study of Thermal Conductivity and Solution Absorption for Epoxy –Talc Composites
دراسه التوصيليه الحراريه وامتصاصيه المحاليل لمتراكبات الايبوكسي – تالك

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In this research prepared Epoxy – Talc powder composites with weight ratio of Talc powder (0,5,10,15,20,25)% . The value of thermal conductivity increase with increasing ratio of talc powder and water absorption increase with increasing ratio of talc powder because the structure from magnesium silicate hydroxide and hydrophilic nature .Ethanol absorption decrease with increasing percentage talc powder compared with epoxy pure


Article
Comparison of Some Statistical Measurements Extracted From Benign, Malignant and Normal MRI Brain Images
مقارنة بعض القياسات الإحصائية المستخرجة من صورللدماغ ماخوذه من جهاز الرنين المغناطيسي لاشخاص يحملون امراض حميدة و اخرى خبيثة و صور لغير المرضى

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People may believe that tissue of normal brain and brain with benign tumor have the same statistical descriptive measurements that are significantly different from the of brain with malignant tumor. Thirty brain tumor images were collected from thirty patients with different complains (10 normal brain images, 10 images with benign brain tumor and 10 images with malignant brain tumor). Pixel intensities are significantly different for all three types of images and the F-test was measured and found equal to 25.55 with p-value less than 0.0001. The means of standard deviations and coefficients of variation showed that pixel intensities from normal and benign tumors images are almost have the same behavior whereas they were significantly different from images of malignant brain tumors with F-tests equal to 23.22 and 6.51 respectively with corresponding p-values of 0.00001 and 0.005 respectively.


Article
Structural and Stratigraphic Study of Hartha Formation in the East Baghdad Oil Field, Central of Iraq.
دراسة تركيبية و طباقية لتكوين الهارثة في حقل شرق بغداد, وسط العراق

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Three-dimensional seismic reflection study was conducted for the Eastern Baghdad oil field which is located in the middle part of Iraq within Al-Madaaen province that belong to Baghdad governarate, South of Diyala River , this field includes two southern parts (S1 and S2), the study area was about 781.905 km 2 for the upper Cretaceous age, synthetic seismogram was generated from data of EB-5 and EB-1 wells. Saadi reflector was picked and identified to determine the Hartha Formation. The seismic sections and time slice maps confirmed that the upper Cretaceous age was affected by faults and the indicators of faults ended within Hartha Formation and continue to the deeper formations with increasing intensity. The attribute section was applied on time slice and shows that the area was affected by normal fault parallel to the structure of the field trends (NW-SE). Time, velocity and depth maps of Hartha reflector depending on data from wells (EB-1, EB-2, EB-6, EB-30, EB-52, EB-54) the maps show the structural picture of East Baghdad structural nose opened toward NW and trending (NW-SE) that confirmed by 3D volume which prepared for the studied area. DHI was identified as flat spot, dim spot and sag , when applying attributes like (instantaneous phase and Instantaneous Frequency) has been proved the absence of hydrocarbons in EB-15 well on other hand found in adjacent wells such as EB-2 and EB-5 because of facies changes and not structural change. A scaling facies change was identified at (inline 40910 and inline 47960) , Mound (inline 48310), as well as the work of the Isochron map, which was used to find Isopach and a suitable site for drilling wells.


Article
Using Annual Rainfall to Estimate the Surface Runoff and Groundwater Recharge in Lialan Basin (Southeast Kirkuk - North of Iraq)
إستخدام الامطار السنوية لتقدير الجريان السطحي وتغذية المياه الجوفية في حوض ليلان( جنوب شرق كركوك – شمال العراق)

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The present study intends to estimate the surface runoff and groundwater recharge in Lialan basin using the soil conservation service method (curve number) and chloride mass balance method (CMB) respectively. Lialan basin is located at the southeast part of Kirkuk governorate, between longitudes (44° 21' 00" E - 44° 42' 00" E) and latitudes (35° 7' 30" N - 35° 28' 30" N) , which covering an area of about 436 km2 and contains many geological formations. In this study, based on the annual rainfall data extending from (1970 - 2016) obtained from the Kirkuk meteorological station, the surface runoff was calculated using the curve number method (CN), and found to be equal to 90.4 mm/year, which represent 26.07 % of the total rainfall. While the groundwater recharge was calculated depending on the annual rainfall and chloride concentrations in rainfall and groundwater using the chloride mass balance method (CMB) and found it equals 23.07 mm/year, representing 7.42 % of the total rainfall. Thus the annual recharge amount for the whole basin is equal to 10.0585 × 106 m3 / year. Generally, the results indicate a direct relationship between the systems of runoff and groundwater recharge in Lialan basin with total rainfall.


Article
Geochemistry and Depositional Conditions of the Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (CORBs) within the Shiranish Formation in North of Iraq
جيوكيميائية و ظروف ترسيب الطبقات المحيطية الحمراء للطباشيري في تكوين الشيرانش، شمال العراق

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Upper Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (CORBs) are pelagic sediment deposits that deposited in the Upper Cretaceous basin, with widespread in part of the world as well as in Iraq. This research investigates the deposition of cyclic marl and marly limestone CORBs of six selected sections at the active southern margin of the Tethys during the Late Campanian - Maastrichtian with petrography, microfacies, and depositional environment. The measurement of carbonate content (CaCO3 %) in the rocks, 180 samples of all the geological sections were studied twice for each sample and the average readings were taken. This examination proved the following major oxides wt. % concentrations domination SiO2, CaO, Al2 O3 and Fe2O3 with average values of 33.10, 29.63, 5.10 and 3.67 respectively, with following minor elements ppm concentrations dominance Sr, Ni, V, Zn, Cu, Zr and Co with average values of 498.4, 257.6, 67.8, 38.2, 34.3, 25.5 and 20.4 respectively. Also this group of ratios K2O/Al2O3, SiO2, Al2O3/TiO2, Ni/Co, V/Cr, Cu/Zn, Cr/Ni, V/Ni, and V/ (V+Ni) is used as an index of paleo oxygenation conditions, these ratios proved the oxidizing environments for the rock samples in the present study The expense of the organic matter content (TOC) has shown low content of TOC % in most studied samples, with ranges values of 0.27 in all beds, 0.18 in only red marl beds, 0.29 only non-red marl beds, 0.20 in only red marly limestone beds, 0.36 only non-red marly limestone beds. The Shiranish Formation (Late Campanian-Early Mastrichtian), composed of marl and marly limestone, rhythmically laminated. Relatively low contents of organic matter and the containing of some redox-sensitive trace elements support the interpretation of oxic bottom water conditions during the deposition of this formation, consisting of light grey, reddish, brownish, and pinkish laminated calcareous marl and marly limestone, is characterized by low TOC contents. The C13 and O18 values are indicate upon the diagenetic affective due to burial, and it means a detrital origin that may reflect local uplift and variations in weathering processes in the adjacent continental areas.


Article
Classification of soil infiltration rate depending on the Hydrological soil group map South East Iraq
تصنيف ارتشاح التربة اعتمادا على خريطة التربة الهايدرولوجية جنوب شرق العراق

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The study area is located in the East of Missan governorate, southeast of Iraq between (32°'29.52" – 32°37'30") latitude and (46°46'21.16" – 47°58'53.52")longitude. It encompasses an area of (1858〖km〗^2) with elevation ranges from 8 to 165m. Soil is a natural body that exists as part of the pedosphere and which performs four important functions. It is a medium for plant growth and a means of water storage, supply and purification. The spatial mapping of soil usually involves delineating soil types that have identifiable characteristics. The delineation is based on many factors such as geomorphologic origin and conditions under which the soil is formed. Hydrologic soil group (HSG) refers to the classification of soils based on their runoff , producing characteristics and their infiltration rate. Soils are assigned to 4 hydrologic groups namely Group A - high infiltration rate when wet, low runoff potential, Group B - moderate infiltration, low runoff potential, Group C - slow infiltration, higher runoff potential, and Group D - very slow infiltration rate, highest runoff potential. According to the USDA soil classification system, four hydrological soil groups are recognized: A, B, C, and D with 19%, 48%, 32%, and 1%, respectively, the high percentage extension of moderately infiltration group (B and C).


Article
On The Class of (K-N)* Quasi-N-Normal Operators on Hilbert Space
حول صفوف المؤثرات n السوية (K-N)* على فضاءات هلبرت

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In this paper, we will give another class of normal operator which is (K-N)* quasi-n-normal operator in Hilbert space, and give some properties of this concept as well as discussion the relation between this class with another class of normal operators.


Article
The Dynamics of Discrete System with Constant Rate Harvesting
ديناميكية النظام المتقطع مع نسبة الحصاد الثابتة

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In this papera prey -predator discrete dynamical system with Holling type I functional response is presented . The existence of all possibleequilibria have been obtained algebraically. The model has four equilibriaand some conditions for the local stability of its equilibria have been established. We see that the proposed model has rich dynamics behavior. Aconstant rate harvesting for a single population is also considered as well as the exitence of the bionomic equilibrium is dicussed and computed. The numerical simulation is given to conforim the theoretical analysis stability of the model.Finally a general disscution is provided.


Article
A proposal of Multimedia Steganography Algorithm based on Improved Least Significant Bit (LSB) Method
خوارزمية إخفاء وسائط متعددة المقترحة بالاعتماد على طريقة البت الاقل اهمية المطورة

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Because of the rapid development and use of the Internet as a communication media emerged to need a high level of security during data transmission and one of these ways is "Steganography". This paper reviews the Least Signification Bit steganography used for embedding text file with related image in gray-scale image. As well as we discuss the bit plane which is divided into eight different images when combination them we get the actual image. The findings of the research was the stego-image is indistinguishable to the naked eye from the original cover image when the value of bit less than four Thus we get to the goal is to cover up the existence of a connection or hidden data. The Peak to Signal Noise Ratio(PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE) value is calculated so that the quality of the cover image before and after the data hiding is evaluated.


Article
An Accurate Handwritten Digits Recognition system Based on DWT and FCT
نظام دقيق لتميز الارقام المكتوبة بخط اليد مبنيه على اساس DWT و FCT

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In this paper an accurate Indian handwritten digits recognition system is proposed. The system used three proposed method for extracting the most effecting features to represent the characteristic of each digit. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) at level one and Fast Cosine Transform (FCT) is used for features extraction from the thinned image. Besides that, the system used a standard database which is ADBase database for evaluation. The extracted features were classified with K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) classifier based on cityblock distance function and the experimental results show that the proposed system achieved 98.2% recognition rate.

Keywords

Handwritten digit --- DWT --- FCT --- KNN --- FCM


Article
Comparing the Main Approaches of Image Segmentation
مقارنة بين الطرق الاساسية لتجزئة الصورة

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Images are important medium for conveying information; this makes improvement of image processing techniques also important. Interpretation of image content is one of the objectives of image processing techniques. Image interpretation that segments the image to number of objects called image segmentation. Image segmentation is an important field to deal with the contents of images and get non overlapping regions coherent in texture and color, it is important to deal only with objects with significant information. This paper presents survey of the most commonly used approaches of image segmentation and the results of those approaches have been compared and according to the measurement of quality presented in this paper the Otsu's threshold method give the best result with less time


Article
Understanding the Role of Positive and Negative Relations for Community Detection Problem in Signed Networks: A New Perspective
فهم دور العلاقات الأيجابية والسلبية في مشكلة كشف المجتمعات للشبكات المؤشرة: منظور جديد

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Abstract

In real world, almost all networks come out with positive and negative types of relations. The sign could reflect like-dislike, agreement-disagreement, friendship-enmity, and attraction-discouragement. The contribution of this paper is to introduce prototype definitions for both nodes and communities of signed networks according to the distribution of positive and negative signs over the network's links. Two types of nodes (strong and weak) are introduced. Accordingly, three types of communities are declared, these are strong, weak, and irregular (or noisy). The formulated definitions provide us with a new understanding for the difficulty raised in community detection problem in signed networks. One of the recent state-of-the-art multi-objective detection models (modeled after Liu et al.) is adopted in this study as the optimization function for one of the well-known decomposition based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA/D). In the experiments, different levels of complex synthetic networks are generated, characterized, and used as test-bed to explore and evaluate the performance of MOEA/D for solving community detection problem. The results reveal that the accuracy of the network partitioning solutions is increased while increasing the percentage of strong nodes and strong communities and vice versa while increasing percentage of weak nodes and weak and irregular communities.


Article
A Comprehensive Case Study of a Frontal Mineral Dust Storm in spring over Iraq
دراسة حالة شاملة لعاصفة غبار معدني جبهوية في الربيع فوق العراق

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Abstract

Dust storms are among the most important weather phenomena in Middle East. The Shamal dust storms are dominated across Iraq and the whole Middle East, especially in summer. However, frontal type of dust storms is possible in winter and spring. In this research, a comprehensive case study was conducted to a dust storm that occurred on 20 March 2016 from many perspectives: synoptic, satellite imagery, dust concentration analysis, visibility reduction, and aerosol optical depth. The study shows that the dust storm initiated inside Syria and moved eastward with the movement of the front. Dust concentrations and aerosol optical depth were also discussed that simulate the dust storm over Iraq in a reasonable way with some differences. The dust concentrations values increase gradually during the early hours of 20 March at 1200 UTC to become within (200-5000) μg/m^3. The dust concentrations comparison with some surrounding countries shows that Iraq had the maximum value at the dust storm time. An experimental relationship to calculate the dust concentration from visibility was tested according to the multi-model products and revealed acceptable estimates. Dust aerosol optical depth offers good means to quantify the dust amount in the Middle East where the dust is the determining factor. Additional investigation was done by using the relative vorticity and the potential vorticity. The results of this investigation show that there are upper shortwaves that are responsible of strengthening of the low pressure system at the surface. The computed value of potential vorticity advection was estimated to be about (2.7×10-4 K m2/kg s) along a distance of about 500 km which suggested a high value of divergence east of the system which lead to a significant updraft.


Article
Determining and Estimating the Creep of Tigris Riverbanks at the Baghdad University Camp Using GIS Analytical Symmetrical Difference Method
تحديد وتقدير إزاحة ضفاف نهر دجلة في مجمع جامعة بغداد باستخدام طريقة فرق التحليل المتماثل في نظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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Abstract

The Tigris River in Iraq is of highly meandering in several of its parts. So, the largest meandering inside Baghdad City, is in Al-Jadriyah. During its course, the Tigris Riverbanks are facing erosion frequently due to alteration in the geomorphological and hydrological characteristics affecting the river channel. The entire length of Tigris River from the northern entrance of Baghdad to the convergence with Diyala River at southern of Baghdad is about 49 km length. The Tigris River is suffering from the erosion, deposition, and migration conditions. The river migration was found as maximum in the left bank at the side of the University, and lesser in the right bank in the opposite side, Dora. The aim of this study is to measure the magnitude of changes happened to the Tigris Riverbanks adjacent to the Baghdad University Camp in Al-Jadriyah for a period of last fifty years extended between 1962 and 2013, using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Symmetrical Difference Analytical method was used to obtain changes for Tigris Riverbanks in the study area. The obtained results in this study demonstrate that Remote Sensing and Aerial Photography are important sources of data in monitoring and detecting the movement of Tigris riverbanks. Accordingly, the measured areas of deposition and erosion are (657 073 m2) and (173 087 m2) respectively, and the ratio between them was 3.83 to 1

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