Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073 25203339
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

AIMS AND SCOPE

The Journal of Engineering is an open access, monthly, refereed, peer-reviewed journal. It focuses on the different disciplines of engineering.

Its scope is to cover almost all the aspects of engineering and technology and their related topics. The Journal of Engineering tries to emphasize on publishing high-quality papers with an acceptable, professional and considerable background.

The submitted papers undergo plagiarism, a double-blind peer review by professionals in the paper specific specialty. This process is accomplished according to the Journal criteria of evaluation, where the manuscript, contents, and organization of the paper are to be checked. The papers will be available online for the readers.

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Contact info

Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:+964 7714076860
Email: info@jcoeng.edu.iq
https://www.jcoeng.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:24 issue:1

Article
Regression Analysis Models to Predict the 28 -day Compressive Strength Using Accelerated Curing Tests
موديلات تحليل الانحدار لتوقع مقاومة الانضغاط بعمر 28 يوم باستخدام فحوص الانضاج المعجل

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Abstract

Regression analysis models are adopted by using SPSS program to predict the 28-day compressive strength as dependent variable and the accelerated compressive strength as independent variable. Three accelerated curing method was adopted, warm water (35ºC) and autogenous according to ASTM C C684-99 and the British method (55ºC) according to BS1881: Part 112:1983. The experimental concrete mix design was according to ACI 211.1. Twenty eight concrete mixes with slump rang (25-50) mm and (75-100)mm for rounded and crushed coarse aggregate with cement content (585, 512, 455, 410, 372 and 341)Kg/m3. The experimental results showed that the accelerated strength were equal to about (0.356), (0.492) and (0.595) of the 28-day compressive strength for warm water, autogenous and British curing methods respectively. A statistical regression analysis using SPSS program is implemented for the experimental results of the 28-day compressive strength ranging from (16 to 55.2)Mpa and accelerated strength for different curing methods. The linear models with high R2 and F-value are adopted for different curing methods while the Power model with constant is the best model for non parametric analysis.


Article
Efficient Cost Management in the Housing Projects
الادارة الكلفوية الكفؤة في مشاريع الاسكان

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Abstract

The cost management of cost indicators in housing projects, on the level of planning and design, is the most important quality indicators, for adoption of strategies of planning and design efficient in managing these indicators. So this research points out the need to highlight the most effective and influential cost indicators in housing projects, and to determine strategies in the management of these indicators in order to raise the efficiency of housing projects quality, to seemly the income level target group, taking into consideration the quality of housing standards, to achieve the basic requirements of housing. This paper highlights the importance of the cost management, the types of housing cost, the method of control and the most important planning and design strategies to be adopted in order to achieve efficient cost management in housing projects. One local project under construction was selected as case study, to evaluate the application of the indicators the efficiency of the cost management on planning and design levels.


Article
Statistical Analysis of Mortality and Morbidity Due to Traffic Accidents in Iraq
التحليل الإحصائي للوفيات والجرحى بسبب الحوادث المرورية في العراق

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Abstract

Undoubtedly, Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major dilemma in term of mortality and morbidity facing the road users as well as the traffic and road authorities. Since 2002, the population in Iraq has increased by 49 percent and the number of vehicles by three folds. Consequently, these increases were unfortunately combined with rising the RTAs number, mortality and morbidity. Alongside the humanitarian tragedies, every year, there are considerable economic losses in Iraq lost due to the epidemic of RTAs. Given the necessity of understanding the contributory factors related to RTAs for the implementation by traffic and road authorities to improve the road safety, the necessity have been a rise for this research which focuses into two objectives; the first objective is a descriptive analysis for the RTA based on a retrospective analysis during the period of 2002–2015 with the aids of the data obtained from the reports of Iraqi Central Statistical Organization whereas the second objective is to conduct a statistical analysis for RTAs to correlate the criterion variable of accident number, mortality or morbidity to predictor variable which include motorization level or population using traditional statistical regression approach and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach.


Article
Producing Coordinate Time Series for Iraq's CORS Site for Detection Geophysical Phenomena
أنتاج المتسلسلات الزمنية للموقع الأرضي لمحطة ال CORS في العراق للكشف عن الظواهر الجيوفيزيائية

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Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have become an integral part of wide range of applications. One of these applications of GNSS is implementation of the cellular phone to locate the position of users and this technology has been employed in social media applications. Moreover, GNSS have been effectively employed in transportation, GIS, mobile satellite communications, and etc. On the other hand, the geomatics sciences use the GNSS for many practical and scientific applications such as surveying and mapping and monitoring, etc. In this study, the GNSS raw data of ISER CORS, which is located in the North of Iraq, are processed and analyzed to build up coordinate time series for the purpose of detection the Arabian tectonic plate motion over seven years and a half. Such coordinates time series have been produced very efficiently using GNSS Precise Point Positioning (PPP). The daily PPP results were processed, analyzed, and presented as coordinate time series using GPS Interactive Time Series Analysis. Furthermore, MATLAB (V.2013a) is used in this study to computerize GITSA with Graphic User Interface (GUI). The objective of this study was to investigate both of the homogeneity and consistency of the Iraq CORSs GNSS raw data for detection any geophysical changes over long period of time. Additionally, this study aims to employ free online PPP services, such as CSRS_PPP software, for processing GNSS raw data for generation GNSS coordinate time series. The coordinate time series of ISER station showed a +20.9 mm per year, +27.2 mm per year, and -11.3 mm per year in the East, North, and up-down components, respectively. These findings showed a remarkable similarity with those obtained by long-term monitoring of Earth's crust deformation and movement based on global studies and this highlights the importance of using GNSS for monitoring the movement of tectonic plate motion based on CORS and online GNSS data processing services over long period of time.


Article
Pitting Corrosion Behavior of 304 SS and 316 SS Alloys in Aqueous Chloride and Bromide Solutions
سلوك التأكل النقري لسبائك الفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ 304 و316 في محاليل الكلور والبروم الملحية

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Abstract

The importance of the present work falls on the pitting corrosion behavior investigation of 304 SS and 316 SS alloys in 3.5 wt% of aqueous solution bearing with chloride and bromide anion at different solutions temperature range starting from (20-50)oC due to the pitting corrosion tremendous effect on the economic, safety and materials loss due to leakage. The impact of solution temperatures on the pitting corrosion resistance at 3.5wt% (NaCl and NaBr) solutions for the 304 SS and 316 SS has been investigated utilizing the cyclic polarization techniques at the potential range -400 to1000 mV vs. SCE at 40 mV/sec scan rate followed by the surface characterization employing Scanning Electron Microscope. The results show that a significant decline in the pitting corrosion potential Ep values of both stainless steel alloys in chloride and bromide solution during temperature increase attributed to the pitting corrosion potential decreased arises from the modification of the passive film properties. The surface examination using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope prove the occurring of higher pitting density over 304 SS in chloride solution than that observed in bromide solution with a non-circular lacy cover pitfall out at the center and falls inside the pits hall in comparison to the isolated circular lacy cover pit formed on 316 SS in 3.5wt% NaBr solution at 50 oC.


Article
Investigating the Influence of the Cerium loading in prepared Y zeolite from Iraqi kaolin on its Catalytic Performance
دراسة تأثير تحميل السيريوم في زيوليت Y المحضر من الكاولين العراقي على أدائه التحفيزي

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Abstract

In this study, the effects of different loading doses of cerium in the prepared NaY zeolite from Iraqi kaolin were investigated. Al-Duara refinery atmospheric residue fluid catalytic cracking was selected as palpation reaction for testing the catalytic activity of cerium loading NaY zeolite. The insertion of cerium in NaY zeolites has been synthesized by simple ion exchange methods. Three samples of modified zeolite Y have been obtained by replacing the sodium ions in the original sample with cerium and the weight percent added are 0.35, 0.64, and 1.06 respectively. The effects of cerium loading to zeolite Y in different weight percent on the cracking catalysts were studied by employing a laboratory fluidized bed reactor. The experiments have been performed with weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) range from 6 to 24 h-1, and the temperature range from 450 to 510 oC. The activity of the catalyst with 1.06 wt% cerium has been shown to be much greater than that of the sample parent NaY. Also it was observed that the addition of the cerium causes an increase in the thermal stability of the zeolite.


Article
Comparison Between ESP and Gas Lift in Buzurgan Oil field/Iraq
مقارنة بين المضخة الغاطسة والرفع بالغاز في حقل بزركانالعراق

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Abstract

Buzurgan oil Field which is located in south of Iraq has been producing oil for five decades that caused production to drop in many oil wells. This paper provides a technical and economical comparison between the ESP and gas lift in one oil well (Bu-16) to help enhancing production and maximize revenue. Prosper software was used to build, match and design the artificial lift method for the selected well, also to predict the well behavior at different water cut values and its effect on artificial lift method efficiency. The validity of software model was confirmed by matching, where the error difference value between actual and calculated data was (-1.77%). The ESP results showed the durability of ESP regarding the increment of water cut value, on the other hand Gas lift design was restricted to surface injection pressure and injected gas volume which in return causes a restriction to production rate specially when water cut value increases. Economically the results showed ESP is cheaper and more applicable than gas lift.


Article
Zn(II) Removal from Wastewater by Electrocoagulation/Flotation Method using New Configuration of a Split-Plate Airlift Electrochemical Reactor
ازالة ايونات الزنك من المياه الصناعية بواسطة طريقة التخثير/التطويف الكهربائي وباستخدام شكل جديد لمفاعل الرفع الهوائي ذو الصفائح الفاصلة

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Abstract

In this paper, split-plate airlift electrochemical reactor as an apparatus with new configuration for wastewater treatment was provided. Two aluminum plates were fixed inside the reactor and present two functions; first it works as split plates for internal loop generation of the airlift system (the zone between the two plates acts as riser while the other two zones act as downcomer) and second it works as two electrodes for electrocoagulation process. Simulated wastewater contaminated with zinc ions was used to test the performance of this apparatus for zinc removal by studying the effect of different experimental variables such as initial concentration of zinc (50-800 ppm), electrical current density (2.67-21.4 mA/cm2), initial pH (3-11), air flowrate (12-50 LPH), and implicitly the electrocoagulation time. The results have shown the applicability of this split-plate airlift reactor as electrocoagulation cell in the treatment of wastewater such as wastewater containing Zink ions. The Zink removal percent was shown to increase upon increasing the current density and the electrolysis time. Also best removal percent was achieved in the initial pH range between 7 and 9. The minimum electrocoagulation time required for removal of ≥ 90% of Zn(II) decreases from 90 to 22 min when operating current density increases from 2.67 to 21.4 mA/cm2.


Article
Performance Evaluation of RIPng, EIGRPv6 and OSPFv3 for Real Time Applications
تقييم اداء مجموعة من بروتوكولات التوجيه في تطبيقات الزمن الحقيقي

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Abstract

In this modern Internet era and the transition to IPv6, routing protocols must adjust to assist this transformation. RIPng, EIGRPv6 and OSPFv3 are the dominant IPv6 IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocols). Selecting the best routing protocol among the available is a critical task, which depends upon the network requirement and performance parameters of different real time applications. The primary motivation of this paper is to estimate the performance of these protocols in real time applications. The evaluation is based on a number of criteria including: network convergence duration, Http Page Response Time, DB Query Response Time, IPv6 traffic dropped, video packet delay variation and video packet end to end delay. After examining the simulation results, a conclusion will be extracted to reveal the findings of which protocol performs the best upon implementation within a IPv6 WAN. OPNET modeler simulator is used to evaluate the accomplishment of these protocols. To get the results, three scenarios are designed, one for each protocol.


Article
Optimum Design of Power System Stabilizer based on Improved Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm
التصميم الامثل لـــ مثبت نظام القدرة المبني على خوارزمية مستعمرة النمل المطورة

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Abstract

This paper presents an improved technique on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm. The procedure is applied on Single Machine with Infinite Bus (SMIB) system with power system stabilizer (PSS) at three different loading regimes. The simulations are made by using MATLAB software. The results show that by using Improved Ant Colony Optimization (IACO) the system will give better performance with less number of iterations as it compared with a previous modification on ACO. In addition, the probability of selecting the arc depends on the best ant performance and the evaporation rate.

Keywords

SMIB --- PSS --- ACO


Article
Optical Character Recognition Using Active Contour Segmentation
التعرف الصوئي على الحروف والارقام بااستخدام برنامج الماتلاب

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Abstract

Document analysis of images snapped by camera is a growing challenge. These photos are often poor-quality compound images, composed of various objects and text; this makes automatic analysis complicated. OCR is one of the image processing techniques which is used to perform automatic identification of texts. Existing image processing techniques need to manage many parameters in order to clearly recognize the text in such pictures. Segmentation is regarded one of these essential parameters. This paper discusses the accuracy of segmentation process and its effect over the recognition process. According to the proposed method, the images were firstly filtered using the wiener filter then the active contour algorithm could be applied in the segmentation process. The Tesseract OCR Engine was selected in order to evaluate the performance and identification accuracy of the proposed method. The results showed that a more accurate segmentation process shall lead to a more accurate recognition results. The rate of recognition accuracy was 0.95 for the proposed algorithm compared with 0.85 for the Tesseract OCR Engine.


Article
Second Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Pneumatic Artificial Muscle
تصميم متحكم منزلق النمط من الدرجة الثانية لعضله اصطناعية هوائية

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In this paper, first and second order sliding mode controllers are designed for a single link robotic arm actuated by two Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs). A new mathematical model for the arm has been developed based on the model of large scale pneumatic muscle actuator model. Uncertainty in parameters has been presented and tested for the two controllers. The simulation results of the second-order sliding mode controller proves to have a low tracking error and chattering effect as compared to the first order one. The verification has been done by using MATLAB and Simulink software.


Article
A Nonlinear MIMO-PID Neural Controller Design for Vehicle Lateral Dynamics model based on Modified Elman Neural Network
تصميم مسيطر عصبي تناسبي-تكاملي- تفاضلي لا خطي متعدد الإدخال والإخراج لنموذج المركبة الجانبي الحركي مبني على أساس الشبكة العصبية ايلمن المعدلة

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This paper presents a new design of a nonlinear multi-input multi-output PID neural controller of the active brake steering force and the active front steering angle for a 2-DOF vehicle model based on modified Elman recurrent neural. The goal of this work is to achieve the stability and to improve the vehicle dynamic’s performance through achieving the desired yaw rate and reducing the lateral velocity of the vehicle in a minimum time period for preventing the vehicle from slipping out the road curvature by using two active control actions: the front steering angle and the brake steering force. Bacterial forging optimization algorithm is used to adjust the parameters weights of the proposed controller. Simulation results based Maltab package show the control methodology has effectiveness performance in terms of the excellent dynamic behavior of the vehicle model by minimizing the tracking error and smoothness control signals without saturation state obtained, especially when adding a bounded external disturbances to the vehicle model.


Article
Regression Modeling of EDM Process for AISI D2 Tool Steel with RSM
تحليل ونمذ جة معلمات التشغيل على خشونة السطح في عملية القطع بالشرارة الكهربائية بأستخدام منهجية أستجابة السطح AISI D2 للفولاذ العدة

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In this paper, Response Surface Method (RSM) is utilized to carry out an investigation of the impact of input parameters: electrode type (E.T.) [Gr, Cu and CuW], pulse duration of current (Ip), pulse duration on time (Ton), and pulse duration off time (Toff) on the surface finish in EDM operation. To approximate and concentrate the suggested second- order regression model is generally accepted for Surface Roughness Ra, a Central Composite Design (CCD) is utilized for evaluating the model constant coefficients of the input parameters on Surface Roughness (Ra). Examinations were performed on AISI D2 tool steel. The important coefficients are gotten by achieving successfully an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at the 5 % confidence interval. The outcomes discover that Surface Roughness (Ra) is much more impacted by E.T., Ton, Toff, Ip and little of their interactions action or influence. To predict the average Surface Roughness (Ra), a mathematical regression model was developed. Furthermore, for saving in time, the created model could be utilized for the choice of the high levels in the EDM procedure. The model adequacy was extremely agreeable as the constant Coefficient of Determination (R2) is observed to be 99.72% and adjusted R2-measurement (R2adj) 99.60%.


Article
The effect of Laser Shock Peening on Fatigue Life Using Pure Water and Hydrofluoric Acid As a Confining Layer of Al – Alloy 7075-T6
تأثير السفع بالليزر على عمر الكلال باستخدام ماء نقي وحامض الهيدروفلوريك كطبقة حاجزة لسبيكة

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Laser shock peening (LSP) is deemed as a deep-rooted technology for stimulating compressive residual stresses below the surface of metallic elements. As a result, fatigue lifespan is improved, and the substance properties become further resistant to wear and corrosion. The LSP provides more unfailing surface treatment and a potential decrease in microstructural damage. Laser shock peening is a well-organized method measured up to the mechanical shoot peening. This kind of surface handling can be fulfilled via an intense laser pulse focused on a substantial surface in extremely shorter intervals. In this work, Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) and pure water as a coating layer were utilized as a new technique to improve the properties and to harden the treated surface of the Al -alloy 7075-T6. Fatigue life by means of laser peened workpieces was improved to 154.3%, 9.78%, respectively, for Hydrofluoric (HF) and pure water compared to un-peened specimens. And the outcomes of Vickers hardness test for laser shock peening with acid and pure water as well as un-peened specimens were 165.2HV30, 143.95HV30 and 134.7HV30, respectively showed a significant improvement in the hardness property.


Article
Determination Optimum Inventory Level for Material Using Genetic Algorithm
تحديد مستوى الخزبن الامثل للمواد باستخدام الخوارزمية الجينية

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The integration of decision-making will lead to the robust of its decisions, and then determination optimum inventory level to the required materials to produce and reduce the total cost by the cooperation of purchasing department with inventory department and also with other company,s departments. Two models are suggested to determine Optimum Inventory Level (OIL), the first model (OIL-model 1) assumed that the inventory level for materials quantities equal to the required materials, while the second model (OIL-model 2) assumed that the inventory level for materials quantities more than the required materials for the next period. This study was applied in Wasit Company for Textile Manufacturing in the Textile Factory, where it produces five products, which are printed striped, plain, poplin, dyed poplin and Naba weave. The products are made from cotton and they are passing through several stages to transfer to the final product. A genetic algorithm is used to determine the optimum quantity of the purchase a cotton and colors for each month and with minimum cost. Where the purchasing and transportation costs were either constant or variable with respect to purchased quantities while holding cost is kept constant. The results showed that the total cost of the first model is minimum than the second model because the holding cost for this model is less from the second model, while the purchasing and transportation costs from two models are equals. The percentage of purchasing cost for cotton is the biggest value, more 99% of purchasing cost for two models.


Article
Direct Shear Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Elements
سلوك القص المباشر للاعضاء الخرسانية المسلحة بالالياف

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Improving the accuracy of load-deformation behavior, failure mode, and ultimate load capacity for reinforced concrete members subjected to in-plane loadings such as corbels, wall to foundation connections and panels need shear strength behavior to be included. Shear design in reinforced concrete structures depends on crack width, crack slippage and roughness of the surface of cracks. This paper illustrates results of an experimental investigation conducted to investigate the direct shear strength of fiber normal strength concrete (NSC) and reactive powder concrete (RPC). The tests were performed along a pre-selected shear plane in concrete members named push-off specimens. The effectiveness of concrete compressive strength, volume fraction of steel fiber, and shear reinforcement ratio on shear transfer capacity were considered in this study. Furthermore, failure modes, shear stress-slip behavior, and shear stress-crack width behavior were also presented in this study. Tests’ results showed that volume fraction of steel fiber and compressive strength of concrete in NSC and RPC play a major role in improving the shear strength of concrete. As expectedly, due to dowel action, the shear reinforcement is the predominant factor in resisting the shear stress. The shear failure of NSC and RPC has the sudden mode of failure (brittle failure) with the approximately linear behavior of shear stress-slip relationship till failure. Using RPC instead of NSC with the same amount of steel fibers in constructing the push-off specimen result in high shear strength. In NSC, shear strength influenced by the three major factors; crack surface friction, aggregate interlock and steel fiber content if present. Whereas, RPC has only steel fiber and cracks surface friction influencing the shear strength. Due to cementitious nature of RPC in comparisons with NSC, the RPC specimen shows greater cracks width. It is observed that the Mattock model gives very satisfactory predictions when applied to the present test results with a range of parametric variations; ranging from 0 % to 0.5 % in steel fibers content; from 0 % to 0.53 % in transverse reinforcement ratio; from 15 to 105 MPa in compressive strength of concrete. While it gives a poor prediction for a specimen with 1% steel fiber.

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