Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:59 issue:1A

Article
Synthesis and Identification of New Oxazepine Derivatives bearing Azo group in their structures
تحضير وتشخيص مشتقات جديدة للاوكسازيبين تحتوي على مجموعة الازو في تركيبها

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Abstract

In this contribution new oxazepine compounds containing azo group were preppared. In the firststep,4-(dimethylamino)-3-((4-methoxy phenyl) diazenyl) benzaldehyde [Z] was synthesised by using 4-methoxyaniline. The second step was the condensation reaction between aldehyde group of the azo compound [Z] and different primary aromatic amines [4-hydroxyaniline, 4-chloroaniline and 4-amino-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl) benzenesulfonamide] to yield new azo Schiff bases compounds [A1-A3] respectively. In the final step, oxazepine compounds [B1-B3] and [B4-B6] were prepared from reaction imines compounds [A1-A3] with maleic anhydride and phathalic anhydride in dry benzene respectively. All these derivatives were characterized by melting points and FTIR spectroscopy, some of them were characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy.


Article
Phylogenetic analysis of cpn60 gene from locally isolated Acinetobacter baumannii
التحليل الوراثي لجين cpn60 من بكتريا Acinetobacter baumannii المعزولة محلياً

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Abstract

This study was aimed to analysis phylogenetic tree of the gene cpn60 in Acinetobacter baumannii that was identified in Baghdad. Study included collection two hundred specimens (fifty from UTI, fifty from wound infection , fifty from respiratory tract infection and fifty from otitis infections) . In primary laboratory diagnosis and confirmed by using VITEK- 2 Compact system, twenty isolates of this bacterium were indentified (10%) from total specimens. Extraction of geneteic material to detect target gene by amplification this target gene. DNA sequencing of all isolates was done. Then alignment of sequencing in NCBI and draw phylogenetic tree by use Geneious 9 software among sequence of locally isolates . The results in phylogenetic tree of cpn60 gene in locally isolates showed 4 groups of isolates different with difference source of isolation. Then phylogenetic tree for locally isolates and high identity global isolates in gene bank was drew and its results showed 12 locally isolates not identity with standard isolates. So, chosen isolate (AE_29) isolate from these 12 isolates and documented in national GenBank as anew isolate under accession number (LOCUS KY818056 ) of nucleotides sequence and protein ID "ARV90994.1" .


Article
Antibacterial activity of crud Bacteriocin- like substance against food borne bacterial pathogens
الفعالية الضد بكتيرية لمادة خام شبيهه بالبكتريوسين ضد ممرضات بكتيرية منقولة بالغذاء

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Abstract

Lactobacillus is one of Lactic Acid Bacteria group, they are known to exhibit antagonistic activity against pathogenic organisms. This study evaluates the protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus Crud Bacteriocin like substance against growth of some food borne pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial effect of crud bacteriocin like substance was tested against the growth of S. typhi and S. aureus that isolated from food samples by agar well diffusion assay. The results showed that the crud extract of bacteriocin like substance had antibacterial activity against the two tested bacteria, and the effect against S. typhi was greater than that of S. aureus , the zone of inhibition was (15)mm against S. typhi and (12)mm against S. aureus . The antibiotic susceptibility test was also studied against the two foodborne pathogenic bacteria.This study aims to screen the antibacterial activity of crud bacteriocin like substance from lactic acid bacteria against two food borne pathogens.


Article
Assessment the effect of non-thermal plasma on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formtion in vitro
تقييم تأثير البلازما غير الحرارية على تكوين الغشاء الحيوي لبكتريا Escherichia coli وStaphylococcus aureus في الزجاج

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Abstract

Biofilm formation represents one of the biggest problems facing scientists because of this phenomenon linkage with virulence of bacteria and other clinical environmental problems. In the present study, two clinical isolates, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were exposed to the non thermal plasma for different intervals of time (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 min). The biofilm was measured post exposing. It was found that 2 min. exposing to non-thermal plasma reduced the biofilm formation by both clinical isolates significantly. It can be concluded that the ability of S. aureus to form biofilm higher than E. coli and exposing for 2 min to non-thermal plasma sufficient to reduce the biofilm formation by both isolates significantly.


Article
Study Antibacterial Activity of Honey Against Some Common Species of Pathogenic Bacteria
دراسة التأثير المثبط للعسل ضد بعض الأنواع الشائعة من البكتريا المرضية

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Abstract

Honey is one of the most products has been used as an antimicrobial agent since the ancient times. The potential antimicrobial activity of honey is arise from its physiochemical proprieties such as high osmotic pressure, low pH, in addition to other factors and enzymes that work as antimicrobial agents. All these components and characteristics of honey led to consider it as one of the most efficient, useful and natural antimicrobial agents. From this point of view, recent study aim to evaluate the antibacterial activity of bee honey on some common species of pathogenic bacteria. The study included some of both gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus spp.) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneunoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The antibacterial action of honey in three different concentrations (100%, 70% and 50%) was assessed. The results found that honey has the similar antibacterial effect as antibiotics effect. Additionally, the concentration of 100% was the most effective concentration in the inhibition of bacterial growth, and this concentration gave the best result of antibacterial effect. Furthermore, the results showed that as the concentration of honey decreased the effect of inhibition decrease as well. Finally, the study established that there is no significant different between the gram-positive and the gram-negative bacteria in the term of inhibition activity.


Article
Evaluation of some bioactive effect of phenolic compounds in Costus speciosus rhizome extract
تقييم تاثير بعض الفعاليات الحيوية للمركبات الفينولية في مستخلص جذور نبات القسط الهندي

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Abstract

This work was evaluated the antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Costus speciosus rhizomes methanol extract. The FLC analysis showed the presence of five compounds in the methanol extract of C. speciosus rhizomes. These compounds were Quercetin (5.2mg/ml), Rutin (6.02mg/ml), Luteolin, (18.3mg/ml), Kaempherol, (11.34mg/ml) and Coumarin (1.41mg/ml). The maximum antioxidant activity of the extract was at concentration 1000 μg/ml with free radical scavenging activity approximately 67.5%. It was less than standard ascorbic acid 85.5% and Gallic acid 90% with significant difference (p≤0.05), with no significant difference in comparison with standard TBA 68.5%. The IC50 of extract was 3093μg/ml, while the IC50 of ascorbic acid, Gallic acid and TBA were (277.2, 364.5 and 601.3 μg/ml) respectively. The extract revealed influential growth inhibition for all bacteria used in this experiment. The extract was moderately effective at concentration 400 μg/ml of extract with inhibitory activity 50.7 % on MCF-7 cell line and IC50 139.1 μg/ml.


Article
Study the Effect of Temperature on Structural, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of PVC/CaCO3 Composite
دراسة تأثير درجة الحرارة على الخواص التركيبية، الميكانيكية والتوصيلية الحرارة للبوليمر المتراكب (PVC / CaCO3)

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Abstract

In the present study, the structural properties which included the X-rays diffraction, and DSC, the mechanical properties, which include tensile test, three-point bending test (Bending Test), hardness test and thermal conductivity of the polymers reinforced with calcite (PVC/CaCO3) at different temperature (25-40-80-120-160-200-220) °C. The research results showed that the XC degree of X-ray diffraction decreased at high temperatures (220 ˚C), while the inter-polymerized polymer (PVC / CaCO3) increased at high temperatures. The DSC test results showed that the degree of crystallinity (XC) decreases at high temperatures (220 ˚C). The mechanical test results, their values were found to decrease at (220 ˚C) higher temperatures. Finally, the obtained results were indicated that the thermal conductivity values decrease at (220 ˚C).


Article
Morphological and Electrical Properties of gold nanoparticles /macroPorous Silicon for CO2 Gas
الخصائص المورفولوجية والكهربائية للجسيمات الذهب النانوية مع السيليكون مسامي ماكروية الهجينه مستخدمة في تحسس عن الغاز CO2

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Abstract

In this work, the fine structure macro-porous silicon (macroPS) substrate was prepared by photo-electro-chemical etching of n-type silicon wafer. Ultraviolet illumination condition of wavelength 360nm wavelength and intensity of about 100mW/cm2 with etching current density of about 50 mA/cm2 and etching time 5 min was employed. The Hybrid device gold nanoparticles /macroPorous Silicon (AuNPs/macroPS) was fabricated by deposition AuNPs into mPS substrate Via immersion plating process of macroPS in the solution of HAuCl4 with the (10-3M) concentration and 2min immersion time. The characteristics of PS before and after immersion process were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The J-V characteristics of sandwich structure showed that the maximum sensitivity of the AuNPs/macro PS was about (90.5%)for compared with macro-PS substrate. The current-voltage characteristics were performed in primary vacuum with a base pressure of about 0.2mbar and CO2 with 1mbare concentrations. Significant enhancement was observed in sensitivity of the AuNPs/macroPS hybrid device and temporal response after deposition the AuNPs.


Article
In2O3-ZnO pyramids like structure prepared by Spray-pyrolysis Technique for gas Sensing Applications
المركب In2O3-ZnO الشبيه بالاهرامات والمحضر بتقنية الرش الكيميائي لتطبيقات المتحسسات الغازية

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Polycrystalline Indium oxide (In2O3) and Indium oxide-zinc oxide (IZO) thin films mixed with 10% ZnO content were prepared by spray-pyrolysis technique at relatively low substrate temperature (150 ˚C).Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) shows that the nanostructure at 10% ZnO content has pyramid like structure. The hall effect measurements show that the prepared samples have n-type charge carriers .The films were examined as gas sensor against H2S gas at different operating temperatures (200, 250 and 300) oC, and it was found that the IZO sample a good sensitivity to H2S gas ~ 572 % at operating temperature 200 oC, with relatively fast response time of 19 s and recovery time of 17 s.


Article
Diagnostics of Magnesium-Aluminum alloy plasmas produced by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy
تشخيص البلازما سبيكة الالمنيوم – المغنسيوم المتولدة بواسطة الليزر المتولد بالانهيار الطيفي

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In this work, the Al-Mg alloys plasma plume that produced under vacuum (10-1 torr) by Nd:Yag Laser was studied. the plasma spectra were analyzed by comparing the atomic lines of Al and Mg lines with standard lines. The effect of laser energies on spectral lines produced by laser ablation were investigated using optical spectroscopy .several plasma characteristics like electron temperature, electron density, Debye’s length, plasma frequency and number of particles in the ‘‘Debye’s Sphere’’ were calculated in vacuum .The results show the electron temperature and electron density increase in magnesium, aluminum and magnesium :aluminum alloy targets . It was found that the lines intensities at different laser peak powers increase when the laser peak power increases then decreases when the power continues to increase.


Article
Study the Effect of a Single Layer of Anti-reflective Coating (Ge) on the Quantitative Efficiency of a Silicon Solar Cell
دراسة تأثير طبقة مفردة لطلاء مضاد للانعكاس من مادة (Ge)على الكفاءة الكمية لخلية شمسية من السليكون

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The objective of this research is to study the possibility of reducing the reflectivity of the front surface of a silicon cell (Si / Si) by using a theoretical design for a single-layer Antireflection Coatings with a thickness of one quarter of the design wavelength. Then, Mathematical programs in MATLAB (10) were designed to study the quantitative efficiency of the cell as a function of the change in the particle size of the coating within the range (400 - 700 nm) wavelength of the visible state of the vertical and oblique state at the (45°) angle. (Ge) was used as an anti-reflective material. It was found that the highest quantitative efficiency was (96.9004%) at design wavelength (λ0= 550 nm) in the case of vertical fall. Whereas, in the case of a sloping fall at an angle of (45o), a quantitative efficiency of (94.0545%) at vertical polarization (S). In the case of horizontal polarization (P), the quantitative efficiency value is (96.3131%) when the particle size of the coating is (Ps = 4.4nm).


Article
Structural and dielectric properties of Zr doped BaTiO3 synthesized by microwave assisted chemical route
الخواص التركيبية والعزلية لتطعيم BaTiO3 بمادة Zr والمصنعة بواسطة الطريقة الكيميائية المساعدة باستخدام المايكروويف

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Abstract

Lead-free ferroelectric nano ceramics of BaZrxTi1-xO3 (x=0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were prepared by means of microwave assisted chemical route. The structural, dielectric and electrical properties were examined. The crystalline structure of the specimens was studied by X-ray diffraction patterns. All the samples showed pure single phase of perovskite structure with space group of I4/mcm. X-ray diffraction data illustrated that there is no secondary phases exist. Structural and electrical properties of barium titanate ceramics are influenced significantly by small additions of Zr. The electrical conductivity showed higher values at x=0.2 and decreased at higher Zr content. The Hall charge mobility is found to decrease with Zr addition. The negative sign of the Hall coefficient RH confirms the dominant n-type conduction in all samples. The charge carrier concentration decreased with Zr content increase. Suggested potential application for this ceramics compound is in high storage multilayer capacitors and ferroelectric applications.


Article
Climatic Water Balance and Hydrogeological characteristics of Lailan Basin, Southeast Kirkuk - North of Iraq
الموازنة المائية المناخية والخصائص الهيدروجيولوجية لحوض ليلان جنوب شرق كركوك- شمال العراق

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This paper examined the climatic water balance and hydrogeological conditions of the water bearing layers within Lailan basin. To achieve the water balance the meteorological data from Kirkuk station for the period (1970 to 2016) was used to calculate the water surplus and water deficit. Based on Mehta's model the water surplus (Ws) is equal to (127.86 mm/ year) representing 36.87 % of the total rainfall, while 63.13% of the total rainfall are water deficit. The study area is characterized by two main aquifer types, unconfined and semi-confined. Generally, groundwater recharge occurs from both sides of the basin toward the center and the general flow direction is from northeast to southwest. To determine the hydraulic properties of semi-confined aquifer, pumping and recovery tests data from seven wells in the study area were analyzed based on the Hantush-Jacob's (1955) and Theis recovery (1935) methods.The values of T, K ,Sc and S ranged from (79.63 – 753.8 m2/day ),(2.01 – 16.75 m/day ),(0.42 – 5.95 m2/day ) and (0.0068 - 6.134E-16 ) respectively . Due to the aquifer lithology heterogeneity the hydraulic properties varied from one location to another, reflecting the change of both porosity and permeability.


Article
Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for consumption in Yaychi area (Southwest Kirkuk city - North Iraq)
تقييم ملائمة المياه الجوفية للاستهلاك في منطقة يايجي(جنوب غرب مدينة كركوك- شمال العراق)

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Groundwater suitability for consumption in the Yaychi area is determined by analyzing groundwater samples of 21 wells distributed in the area, for dry period which begin from May to October 2016 and wet period begin from October 2016 to May 2017. Results indicated that the temperature (T °C) have normal values and the water of low alkaline and excessively mineralized, while most of these samples, for both periods, are slightly – brackish water. The mean ion concentrations for two periods indicates that all major and secondary ions are higher than water quality standards for drinking purposes according to World Health Organization (WQI) and Iraqi Standard (IQS) except for K and Cl ions. The water in the study area is classified as very hard. Kurolov formula shows the presence of three predominant salts MgSO4, Na2SO4 and CaSO4, and the water origin in the area is meteoric water. The predominated of water types are " earth alkaline water with increased portions of alkalis with prevailing sulfate and chloride" and "Normal earth alkaline water with prevailing sulphate or chloride". After comparing the ionic concentrations with the water quality standards for different purposes, it was found that groundwater in the area is unsuitable for human drinking, but it's suitable for building and livestock and for growing most types of crops, it is also suitable for irrigation purposes depending on the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage(Na%) and the Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), and unfit for irrigation according to Magnesium Adsorption Ratio(MAR) index. The water in the study area is devoid of heavy metal pollution except (Fe), (Pb) which are shown in water of some wells.


Article
Hydrochemical Assessment of Groundwater of Dibdibba Aquifer in Al-Zubair Area, Basra, South of Iraq and its Suitability for IrrigationPurposes
تقييم هيدروكيميائي للمياه الجوفية في خزان دبدبة في منطقة الزبير, البصرة ,جنوب العراق وبيان صلاحيتها لأغراض الري

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This study focuses on cation and anion concentrations and their distribution in the Dibdibba aquifer in the Zubair area at Basra city, southern Iraq to assess the groundwater quality for the agricultural purpose. The physicochemical properties (TSS, Ec, pH, cation and anion concentrations) of the groundwater samples through 18 wells was measured. Results showed that the dominant groundwater type is Na, Mg, Ca-Chloride type. The Magnesium Hazard, Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Na%, total dissolved solid, Electrical conductivity and pH were used to assess the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purposes.. The assessment results indicate that the groundwater is characterized by no Mg-harmful, excellent with SAR and Na%, permissible with pH values, but unsuitable in terms of TDS and EC due to high salinity represented by Ca and Cl.


Article
Formation Evaluation by using Well Logging of Mishrif Formation in the Noor Oil Field, , Southeast Iraq
التقييم المكمني بأستخدام الجس البئري لتكوين المشرف في حقل النور النفطي جنوب شرق العراق

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Mishrif Formation regards one of the most important reservoirs in Iraq.Well logging represents one of the most important tool in the formation evaluation. According to the Petrophysical properties that have been gotten from well logging, Mishrif Formation in terms of reservoirs units, consist of several reservoirs units..Major reservoirs units divided into three reservoir units,MA,MB&MC. Each of these major units divided into minor reservoirs units (MB11,MB12,MC2&MC3).MB major reservoir units represent the best reservoir unit.These reservoirs units separated by cap rocks(mainly tight limestone)(CR1,CR2,CR3,CR4,CR5,CR6,and CR7).CPI were demonstrated for all wells.Hydrocarbon saturation vs. water saturation have been determined for each units.In addition, the types porosity and moveable vs.residual oil were calculated.


Article
Inversion to density and velocity model by integrated with wells data at regional area (central and southwestern Iraq)
التحول إلى موديل الكثافة والسرعة خلال التكامل مع بيانات الآبار لمنطقة إقليمية (وسط وجنوب غرب العراق)

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A new derivative applied to the old gravity Bouguer map (served in 1940s and 1950s), taking regional study area covered the mid and south of Iraq. The gravity anomaly reflects a density contrast variation; therefore it is possible to use gravity inversion to the density and velocity model through layers (615m, 1100m, 1910m, 2750m and 5290m), the depth layers according to the power spectrum analysis of gravity Bouguer. The inversion is according to the integration of gravity anomalies of the each depth layer with the same depth of wells data, considered to the estimations and analysis of density and velocity scatters of the oil wells distribution with depth at the regional area. Taking the relation curve of density and velocity by presenting the function of (8 logs), which obtained the main relation to Seismic velocity and density of the study area, which is confirm with (Nafe and Drake curve). The result of the gravity inversion is on the anomalies behavior in density and velocity domain, taking in seismic stack processing of seismic reflection records and time to depth conversion, as the geophysical integration data is addition to the well data distribution in the regional area of Iraq. Good results obtained on comparing the interpretation of the considered seismic section in the study area.


Article
Proposed KDBSCAN Algorithm for Clustering
خوارزمية KDBSCAN المقترحة للتجميع

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Science, technology and many other fields are use clustering algorithm widely for many applications, this paper presents a new hybrid algorithm called KDBSCAN that work on improving k-mean algorithm and solve two of its problems, the first problem is number of cluster, when it`s must be entered by user, this problem solved by using DBSCAN algorithm for estimating number of cluster, and the second problem is randomly initial centroid problem that has been dealt with by choosing the centroid in steady method and removing randomly choosing for a better results, this work used DUC 2002 dataset to obtain the results of KDBSCAN algorithm, it`s work in many application fields such as electronics libraries, biology and marketing, the KDBSCAN algorithm that described in this paper has better results than traditional K-mean and DBSCAN algorithms in many aspects, its preform stable result with lower entropy.

Keywords

clustering --- K-mean --- DBSCAN --- KDBSCAN.


Article
An Improve Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Multi-level of Chaotic Maps and Lagrange Interpolation
تحسين خوارزمية تشفير الصور اعتمادا على دوال فوضوية متعددة المستويات واستيفاء لاكرانج

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Currently no one can deny the importance of data protection, especially with the proliferation of hackers and theft of personal information in all parts of the world .for these reasons the encryption has become one of the important fields in the protection of digital information. This paper adopts a new image encryption method to overcome the obstacles to previous image encryption methods, where our method will be used Duffing map to shuffled all image pixels ,after that the resulting image will be divided into a group of blocks for perform the shuffling process via Cross Chaotic Map. Finally, an image called key image was created by using Quadratic number spirals which will be used to generate numbers of polynomial equations via Lagrange interpolation to perform pixel diffusion.Simulations have been accomplished in order to evaluate the effectiveness of suggested technique, the Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can supply sufficient security for the confidentiality of images.


Article
A Secure Enhancement for Encoding/ Decoding data using Elliptic Curve Cryptography
تعزيز آمن الترميز/ فك ترميز البيانات باستخدام تشفير المنحني الاهليجي

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The Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) algorithm meets the requirements for multimedia encryption since the encipher operation of the ECC algorithm is applied at points only and that offer significant computational advantages. The encoding/decoding operations for converting the text message into points on the curve and vice versa are not always considered a simple process. In this paper, a new mapping method has been investigated for converting the text message into a point on the curve or point to a text message in an efficient and secure manner; it depends on the repeated values in x- coordinate to establish a lookup table for encoding/decoding operations. The proposed method for mapping process is composed of various operations; firstly, the Exclusive OR and Circular Shift are performed on the message to enhance the diffusion property and that lead increasing the strength against cryptanalysis attack. Secondly, both parties agree on domain parameters for creating the elliptic curve and the mechanism to build the lookup table for encoding/decoding process. Thirdly, the base point is selected for generating all (x, y) pair points of the elliptic curve and extract x – coordinate values to calculate the maximum value for x and its frequency to create the lookup table. Finally, applying encoding/decoding operation for the message. The results of the proposed method are considered more efficient, secure and less time consuming compared with the ECC algorithm, besides it's suitable for preserving the confidentiality for real-time applications.


Article
Evaluation of Orbital Maneuvers for Transition from Low Earth Orbit to Geostationary Earth Orbit
تقييم للمناورات المدارية للانتقال من المدار الارضي المنخفض الى المدار الجغرافي الارضي الثابت

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The transition from low Earth orbit 200-1500 (km) to geostationary Earth orbit 42162 (km) was studied in this work by many methods of transfer. The delta-v requirement (∆v), the time of flight (∆t), the mass ratio of propellant consume (∆m/m) and total mass was calculated for many values altitude in the same plane also when the plane is change. The results from work show that (∆v) that required for transfer when the plane of orbit change is large than (∆v) required when the transfer in coplanar maneuvers while the bi-elliptical transfer method need time of transfer longer than a Hohmann transfer method. The most energy efficiency was determined when the transfer in coaxial between elliptical orbits, the result show the most efficiency transfer orbit occur at apogee on the original orbit where the total of velocity required is (0.7864 km/s) that least from total velocity at perigee (0.7975 km/s).


Article
Study the Influence of Solar Activity on the Ionospheric Electron, Ion and Neutral Particle Temperatures over Iraqi Region Using Ionospheric Models
دراسة تأثير النشاط الشمسي على درجة حرارة الألكترون والأيون والجسيمات المتعادلة فوق منطقة العراق بأستحدام الموديلات الأيونسفيرية

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The influence of solar activity on the predicted ionospheric temperature parameters (electron Te, Ion Ti and neutral particle Tn) have been investigated over ionospheric Iraqi region by data generated using International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and Madrigal models, the models result have been compared during the minimum and the maximum of solar cycle 24 for the years 2009 and 2016 respectively and for an altitudes ranged from 200-1000 km. The region under consideration spans over (latitude 29.1-37.2oN; longitude 38.9-47.7oE) within Iraq territory, the purpose of this paper is to determine the affection of the solar activity represented by the (sunspot number and solar flux) on the annual behaviors of the ionospheric temperature parameters (Te, Ti and Tn).The results of the conducted study showed that the solar activity of the adopted years exhibited a weak affection on the ionospheric temperature parameters, where (Tn) was the highly affected parameter and (Te) was the poorly affected one. Also, the ionospheric temperature parameters were increased with altitudes increment except for (Tn) which was increased with altitudes till 400 km, than it reaches its maximum value and keep constant.


Article
Determine the Radon Gas Level Using the GIS Technique for Baghdad City
تحديد مستوى غاز الرادون باستخدام تقنية نظم المعلومات الجغرافية لمدينة بغداد

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In this work, radon concentrations in the polluted environment were measured within the Baghdad sample surface soil conservation, and this was done using a RAD-7 mobile detector. The work consists of four parts: The first part includes calculating the latitude and longitude of each point of the study area using the Global Positioning System (GPS). The second part of which includes Determination of 222Rn gas concentrations in surface soil samples. In the northeast part of Baghdad, the highest concentration of radon was found in Al-Shaab area (3.11 ±175.33 Bq / m3), while the lowest gas concentration in AL Gzeera area (6.67±73.00 Bq/ m3), In the northwest part of Baghdad, the highest concentration of radon was found in the al-Taji area (4.22 ± 179.33Bq / m3) and the lowest concentration of Radon gas in Al Ghazaliya area (3.11 ± 68.33 Bq/ m3). In the southeast part of Baghdad, the highest concentration of radon was found in AL-Wahda area (1.78 ±175. 33Bq / m3) while the lowest rate of radon gas is located in the Karada area (1.78 ± 41.67Bq / m3). The highest concentration of radon gas can be observed in the southwest part of Baghdad in Mahmudiya area (4.22 ± 185.67Bq/m3), while the lowest concentration of radon in Aamiriya (2.22 ± 78.67Bq/m3). The third part includes the applied the techniques of interpolation using the radon data available in the known sites to estimate the radon data for the non-measured area, which will help to develop an effective plan to reduce the concentration of radon in the study area. The fourth part includes the preparation of a soil surface classification map in all selected areas where the soil was classified into five species using the Erdas2014.


Article
Improve the Spatial Resolution of Multispectral satellite Image using Different Image Sharpening Techniques
تحسين الدقة الحيزية للصورة الفضائية المتعددة الحزم بأستخدام تقنيات دمج صور مختلفة

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Abstract

The process of combining the significant information from a series of images into a single image called image sharpening or image fusing, where the resultant fused image will be having more spatial and spectral information than any of the input images. in this research two images of the same place in different spatial resolution have been used the first one was panchromatic and the second image was multispectral with spatial resolution 0.5m and 2 m respectively. These images were captured by world view-2 sensor. This research present four pan sharpening methods like (HSV, Brovey (color normalizes) , Gram shmidt and PCA)these methods were used to combine the adopted images to get multispectral image with high spatial resolution. Many criteria such as MSE, RMSE, PSNR, CC, ERGAS and RASE have been used to evaluate the quality of the result images.

Keywords

image fusing --- Gram Shmidt --- PCA


Article
New Modulation Method in FSO Communication Using Different Wavelengths (650,532,405) nm in the Iraqi Weather
أسلوب التضمين الجديد في الأتصالات FSO بأستخدام أطوال موجية مختلفة (650،532،405) نانومتر في الطقس العراقي

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Abstract

The FSO technique depends on the compatibility of the optical path between the transmitter and the receiver (line-of-sight) to transmit data between two points. FSO system uses the light to provide optical Contact to send and receive various data. This study shows the design of a new optical system for the transmission of voice through free space at wavelengths (650,532,405) nm within point-point technology for specified distances. What distinguishes this work is the quality of the reflection-based modulation based on the Doppler phenomenon. Also, it is interested in studying the different attenuation conditions of the atmosphere at the wavelengths used, in addition to the attenuation caused by the large laser beam divergence for distant distances. This study shows the quality of modulation used under different weather conditions and is characterized by very low cost and high efficiency for power sent.

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