Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:58 issue:4c

Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Indazol-3-one and Thioxo Pyrimidines Derivatives from Mono and Twin Chalcones
تحضير و تشخيص مشتقات اندازول-3-اون و ثايواوكسوبيرميدين من الجالكونات الاحادية و الثنائية

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This work involved synthesis and characterization of new mono and twin fused pyrazolone(indazol-3-one) (IV)a-d and thioxo pyrimidine (III)a-d derivatives from Chalcones (mono(I)a,b and twin(I)c,d ) The synthesis of mono chalcones (I)a,b includes the reaction of (p-methoxy or p- methyl) benzaldehyde with 4-amino acetophenone while the twin acetophenone with p- methoxy benzaldehyde to produce twin chalcones (I)c,d , then converted it by Robinson annulations reaction to form the corresponding derivatives (II)a-d afterward reflux the cyclohexenones with hydrazine and some drops of GAA lead to form indazole derivatives (IV)a-d . Pyrimidines were synthesized via the reaction of chalcones with thiourea in NaOH and 80% ethanol. All these compounds are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and some of them by 1HNMR spectroscopy


Article
Bacteriological Study of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Different Infections and Study Antimicrobial Activities of Plant Extract Solanum Nigrum Against It
دراسة بكتريولوجية عن الزائفة الزنجارية المعزولة من الاصابات المختلفة ودراسة الفعالية المضادة للميكروبات للمستخلص النباتي لنبات عنب الذئب ضدها

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Abstract

أجريت هذه الدراسة للفترة من 1/9/2016 إلى 30/3/2017 في مدينة بعقوبة في العراق. جمعت 89 عينة من اصابات مختلفة من مستشفى بعقوبة العام و مستشفى ألبتول, 15 عزلة (16,85%) منها تعود الى الزائفة الزنجارية باستخدام اختبار الكيمياء الحيوية. تم تأكيد التشخيص البكتيري لجميع هذه العزلات (100٪) من قبل VITEK2، بجانب حيازتها للجين 16s كما هو محدد من قبل الكشف الجزيئي. وأظهرت نتائج عوامل الضراوة التي تمتلكها عزلات الزائفة الزنجارية ارتفاعا في معدل انتاج هذه العوامل مما يزيد من امراضيتها. وكانت جميع العزلات قادرة على إنتاج الهيموليسين (100٪) والبروتيز (73.33٪)، تكوين الفشاء الحيوي (52٪). اجري فحص الحساسية على العزلات ضد (10) مضادات حيوية. اظهرت النتائج أن أعلى مقاومة كانت للأمبيسلين وسيفوتاكسيم بنسبة 100٪ لكل منهما، في حين كانت أقل مقاومة للإمبينم (0.0٪) والسيبروفلوكساسين (6.66٪). تم دراسة آثار المستخلص الايثانولي من ثمارنبات (عنب الذئب) ضدالزائفة الزنجارية , ان تركيز 6٪ مغ / مل من المستخلص اظهر زيادة ملحوظة في قطرمنطقة تثبيط (مم) على نموالبكتيريا. كانت أحجام مناطق التثبيط مختلفة وزادت تبعا لتركيز المستخلص ومرة أخرى تم تثبيط النمو تماما في أعلى تركيز.


Article
The Cytotoxic Effect of Zno Nps Against the Intracellular Amastigotes of Leishmania Donovani in Vitro
التأثیر السمي لدقائق أوكسید الزنك متناھیة الصغر على الطور عدیم السوط داخل الخلوي للشمانیا الحشويه خارج الجسم الحي

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Abstract

Leishmania parasite preferentially infect host phagocytic cells, primarily dendritic cells and macrophages. One of the main problems with Leishmania infections is the capability of these parasites to evade and subvert immune responses of the host. Leishmaniasis is treated with a small arsenal of drugs; all of them have disadvantages in terms of efficacy, high price, toxicity or treatment regimen. In this study, the effect of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was evaluated against intracellular amastigotes Leishmania donovani in vitro conditions. The effect of different concentrations from ZnO NPs (0.18, 0.37, 0.75 and 1.5 μg / ml) was used to study on the viability of amastigotes and macrophages “following infection" using the colorimetric (MTT) assay. The results have been shown that the ZnO NPs have a cytotoxic effect on the proliferation of the amastigotes forms and have no effect. The IC50 of ZnO NPs on amastigotes was (0.610 µg/ ml). This study concluded that the used concentrations of ZnO NPs have the ability to stimulate macrophages activity and promote the suppressive effects on L. donovani intracellular amastigotes in vitro following infection. These results may contribute to the production of an effective, non-toxic and cheap drug against Leishmania parasites


Article
Evolution of Antibacterial Activity of Various Solvents Extracts of Annona Squamosa Fruit
دراسة الفعالية المضادة للبكتيريا لمستخلصات فاكهة تفاح القشطة Annona squamosa باستخدام مختلف أنواع المذيبات

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Abstract

This research project was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of three different portions (pulp, peel, seeds) of Annona squamosa fruit using three different extraction solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone). The experiment performed by using agar well diffusion method against Gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli and each organism showed different patterns of inhibition zones. Antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of the pulp showed noticeable inhibitory activity against almost all the tested pathogens except K. pneumoniae who was resistant to water extract of pulp. Although, different solvents extracts of peel were found to be efficient in inhibiting the test pathogens, ethanolic extract of peel exhibited the best antibacterial activity against all the test pathogens in this study. Maximum inhibition activity was found with the peel ethanolic extract against E.coli and K. pneumonia, followed by S. aureus at crud extract concentration of 50 mg ml-1, which is comparable to the inhibition zones of the standard antibiotic (Tetracycline and Ceftriaxone 100mg ml -1) used in this study. The water extract of peel also exhibited fairly good antibacterial activity against E. coli approximately similar to the ethanolic extract. Conversely, S. aureus and K. pneumoniae showed complete resistance against water extract of peel. Regarding seeds bactericidal abilities, the water and acetone extracts of seeds showed remarkable inhibitory action against K. pneumonia followed by the water extract against E.coli. None of the test pathogens showed inhibition of growth response to seed ethanolic extract. In conclusion, antibacterial ability of different portions of A.squamosa fruit extracts against different types of bacteria used in this experiment signified their remarkable potential for exploration and using effective antibacterial agents from natural resources to inhibit the growth of different types of pathogenic bacteria.


Article
Biodegradation of Cypermethrin by Two Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
التفكيك الحيوي للسيبرمثرين بوساطة عزلتين من Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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Two local bacterial isolates were isolated from agriculture soil contaminated with cypermethrin from AlAbaeje village in Baghdad city, these fields were already sprayed with cypermethrin for past few years. Primary screening was done to test bacterial ability to growth and resistance to cypermethrin by using nutrient agar plates containing 500 mg L-1 cypermethrin as a sole source of carbon and energy, and incubation at 37 ºϹ for 72 hours. Secondary screening results showed that these two bacterial isolates have the ability to grow and resistance cypermethrin concentration till 3600 mg L-1 in solid MMSM. If we increase concentration above 3600 mg L-1 bacterial isolate can’t tolerate and grow in it. According to VITEK 2 compact results the dominate isolate in soil contaminated with cypermethrin was Pseudomonas aeruginosa about 87.5%. The optimum conditions (pH, temperature and incubation period) for growth of two selected isolates and biodegradation of cypermethrin were examined. The results indicated that the best growth obtain at pH 7 under 30 ºC for 14 days. In lab experiment and under optimal conditions, cypermethrin biodegradation was measured by using FTIR and GC-MS analysis. The results shown that P. aeruginosa 1 was the best isolate for degrading cypermethrin with percentage 87.9% while P. aeruginosa 2 with degrading percentage 80%.


Article
The physico-chemical properties of southern part of Diyala River water
الصفات الفيزياوية والكيمياوية للجزء الجنوبي من مياه نهر ديالى

Authors: Ayad Gh. Hashim اياد غازي هاشم
Pages: 2322-2331
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The present study aimed to assess the water quality status of Diyala River (Iraq).Some physical and chemical properties were studied also the impact of Rustumiya station for sewage treatment. water samples of Diyala River were collected for four seasons through 2015, to examine the following parameters (water temperature, pH, E.C., salinity, T.D.S., T.H., Ca., Mg., T.S.S., D.O., B.O.D., CL, SO4, NO3 and PO4). It observed by the results that the proportions of these variables have exceeded the Iraqi rivers conservation system No, 65 1967, especially at the third station of the River has been affected greatly as posed streams Rustumiya station to the river, which negatively affects aquatic life on one hand and on the farmland on both sides the river on the other hand, where the river water used for irrigation.


Article
Effect of Whey Protein Supplement on Physiological Parameters in Building Body Athletes
تأثير المكمل الغذائي Whey Protein على بعض المعايير الفسلجية لدى لاعبي كمال الاجسام

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This study was conducted to investigate the adverse effect of whey protein supplement taken by athletes in some physiological parameters. (75) blood sample were collected from athletes whose take supplements of whey protein (experimental group), (25) blood sample of athletes who don’t take supplement (control group). Results showed a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the mean of hemoglobin level (Hb) and percentage of Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in the athletes group who take food supplement compared to control. The results also showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the mean of White Blood Cells count (WBCs) in experimental group, Also the results show significant changes in differential white blood cells in the experimental group when compared with control group. There was a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the number of neutrophils and monocyte and significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the mean of lymphocyte in the experimental group compared with control group. There was also a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the capacity of phagocytic activity of neutrophils in experimental group in compared with control group. There was a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the levels of Aspartate amino Transferase (AST), Alanine amino Transferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Bilirubin in experimental group compared with control group.


Article
The Effect of Wireworm Agriotes spp. in Many Types of Potatoes
تاثير الديدان السلكية Agriotes spp. في اصناف متعددة من محصول البطاطا

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The present study demonstrate the infection (injury and damage) of wireworm on potato crop in spring and autumn season. This study was conducted in Abu- Greeb fields in Baghdad– Iraq during 2009 – 2010 In order to assessment the damage caused by wireworm Agriotes spp. on four type of growing Solanum tuberosum crop (Rodeo, Lotona, Bleni, Deseri) in spring and autumn season. The results of this study showed that Agriotes spp. was more damage in spring season more than autumn season. Percentage of the numbers of damage potato tuber to the four types was 1.81, 4.87, 6.66, 8.33 % respectively. While it was 6.55, 3.63, 10.52, 9.09 % total weight of Rodeo, Lotona, Bleni, Deseri , respectively. The Rodeo type was more injury in spring season with ratio of 11 tuber number. The result showed that the potato was damage in spring season more than autumn season and this may be due to the presence of the larvae near soil surface that liege with temperature during season. Also may be due to size of potato tuber which cultured large tuber with wide surface area be more damaged and injury.


Article
Detection of Aflatoxin B1 in Some Canned Foods and Reduction of Toxin by Ultraviolet Radiation
الكشف عن سم الأفلا 1B في الأغذية المعلبة واختزال السم بأستخدام الأشعة فوق البنفسجية

Authors: Fadia F. Hassan فادية فلاح حسن
Pages: 2343-2349
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This study was aimed to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 in thirty nine samples of some canned foods (6 samples of beef meat, 4 samples of chicken meat, 6 samples of fish meat, 5 samples of mushroom and 18 samples of different types of legumes) which collected randomly from some Iraqi local markets using ELISA technique. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in thirty four samples and the concentration of toxin ranged from 2.5 ppb to 975 ppb. UV radiation (365nm wave length) was used for detoxification of aflatoxin B1 from each type of tested samples with highest concentration (beef meat 975ppb, chicken meat 217 ppb, fish meat 75 ppb, mushroom 237.5 and legumes 207) at distance of 60 cm between UV source and tested sample for 30 minute exposure time. Results showed that UV radiation able to reduce aflatoxin B1 from 975, 217, 75, 237.5 ppb and 207 to 111, 30, 8, 44 and 23 ppb respectively and it is consider as an effective method which using for reduction of aflatoxin B1.


Article
The Efficacy of Some Detergents on Some Intestinal Parasites and Their Histopathological Effects
تأثير بعض المنظفات على اكياس وبيوض بعض الطفيليات المعوية وتأثيراتها النسجية المرضية

Authors: Hiro M. Obaid هيرو محمد عبيد
Pages: 2350-2363
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Detergents or surfactant are chemical substances that used for cleaning purposes. The chemical compositions of the detergents are varying greatly according to application demands and commercial competitive. The aim of the present study was to, investigate the effect of common substances, used by people in our area for cleaning vegetables and fruits. On killing some parasitic stages and also studying their histopathological effects on mice intestine. Four types of ordinary commercial detergents were used (Altunsa, Bonux, Ariel , ABC) at concentrations of 1.5, 3, 4.5 gl against E. hitolytica, E. coli, G. lamblia cysts and H. nana eggs. The parasitic stages were incubated with the detergents used for 2, 5, 15, 30 minutes. In order to detect the efficacy of the detergents the incubated stages were administered to laboratory mice. Histological sections of mice intestinal parts were done to find out the histopathological effect of the detergents. The detergents varied in their actions on tested parasitic stages, the most effective was Ariel and ABC type followed by Bonux. The lowest efficacy was for Altunsa type. Incubating the parasitic stages with the detergent for 2 minutes had no impact with some detergents, while 5 minutes was enough for killing the stages with all detergents. The histopathological examination of intestinal parts had not revealed any dimorphty or changes comparing to the control group except in that leaved for more than 5 minutes. The conclusion is that some detergents can be used for cleaning vegetables, killing and removing parasitic stages. Detergents do not cause histopathological effects if its residues removed thoroughly and not leaved on vegetables for long period of time.


Article
The Efficacy of Some Detergents on Some Intestinal Parasites and Their Histopathological Effects
تأثير بعض المنظفات على اكياس وبيوض بعض الطفيليات المعوية وتأثيراتها النسجية المرضية

Authors: Hiro M. Obaid هيرو محمد عبيد
Pages: 2350-2363
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Abstract

Detergents or surfactant are chemical substances that used for cleaning purposes. The chemical compositions of the detergents are varying greatly according to application demands and commercial competitive. The aim of the present study was to, investigate the effect of common substances, used by people in our area for cleaning vegetables and fruits. On killing some parasitic stages and also studying their histopathological effects on mice intestine. Four types of ordinary commercial detergents were used (Altunsa, Bonux, Ariel , ABC) at concentrations of 1.5, 3, 4.5 gl against E. hitolytica, E. coli, G. lamblia cysts and H. nana eggs. The parasitic stages were incubated with the detergents used for 2, 5, 15, 30 minutes. In order to detect the efficacy of the detergents the incubated stages were administered to laboratory mice. Histological sections of mice intestinal parts were done to find out the histopathological effect of the detergents. The detergents varied in their actions on tested parasitic stages, the most effective was Ariel and ABC type followed by Bonux. The lowest efficacy was for Altunsa type. Incubating the parasitic stages with the detergent for 2 minutes had no impact with some detergents, while 5 minutes was enough for killing the stages with all detergents. The histopathological examination of intestinal parts had not revealed any dimorphty or changes comparing to the control group except in that leaved for more than 5 minutes. The conclusion is that some detergents can be used for cleaning vegetables, killing and removing parasitic stages. Detergents do not cause histopathological effects if its residues removed thoroughly and not leaved on vegetables for long period of time.


Article
Effect of Laser Pulse Energy on the Characteristics of Au Nanoparticles and Applications in medicine
تأثير طاقة الليزر النبضي على خواص جسيمات الذهب النانوية وتطبيقاتها في الطب.

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In this paper, Au NPs prepared by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) with different laser energy (200, 360,500,660 and 800 m J) with number of pulses (1000pulse), at wavelength 1064 nm, and repetition rate of 1Hz. The structural, morphological and optical properties were discussed. XRD spectra showed the diffraction peak. AFM showed the average diameter. The optical properties showed increase absorption spectra at increase energy. Further in vitro antibacterial activities of Au NPs were investigated against Gram positive and Gram negative. Staphylococcus aureus and E.Coli. Studied Toxicity of the synthesized Au NPs on human blood cells.

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Article
Evaluation of hydraulic properties and climatic conditions of Yaychi area Southwest of Kirkuk - North of Iraq
تقييم الخصائص الهيدروليكية والظروف المناخية لمنطقة يايجي جنىب غرب كركىك/ شمال العراق

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This study includes determining the climatic conditions and the nature of the reservoirs in the region with the determination of the flow direction and the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer. The meteorological data for the Kirkuk station for the period 1971-2015 showed that the values of the monthly rates of temperature, precipitation, evaporation, relative humidity, wind speed and Sunshine duration are (9.1 to 36.2 C), (0.03 to 65.8 mm), (51.4 to 412.7mm), (21.7 to 71.1%), (1.3 to 2.1 m / s), and (5.4 to 11.2 hour) respectively. And according to the annual rainfall rate is (348.13mm), found 18 years of the climatic period are wet years and 27 years are dry years. Thornthwait method was used to calculate the values of Potential Evapotraspiration (PE) then determine the annual value of WS and WD which equal 238.4mm and 852.8mm respectively. The study showed the existence of a shallow aquifer unconfined in the Quaternary deposits with the presence aquifer confined in the Bai-Hasan Formation. The flow net map is shown by mainly that the groundwater flow in the area, it is from the northeastern parts towards the southwestern parts. The information of single pumping test for five wells in the study area shows that the values of the transmissivity (T), hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific capacity (SC) were ranged from (88.1 to 829.7m2/d), (0.64 to 8.74m/d) and (33.28 to 295.75m2/d) respectively, where (T) and (K) calculated by using (AQTESOLV 4.5) software that depend on the methods of Cooper-Jacob and Theis recovery for analysis these information.

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Article
Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in East of ThiQar Governorate (South Iraq)
تقييم نوعية المياه الجوفية في شرق محافظة ذي قار (جنوب العراق)

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Fifty groundwater samples were collected from east of Thi Qar governorate in south of Iraq. Studied area belongs to Mesopotamia plain which is considered as a part of stable shelf of Arabian plate . Quaternary sediments are covered this area by clay, silt and sand beds. The aim of this study is evaluating of hydrochemical facies and suitability of groundwater for different purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics (pH, TDS, EC, TH) besides of major cations & anions. The results indicated that groundwater samples are between neutral and light alkaline, slightly-brackish, excessively mineralized and hard to very hard water. Two hydrochemical facies were identified, they are " earth alkaline water with increased portions of alkalis with prevailing sulfate and chloride" and " Alkaline water with prevailing sulfate and chloride" belong to (Ca2+ - Mg2+ - Cl- - SO4 2- ) and (Na+- K+ - Cl- - SO4 2-). The evaluation of groundwater suitability for different purposes, It turned out that this groundwater is unsuitable for human drinking and industrial purposes, satisfactory for livestock. Concerning to suitability for irrigation purposes, It is ranged between unsuitable to doubtful according to (Na%) and RSC , but it is still excellent to good limits according to SAR.


Article
On the Atom Bond Connectivity Index of Titania Nanotubes TiO2 (m, n)

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Let G(V,E) be a simple molecular graph, for a graph G(V,E) with vertex(atom) set V and the edge(bond) set E, the third version of atom bond connectivity index is defined as 3 ( ) 2 ( ) , . v u e uv E G v u m m ABC G m m       where mv is the number of edges of G lying near to u than to v. In this research paper, we compute the third version of atomic-bond connectivity index of the Titania Nanotubes ( , ) 2 TiO m n

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Article
Weak Forms of Fuzzy N- Open Sets and Fuzzy - Sets in Fuzzy Topological Spaces
- والمجموعات الضبابية من النمط Nالصيغ الضعيفة للمجمعوعات المفتوحة الضبابية من النمط في الفضاءات التبولوجية الضبابية

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In this article we introduce a new type of fuzzy open sets in fuzzy topological spaces called fuzzy N-open sets and we prove that the family of all fuzzy N-open sets in a fuzzy topological space forms a fuzzy topology on X. Also we use fuzzy N-open sets to define and study new types of fuzzy sets called weak fuzzy N-open sets and weak fuzzy - sets in fuzzy topological spaces. Moreover we investigate the relation between the fuzzy open sets and each of fuzzy N-open sets, weak fuzzy N-open sets and weak fuzzy - sets.


Article
Robust Watermarking for Video Using Mean Modulation Technique
العلامة المائية الحصينة في الفديو باستخدام تقنية تضمين المعدل

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This paper is directed toward the task of embedding a robust invisible watermark in the found sprite object (survive object) in each Group of Video (GOV). The proposed system is designed to provide authentication and protection to video by embedding invisible watermark. Three different watermark data embedding methods have been developed and used; they are: (i) Blocks average modulation applied on RGB domain, (ii) Blocks average modulation applied on Y-band only, and (iii) Haar wavelet approximation modulation. Uniform quantization is used as part of hiding step for modulating the block mean value of one or more of the color bands. The conducted tests indicated that the proposed block mean modulation method in the Y-subband of sprite blocks offer excellent robust watermark embedding; it was capable to withstand against lossy JPEG and JPEG2000 compression attacks.

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Watermark --- MPEG-4 --- Sprite --- I-frame --- Motion Compensation --- Haar --- JPEG --- JPEG-2000


Article
Generate Random Arabic Characters and Numbers for CAPTCHA
توليد حروف عربية وارقام عشوائية للكابتشا

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Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is a program where its goal is to check the user identity if it is a human or web program by creating tests that is easy to human but difficult to computer programs. In this paper, a mixed Arabic CAPTCHA schema is proposed to generate Arabic characters and numbers using generators that combines more than one Linear Feedback Shift Registers(LFSRs) via a non-linear function to produce the binary sequence. This random binary sequence is translated to be Arabic characters and numbers to be used for Arabic CAPTCHA, to ensure the randomness, each generator output is analyzed via randomness analysis using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test suite.

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Article
Evaluation of Two Thresholds Two Divisor Chunking Algorithm Using Rabin Finger print, Adler, and SHA1 Hashing Algorithms
تقييم خوارزمية (TTTD) بأستخدام ثلاث خوارزميات هاش مختلفة

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Data deduplication is a data reduction technology that is worked by detecting and eliminating data redundancy and keep only one copy of these data, and is often used to reduce the storage space and network bandwidth. While our main motivation has been low band-width synchronization applications such as Low Bandwidth Network File System (LBNFS), deduplication is also useful in archival file systems. A number of researchers have advocated a scheme for archival. Data deduplication now is one of the hottest research topics in the backup storage area. In this paper, A survey on different chunking algorithms of data deduplication are discussed, and studying the most popular used chunking algorithm Two Threshold Two Divisor (TTTD), and evaluated this algorithm using three different hashing functions that can be used with it (Rabin Finger print, Adler, and SHA1) implemented each one as a fingerprinting and hashing algorithm and then compared the execution time and deduplication elimination ratio which was the first time this comparison performed and the result is shown below.


Article
Automatic Query Expansion for Arabic Text Retrieval
توسيع الاستعلام التلقائي لاسترجاع النص العربي

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Query expansion (QE) is a successful idea to overcome the weaknesses in the information retrieval performance. The QE requires finding out appropriate word synonyms of the query words in a process that can be made automatically without any user intervention. The candidate synonyms should be associated with an accurate meaning (sense) of the original word. Arabic language is rich in multiple meanings and this requires using the so-called word sense disambiguation (WSD). WSD in general is a task to discover the correct sense of a word within context. To disambiguate the word sense, three different traditional semantic measures are tested in this work; they are called lch, wup, and path respectively. The proposed system uses these measures along with an automatic synonym selection method employed to expand the query. The proposed system outperforms the traditional baseline system that has no query expansion technique in a rate from 10% to 18 % and reduces the latency in an approximate rate from 0.232 to 0.283 second for each query.


Article
Robust Video Watermarking of Hybrid Based Techniques
علامة مائية موثوقة للفديو اعتمادا على تقنيات هجينه

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This paper adopted a new video watermarking scheme based on hybrid transforms to achieve the watermarking requirements, that is, robustness, imperceptibility, and security. Where In our system first of all, the original video will be divided into frames to transform it using the Slantlet Transform into four sub-bands (i.e., LL, LH, HL, and HH). Secondly, The HL sub-band will be chosen for further decomposition using Contourlet Transform (CT), and then the low sub-band of CT will be selected to decompose it to fixed size non overlapping blocks to employ the DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) on each block. lastly, to improve the security and robustness, the watermark logo is scrambled using AT(Arnold transformation ) as a prelude to embed it’s on the each transformed non-overlapping blocks. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves good imperceptibility and high resistance against various attacks.


Article
The Exponential and Gaussian Density Profiles of HI and Fe II in the Gaseous Halo of the Milky Way
التوزيع الاسي والكاوسي لكثافة الهيدروجين المتعادل والحديد المتأين في الهالة الغازية لمجرة درب التبانة

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Abstract

This paper aims to investigate the exponential and Gaussian density profiles of the gaseous halo of the Milky Way galaxy for scale heights of |z| ≤ 1000 pc. The density profile of the neutral hydrogen HI and that of the ionized iron Fe II is considered. The data of different values of scale heights and central number density from the literature have been used in order to determine the density profiles. More specifically, six density profiles of HI and two density profiles of Fe II have been determined. In addition, the average of both cases has been calculated and the results showed that the density of neutral hydrogen is significantly higher than that of the ionized iron.


Article
The Best School Site Choosing for Rural Areas of The Husseiniya District in Karbala Province Using GIS (Model Builder) Techniques
أختيار أفضل موقع لمدرسة للمناطق الريفية في حي الحسينية بمحافظة كربلاء باستخدام تقنيات نظم المعلومات الجغرافية (Model Builder)

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Abstract

With the increments number of population nowadays, one of the most essential problems in rural areas is the number of students in each school which exceed the school capacity. Thus, it is important to increase the number of schools and to determine the suitable location of them. The aim of this study is to determine the most suitable sites for school using Geographic Information System (GIS 10.2) (ModelBildur)in Husseiniya district, Karbala province. Land classification, slope, distance from the single schools, proximity to the inflated schools, work buffer 100 meters around the main roads and railways and removing them from the map, represent the main criteria used to evaluate the location suitability and the most crowded school. Schools with high number of students are calculated and evaluated (above 1000) used point density tool to calculate the largest schools inflated from students. The weighted overlay tool is also employed to weight the criteria. The results demonstrate that the developed GIS 10.2 is successfully able to determine the best school location in Husseiniya district depending on the criteria with high efficiency. The excellent performance of the developed program shows its high efficiency for best locations detection in various applications such as, Popular clinics and police stations.


Article
Single Scale Retinex (SSR) and Multi Scale Retinex (MSR) Enhancement Algorithms for Thermal Night-Vision Images
خوارزميات مقياس ريتنكس المفرد (SSR) و مقياس ريتانكس المتعدد (MSR) لتحسين الصور الحرارية الليلية

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Abstract

Infrared technology advancements have led to an expansive set of infrared applications in both the private and public sectors. The b[lfdssx improvement procedures proposed for visible spectrum images specialty infrared pictures, and to propose a strategy that may be most appropriate for consolidation into commercial infrared imaging applications.The improvement of the general quality of aerial infrared images by proposes algorithms discussed briefly. These algorithms were based on Single Scale Retinex SSR and Multi Scale Retinex MSR with histogram equalization HE. The database were used itconsists of night vision infrared images taken using a by Zenmuse camera (FLIR Systems, Inc) fixed on MATRIC100 drone in Karbala city.


Article
Concentration Sensor Design Using Wavelength Shift Based Photonic Crystal Fibre
تصميم متحسس التركيز بأستخدام ازاحة الطول الموجي في الالياف الضوئية البلورية

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Abstract

The proposed sensor is designed to measure the concentration of liquids using the photonic crystal fibre (PCF) principles. The sensor has been implemented by splicing the two ends of the PCF piece to a single mode fibre (SMF). The air holes found in the splicing points are fully collapsed by the arc discharge. The wavelength shift occurs at the collapsed regions due to the excitation of combined core besides the cladding modes. The PCF was infiltrated by diluted olive oil to be tested in terms of the variation of sensing response with the wavelength shift in the transmission spectra. The sensitivity is 875 nanometre per refractive index unit (nm/RIU) that estimated in refractive index range between 1.43 and 1.47. Result also shows that the sensor has a small temperature sensitivity of 0.863dBm/°C in the range of 20°C to 70°C. The proposed concentration sensor potentially can be applied in biomedical, biological and chemical applications.

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