Table of content

Iraqi journal of mechanical and material engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الميكانيكية وهندسة المواد

ISSN: 20761819
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi journal for mechanical and material engineering is a refereed scientific journal published quarterly by the engineering college/ university of Babylon. It deals with high quality researches in fields of mechanical and material engineering.

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Journal E-mail:
j.mec_mat_eng@yahoo.com
Babylon university/Babylon/Iraq P.O.Box(4)
Tel:++96430245387.(1155)

Table of content: 2017 volume:17 issue:4

Article
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN BLENDING ON LAMINAR FLAME SPEED FOR IRAQI LPG
دراسة تجريبية لتاثير خلط الهيدروجين على السرعة الطباقية للغاز المسال العراقي

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An experimental study on laminar flame speed of the premixed Iraqi liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-hydrogen /air flames is conducted in a centrally ignited constant volume chamber specially constructed by the authors; at different initial pressures (0.1-0.3MPa) and initial temperature of (308 K). The tests are carried out at a mixture equivalence ratio ranges from 0.8-1.3. The investigated blends of hydrogen are 0-80% by volume . Experimental results show that the effect of hydrogen addition becomes obvious when the hydrogen blend is larger than 60%. When hydrogen blending 80%, the laminar flame speed of LPG also increases from (2.2-4.75 m/s) for stoichiometric mixture at atmosphere pressure. Increasing initial pressure from (1-3 bar), reduces stretched laminar flame speed of LPG-air mixture from (2.2-1.5 m/s) .


Article
SURFACE LAYERS CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE DIFFERENT STEEL ALLOYS HARDENED BY ND: YAG LASER
خواص الطبقات السطحية لثلاث انواع مختلفة من سبائك الفولاذ المصلدة بالليزر نيديميوم – ياك

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Abstract

Laser surface treatment is an effective way to improve the characteristics of surface layers for the most alloys. In the present work, three different steel alloys: low carbon steel A3115, medium carbon steel 1045 and high carbon steel 52100 were hardened by Nd: YAG laser at 1.064nm wave length with 1000mj energy. An experiments with Nd: YAG laser were carried out to study the effect of laser hardening process on the microstructure, roughness, microhardness during laser hardening of the three alloys. All of surface layers characteristics were analyses using optical microscope. Laser surface treatment enhanced the characteristics of surface layers for all the alloys. Also Nd: YAG laser surface treatment produced plate martensite for 52100 alloy more than A3115 and 1045 alloys. From the results is obtained finer martensite, an excellentroughness and larger microhardness for this alloy. The aim of present investigation study the effect of Nd: YAG laser hardening on the characteristics of surface layers for three different steel alloys (A3115, 1045, 52100) .


Article
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION ADVANCED POLYMER BLEND NANO COMPOSITE MATERIALS
تحضير وتوصيف مواد متراكبة نانوية لخلائط بوليمرية

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In the present work it has been studied the effect of (0.3, 0.8 and 1.5 wt.%) Zirconia ZrO2 and Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles on polymer blend matrix (poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) / High density polyethylene (HDPE. SEM Morphological analysis has been performed which shows different morphologies with various contents of polymer blend composites. Mechanical tests including (tensile, compression, flexural, Impact and wear) were performed on the two groups of binary blend composites. Zirconia blend composites gave higher values of mechanical characteristics as compared with the hydroxyapatite ones. Wear resistance showed improvement with the addition of nano powders still, the effect of addition hydroxyapatite to polymer blend, was better as compared with that of zirconia.


Article
NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OFDIE DESGIN ON SHEET HYDROFORMING PROCESS
دراسة تحليلية وتجريبية لتصميم القالب في عملية التشكيل الهيدروليكي للصفائح المعدنية

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In this paper, a FEM is used to determine the effect of die design on sheet hydroforming process. The hydraulic deformation is a process for sheet forming by applying hydraulic pressurized liquid on the sheet. This process is characterized by its ability to give homogenous strain distribution along the blank with highly mechanical properties. To simulate deformation process and analyze the results theoretically, a special programmer for finite elements (Ansys15) has been used. To prove rightness of numerical simulation, a die with the same dimensions of used die in research has been built. The simulation of the sample deformation process has been performed by using circular plate of aluminum alloy (1435) with two different thickness (1)mm using four profile radius for lower die (2,4,6,8,10)mm and under effect of (10) KN blank holder force(BHF). These parameters have been used to know the effect of die profile radius and blank holder force on the product in term of stresses distribution and wrinkling and tearing and average of thickness change along the length from the center of the sample to the final edge on the accuracy and the shape of final product.


Article
ENHANCEMENT PERFORMANCE OF WIND TURBINE BLADE BY COMPARISON STUDY OF SUCTION AND BLOWING TECHNIQUESUSING SEP METHOD
تحسين الاداء لزعنفة التوربين الهوائي بواسطة دراسة مقارنة لتقنيات الشفط والنفخ باستخدام طريقة SEP

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In this work a new concept of flow separation control mechanism has been introduced to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil. Control of flow separation over an airfoil at low Reynolds number is theoretically simulated under the effects of suction and blowing, based on the computation of Reynolds-average Navier-Stocks equations(the solution of each set of equations is achieved by application of the SEP(strong explicit procedure)solver) is carried out. Using Finite Volume Method to solve the governing equations on a body, so, a numerical model is developed. The suction and blowing control mechanism appears to be suppression of the separation bubble and reduction of the upper surface pressure to increase the lift and decrease the drag. To make section model, NACA 4421 airfoil has been chosen. In present study, the theoretical are performed with different angle of attack (20º, 22º, 23º), Uj/U (A) =6 and different chord (1c,0.9c,0.8c,0.7c). The theoretical results show that the flow separation control is possible by the proposed mechanism and benefits can be achieved by suction and blowing (for suction position at the end of the chord (0.8c) and for blowing position at the begging of the chord (0.1c)). The section performance is significantly improved due to control of flow separation by suction and blowing. It has also been found that the lift increases about 14% at the angle of attack 20º, 22ºand 23º and seen that the blowing is better than the suction.


Article
STUDY ON Al2O3 COATING DEPOSITED ON 2024 Al ALLOYS BY MICRO ARC OXIDATION (MAO) USING TiO2 NANO ADDITIVES.
دراسة طلاء الالومينا Al2O3 المرسبة على الالمنيوم 2024بواسطة الاكسدة المايكروية باستخدام مضافات ثاني اوكسيد التيتانيوم TiO2

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Abstract

In this work, the effect of adding natural additives such as rice husks ash and nano additives such as TiO2 to the electrolyte on the properties of ceramic oxide coating formed on 2024 Al alloy substrate by micro arc oxidation (MAO). Results proved that the formation of hard ceramic oxide coatings were values(313 to 531.3)HV. Roughness increased with deposition time increasing, thickness of coatings variation with deposition time. Morphology of coated sample for 45min with electrolyte compositions(10g/l KH2PO4, 5g/l NaCO3, 4g/l H3PO4, 6g/l (NH3)2MO7O24,3g/l RHA, and 9g/l KOH, 1g/l nanoTiO2)showed the dense structure and uniform pores distribution, increasing the addition of TiO2to 3g/lthe results showed that more porous structure. Wear resistance of coatings improved by means of decreasing loss weight from (0.0017g of substrate) to (0.0003-0.0009)of samples at (15min and 60min) respectively, with composition(1g/l nanoTiO2, 10g/l KH2PO4, 5g/l NaCO3, 4g/l H3PO4,6g/l (NH3)2MO7O24,3g/l RHA, and 9g/l KOH) .


Article
PREPARING SURFACE COMPOSITE OF AA5086/SiC BY FRICTION STIR PROCESSING
تحضير سطح مركب من AA5086 / SiC بواسطة عملية الخلط الاحتكاكي

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Friction stir processing (FSP) is a novel solid state process to produce surface composite. In this study, FSP was applied to produce surface composite for (AA5086) matrix reinforced with Silicon Carbide (SiC) particles . FSP tool of flat shoulder in diameter (18mm) and cylindrical pin with threaded profile in diameter (6mm), length (2.5 mm) was fabricated. The groove cut on the surface of base metal in (2mm) depth, (2.5mm) width, then groove filled with reinforcement particles. The process carried out at various rotational speed (500, 1000, 1600 rpm) and constant traveling speed (30)mm/min. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to analysis the microstructure. Furthermore, the wear properties of the surface composites were evaluated by using a pin on disc wear test at room temperature at normal loads of ( 10,15, and 20 N). The results showed that microhardness profile along top surface improved after FSP) and the maximum microhardness evaluated at rotational speed (1000 rpm)for (AA5086) reinforced by (SiC) particles in three passes. The microhardness increased to (150 HV) as compared with the micro-hardness of the base metal (94HV). The practical purpose of this work is to improve the surface wear resistance by developing a layer of ceramic composite on the surface of (AA5086) .


Article
EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF 2205 DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL IN ORTHODONTIC APPLICATIONS
تأثير المعاملة الحرارية على تصرف التاكل لسبيكة الفولاذ المقاوم للصدأالمزدوج في تطبيقات تقويم الاسنان

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The heat treatment is necessary for 2205 duplex stainless steel to remove or dissolve intermetallic phases, removed segregation and to relieve any residual thermal stress in DSS which may be formed during production processes. In the present study, the corrosion resistance of a 2205 DSS in artificial saliva was studied by SEM, XRD, HV test and potentiodynamic measurements. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance mainly effected by ferrite /austenite ratio. The best result was obtained with the treatment at 900°C for 2 min. The austenite phase has corrosion resistance higher than ferrite.


Article
PASSIVE COOLING BY UTILIZING THECOMBINED PCM / ALUMINUM FOAM MATRIX TO IMPROVE SOLAR PANELS PERFORMANCE: INDOOR INVESTIGATION
التبريد السلبي من خلال الاستفادة من مدمج PCM / مصفوفة الالمنيوم الرغوي لتحسين اداء الالواح الشمسية : تحقيق مختبري

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Abstract

In this study, utilizing the PCM latent heat of fusion to absorbing the heat energy from photovoltaic panels was done. This method works as a passive cooling to regulate the PV panel’s temperature in hot climate regions. To enhance the important effective physical properties such as thermal conductivities (keff) for this material, aluminum foam matrix was used with paraffin wax. This led to good temperature distribution inside PCM and more heat absorption from PV panel. The experimental results indicated that the PV panel temperature drooped from (61.39 oC) to (46.2 oC) by using PCM only, and to (39.58oC) by using PCM/Aluminum foam matrix at the test end, (i.e. the percentage drooping of PV panel temperature was (25.03%) by using PCM only, and it was (35.51%) by using PCM/Aluminum foam matrix). This droop in temperature enhances the electrical performance of PV panel such as maximum power generated, fill factor (FF), etc. The improving in electrical efficiency of PV panel at the test end was from (10.19%) to (12.37%) with using PCM only, and to about (13%) with using PCM/Aluminum foam matrix.


Article
STUDY OF THE PITTING CORROSION FOR SHOT PEENING 6061-T6ALUMINUM ALLOY IN SEA WATER
دراسة تاثير قذف سبيكة الالمنيوم 6061-T6 بكرات معدنية على التأكل النقري في ماء البحر

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This paper aims to clear some influential parameters, like shape and size of shot-peening on pitting corrosion for aluminum alloy 6061-T6. Many specimens" were "prepared for corrosion test" with dimensions of (15*15*3) mm according to ASTM G71-31 and these specimens were categorized into four group having symbols (A,B,C,D). Three of these groups were shot peened using different ball sizes. Group B shot by steel ball having diameter 1.25 mm while group C shot by steel ball with diameter 2.75 mm. Steel cylinder with diameter of 2.75 mm" and length 3mm was to shot" another "specimens. Shot "time" was fixed of (10) min. Many tests have been carried out to measure the surface roughness, Vickers hardness ,residual stresses. SEM micrograph for all specimens . Corrosion test was done by cyclic electrochemical methods for all specimens in environments of "3.5% NaCl solution". The Corrosion value has calculated by using Tafel equation. Results obtained show that shot peening contribute in decreasing corrosion rate comparing with base metal and shot peening using steel ball give low corrosion rate than cylinder steel due to plastic deformation causes by cylinder steel and steel ball having diameter 2.75 give the best result due to residual stress .


Article
VISION-BASED OBJECT DISTANCE MEASUREMENT USING MONO AND STEREO VISION
قياس مسافة جسم معين عن الكاميرا باستخدام الرؤيا الاحادية وباستخدام رؤية الاستيريو

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Visual servoing (VS) is an essential research field because it is included in several robots' applications, such as "navigation and visual surveillance". The VS comprises three stages: taking an image by a visual sensor, processing the image to detect a target object, and guiding the robot to navigate the object. In this work, this issue will be studied to find the object's position in the frame of the image; and then to estimate its distance from the robot frame. The paper will provide the fundamental information of using two techniques: mono and stereo vision. C++ programming in addition to OpenCV libraries were used to develop and implement all codes. The experimental results demonstrated that the distances measured by stereo-vision were relatively accurate with errors ranged from -2.0 to 2.6 % in comparison with mono-vision's measurement errors that were fluctuated between -6.4 and 2.5%. It was also verified that the better results were achieved by using the larger distance between the cameras within the stereo-vision system.


Article
STUDYING THE FLEXURAL PROPERTIES AND MAX.SHEAR STRESS OF SELF CURE PMMA RESIN FOR DENTURE APPLICATIONS .
دراسة خصائص الانحناء واجهاد القص الاعظم لراتنج البولي مثيل ميثا اكريليت المبلمر ذاتيا لتطبيقات طقم الاسنان .

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Poly Methyl Methacrylate were widely accepted material in dental and medical field due to the excellent biocompatibility and easy fabrication, however exhibit inferior mechanical properties. Therefore, the present study conducted to determine the flexural properties of PMMA based material by reinforcing PMMA with two different natural fibers (bamboo & siwak fibers). Discontinuous random fibers used in three lengths (2, 6 & 12 mm) and three weight percentage (3, 6 & 9 wt. %) of the both types of fibers. Results indicated that Flexural modulus, flexural strength and max.shear stress increase with increasing weight fraction and fiber length of fibers (bamboo & siwak) and reach the maximum amount at addition of weight fraction of (9 wt.%) and (12mm) length of fibers. The highest value of flexural modulus, flexural strength and max.shear stress were (10.09GPa), (112MPa), (6MPa) respectively, for composite specimens with bamboo fibers, while for composite specimen with siwak fibers (9.71GPa),(101MPa),(4.44MPa) at the optimum condition of (9wt.%) and (12mm) length . All composite specimens reinforced with bamboo fibers showed the highest flexural strength and flexural modulus among the composite specimen reinforced by siwak fibers.


Article
ENHANCEMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AND FLOW IN TUBE FILLED WIT A POROUS MEDIUM BY USING HYBRIDNANOFLUIDSH
تحسين معامل انتقال الحرارة وسرعة الجريان في انبوب مملوء بوسط مسامي باستخدام جزئيات نانوية هجينة

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This research involved the enhancement of heat transfer and flow in a tube filled with a porous medium by using hybrid nanofluids. The theoretical model contains the governing equations to the flow and heat transfer through porous media by using the Darcy flow model with uniform heat flux on the surface tube. The porous medium consist of glass beads (dp = 20 mm) and one type of filling material. The simple algorithm is used to solve momentum and continuity equations after combined these equations to configure the pressure correction formula. The results of this study represented by different parameters such as Rayleigh number (Ra=103,105,106), type of hybrid nanoparticles,volume fraction (Φ =1, 3 and 5% vol), and angles of tube (α =300, 450 and 900) through contour secondary flow and isotherms. The results also show that average Nussult number various with Rayleigh number, type of the hybrid nanoparticles and constant of Peclet number ( Pe =20). The results of numerical solution indicated that the impact of free convection appears at the start region of the tube and its maximum impact happen in the horizontal position then this effect decreases to the vertical position when inclination of the tube increses. Moreover the concentration of hybrid nanoparticles has an insignificant impact on the stream lines, tangential and radial velocities distribution, skin friction coefficient and porous media. The heat transfer increases with the increase concentration of hybrid nanoparticles and Rayleigh number. On the other hand the type and synergistic of hybrid nanoparticles play important role in improvement of heat transfer. The improvement for hybrid nanofluid is (Cu(25nm)+Al(25nm)+Dw) (33%) while for hybrid nanofluid it is (Al2O3(50nm)+TiO2 (50nm)+Dw) was (24%) respectively.


Article
NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF MERIDIONAL WIDTH VANED DIFFUSER ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A MODIFIED CENTRIFUGAL FLOW COMPRESSOR
دراسة عددية على تاثير العرض الطولي لناشر ذي ريش على أداء جريان الضاغط الطرد المركزي المطور

Authors: Layth H. Jawad ليث حسن جواد
Pages: 778-797
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In This paper, a numerical simulation that was made in the three-dimensional flow, carried out in a modified centrifugal compressor, having vaned diffuser stage, used as an auto-motive turbo charger. In order to study the influence of vaned diffuser meridional outlet section with a different width ratio on the modified centrifugal compressor. Moreover, the performance of the centrifugal compressor was dependent on the proper matching between the compressor impeller along with vaned diffuser. In addition, the curves of polytropic efficiency, total pressure ratio, static pressure and aerodynamic characteristics were compared under different width ratio. In addition, the velocity vectors in diffuser flow passages, the absolute Mach number and the secondary flow in cross-section near the outlet of diffuser were analyzed in detail under width ratio of 0.5, 0.7, 0.8, 1 and 1.2. Another aim of this research was to study and simulate the effect of vaned diffuser on the performance of a centrifugal compressor. The simulation was undertaken by using CFD analysis on aerodynamic flow to predict numerically the performance in terms of pressure ratio, poly tropic efficiency and mass flow rate for the centrifugal compressor stage. The results were generated from CFD (ANSYS CFX) and were analyzed for better understanding of the fluid flow through centrifugal compressor stage and as a result when the width ratio is 0.5, the flow in diffuser passages tends to be uniformity. The backflow and vortex near the pressure surface disappear, and the vortex and detachment near the suction surface decrease. Conclusively, it was observed that the efficiency was increased and both the total pressure ratio and static pressure for 0.5 width ratio are increased .


Article
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SOUND ABSORPTION PROPERTIES OF REINFORCEDPOLYSTER BY SOME NATURAL MATERIALS
دراسة عملية لخواص امتصاص الصوت للبولستر المقوى ببعض المواد الطبيعية

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Sound absorption in living, traveling and working environment constitutes one of the major requirements for human comfort today. Sound insulation requirements in automobiles, in manufacturing environments, and in equipments, generating higher sound pressure, strives the need to develop more efficient and economical ways of producing absorption materials. Traditionally, economics of recent research has enforced the research to focus on waste materials. The aim of this study is to use waste materials (particles of egg shell, palm leaf, jute, wood dust, chicken feather) for producing reinforced and polyester resien composite structures with 17% weight fraction. Two natural material composite plate shapes (flat and corrugated) with the same area is manufactured, where the echoic chamber is built and insulated with cork and sponge for different inside wall shape (flat, concave and pyramids) . The study concluded that the jute woven and saw dust composite exhibited a greater ability to absorb normal incidence sound waves than the composites with chicken feather, particles of egg shell, and palm leaf fiber for different shape cork and sponge insider insulator. The analysis of sound transmission loss revealed that the particles of egg shell and saw dust still obeyed the mass law of transmission loss. The composite surface layer of particles of egg shell and saw dust possessed a higher fabric density and therefore showed a better sound insulation than the composites with jute woven, chicken feathers, and palm leaf.


Article
INVESTIGATION OF MECHANICAL AND THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL FILLED RICE HUSK ASH
دراسة واستقصاء السلوك الميكانيكي والحراري لمادة مركبة مقواة برماد قشور الرز

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The aim of this work is to prepare a nano-composite material from unsaturated polyester resin(UPS) filled with nano-rice husk ash (Nano-RHA)and study its mechanical and thermal properties. Samples were prepared with three percentage weight ( 2,6,10%) of nano-RHA. Dispersion by ultrasonic waves technique was used to disperse nano particles reinforcement within the matrix. X-Rays diffraction technique had used to investigate the resulted material after combustion, the results show that Silica (SiO2) was only found. SEM study show that silica particles size range (100-500 nm) and it was dispersed uniformly and adhere strongly with the matrix and there was some agglomeration particles with size up to 1 µm. Mechanical tests such as tensile, compression, bending, impact and hardness were performed and results show an improvement at 6% nano-RHA and then decreasing. Coefficient of thermal conductivity test show very low value of coefficient of thermal conductivity ranged ( 1.3 – 1.8 )*10-10 w/m.co , therefore, the UPS-Nano RHA composites can be used in thermal insulation sheets industry.


Article
EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSINS FOR DIESEL ENGE FUELED WITH KEROSENE/DIESEL FUEL
تقييم اداء وانبعاثات العادم لمحرك ديزل يعمل بخليط من وقود النفط الابيض والديزل

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Several Experiments have been done to evaluate the effect of blending kerosene (by different volume) with diesel fuel on the performance and emissions of a single cylinder 4-stroke air cooled DI diesel engine connected with a hydraulic dynamometer which is used to load the engine that running at fixed speed with different loads (torques). Two levels of blend 10% and 20% of kerosene blending by volume with diesel fuel were named KD10 and KD20 respectively, while pure diesel was considered as a baseline and named D. The engine speed was running at constant speed 1500 rpm.the treatments include three levels of load (torque) 2, 6 and 10 N.m and three types of fuels D, KD10 and KD20. Performance parameters that were studied involve brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific energy consumption (bsec), Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) and sound level. Furthermore, the exhaust emissions were analyzed to find the effect of selected blends on Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The results showed the possibility of using KD10 in diesel engine instead of diesel fuel D without any modification done on the engine as there is no significant difference registered in bsfc, BTE and bsec at full load, while using KD10, KD20 recorded a decrease in CO2 emissions by 8.8% and 27.3% respectively compared to fuel D at high loads also they recorded an increase in NOx emissions by 16.6% and 31.2% respectively compared with using diesel fuel . The results showed that using KD10, KD20 instead of fuel D showed an increase in EGT and sound level for all ranges of selected torques


Article
DRINKING WATER PROCESSING SYSTEM IN BAGHDAD BETWEEN PAST AND PRESENT (NEGATIVES AND ABUSES ON THE ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS).
نظم تجهيز مياه الشرب في مدينة بغداد بين الماضي والحاضر (السلبيات والتجاوزات على المواصفات الهندسية)

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The present work refer to the mechanism used for supplying drinking water to Baghdad city ; After the first Gulf War , Baghdad province has seen a clear scarcity of water that it's caused Iraqi consumer to use pumps in supplying water because of lower the networks pressures, this is unacceptable from the engineering point of view for many reasons discussed in the work, therefore it was awarded an import costs for these pumps since 1995 to 2015 with calculating the cost create high tanks by advanced engineering specifications(old systems) which was formerly using to study the negatives brought about by water supply systems by modern methods In order to determine activity, vitality to optimal water supply for residential neighborhoods to what it was in the eighties of the last century , where the water up to the top of the houses points and with new design pressures ,This study found a number of recommendations that deal with the case or situation in order to get rid of many from the excesses brought about by current methods and there is a big difference in prices ,this case can be corrected by providing high economy of the state and with high-efficiency engineering service to the consumer . the indiscriminate import to massive amounts of small pumps and just start taking this research in the field of application , as a result the huge amounts of money will be made available to the country that is wasted because of poor planning for future phases

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