Table of content

Medical Journal of Babylon

مجلة بابل الطبية

ISSN: 1812156X 23126760
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Medical Journal of Babylon (MJB) is a quarterly medical journal concerned with clinical and basic medical researches. MJB follows the Publication Ethics Statements suggested by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

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العنوان البريدي: العراق-محافظة بابل- الحلة –ص ب 473 جامعة بابل –كلية الطب – مجلة بابل الطبية
عنوان البريد الالكتروني medjbabylon2004@gmail.com

Table of content: 2017 volume:14 issue:4

Article
Role of Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) of MRI Study in Differentiation Between Adenomyosis and Fibroids of the Uterus in Al-Hilla Teaching Hospital

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Abstract

The uterine fibroid is most common solid uterine tumour , it is single or multiple benign neoplasm and present in 20-40% of women in productive age. There are several factors that are attributed to underlie the incidence and development of these common tumors, but this further corroborates their relatively unknown etiology. The most likely presentation of fibroids is by their effect on pelvic pressure symptoms or the woman’s menstrual cycle .Adenomyosis of the uterus is benign uterine pathology. It is thought by many to be on the spectrum of endometriosis, with ectopic endometrial glandular tissue in the myometrium. Adenomyosis may present with dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia. Ultrasound and MRI are imaging modalities that may show characteristic findings. Diffusion weighted image in MRI has been applied to evaluate the intracranial lesion ,but technical advancement make it possible to use in extra cranial sites. The aim of this study was to assess the differences, if any, in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of adenomyosis and fibroids. Methods and Material Total patient of sample study 56 ,Patients (n= 25) diagnosed by ultrasound as uterine fibroids and (n=31) as adenomyosis, who underwent pelvic MR imaging with DWI, were included in this cross section study. DWI was achieved with using a 1.5 T scanner , different b factors of ( 0, 400, and 600 s/mm) and ADC region of interest(ROI) size were located over an area of Adenomyosis, a fibroid and unaffected normal myometrium all results are correlate with histopathological result which was considered as gold standard diagnostic methods. Results using Student’s t test to compare the ADC values of adenomyosis and fibroids. The standard deviation and the mean of the ADC values were as follows: adenomyosis 0.75 ± 0.30, fibroid 0.63 ± 0.29 and myometrium 1.39 ± 0.36. Statically, there was significant difference between the ADC values of normal myometrium and adenomyosis (p < 0.0001), normal myometrium and fibroids (p < 0.0001), and fibroids and adenomyosis (p < 0.001). Conclusion The present study display that ADC values have the possible to quantitatively and significantly differentiate between Adenomyosis and fibroids.

Keywords

Adenomyosis --- fibroid --- ADC value --- leiomyoma --- myoma --- MRI.


Article
Ultrasound and Strain Elastography in Evaluation of Suspicious Breast Masses

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Abstract

Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in Iraq, and the commonest among females worldwide. Ultrasound is an important widely used noninvasive modality in line with mammography and other methods for the detection and characterization of breast masses in routine clinical practice. Elastography is a recent promising method used as an adjuvant to ultrasound that improves performance, increase the specificity of interpretation in differentiating benign from malignant breast masses based on imaging tissue stiffness. We aim to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound and elastography in diagnosis of suspicious malignant breast masses. A cross sectional study was conducted in Babylon and Kerbala January 15 to August 20, 2017. A consecutive sample of women with breast mass suggestive of malignancy were evaluated with ultrasonography and strain elastography prior to histopathological study. The five point Tsukuba elasticity score were used for differentiation of breast masses. Ethical approval was taken from the Research Ethical Committee in Babylon University- College of Medicine, and verbal consent was taken from each patient prior to enrolment. A total sample of (88) females with breast mass aged 16-69 years with a mean ± SD of 41.33 ± 12.57 years. Ultrasound diagnosed correctly (58) out of the (62) malignant breast masses with a sensitivity and specificity of 93.5% and 100% respectively. By using strain elastography the sensitivity increased to 98.4% with same specificity of 100% were only one malignant mass was missed. By using the ROC analysis, the Area Under the Curve and 95% confidence interval was 0.968 (0.931-1) and 0.992 (0.974-1) for ultrasound and elastography respectively. So when elastography is used with ultrasound, it increases its sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Efforts needed to adapt and apply its use properly in Iraq through training programs for radiologists.


Article
Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori Antibodies in Diabetic Patients Type 2 in Kirkuk Province

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Abstract

The present study aimed to detect the seroprevalence of antibodies against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria and its relation to Diabetes type 2 in Kirkuk province. The present study was conducted in Kirkuk city from 15 December 2012 to the 15 June 2013. The study included (391) diabetic patients whose aged between (22-81) years old. The control group included (288) non-diabetic individuals with no history of chronic diseases aged (21-81) years old. They were showed up at Primary Health Care Centers of Kirkuk First Health Care Sector and Kirkuk General Hospital. The diabetic patients and (control group) examined for detecting antibodies against to Helicobacter pylori by utilizing of rapid immunochromatographic cassette test. In the current study there was (12.53%) of antibodies against H. pylori bacteria found in patients suffering from Diabetic Mellitus type 2 and (10.76%) of the antibodies were found in control group respectively. The present study was also revealed that the highest rate of diabetic patients, who suffering from hypertension. The current study concluded there was no significant relation between patients suffering from Diabetic Mellitus type 2 and the bacterial infection caused by H. pylori. This study also revealed non-significant relation between cardiovascular diseases and H. pylori infection.


Article
Association Between Amblyopia and Fundus Ischemic Changes

Authors: Zainab Adel Hashim
Pages: 634 -639
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Abstract

This study was done in Al- Diwaniah city in Iraq, extended from January 2015-April 2017 and involved 80 patients, among them number of females was higher than males (51 and 29 respectively) and their age range between 45-70 years. Data for the study was collected from the patients attending ophthalmological department in the hospital, out patients and private clinic either for regular checking or sent by their physician to be examined for the presence of ophthalmologic complications, (62) patients among them have combined hypertension and diabetes, (4) patients having only diabetes millets, (13) have DM, hypertension and hyperlipidemia and only one have just hypertension, this selected group all have amblyopia unilateral or bilateral; their visual acuities varied from mild to severe and their amblyopia caused by wide ranges of causes mainly refractive error, fundoscopic examination was done to see the association between amblyopia and fundal ischemic changes; the amblyopic eye have delayed awareness regarding ischemia and this affect fundus findings, this idea can be used in future to protect the eye from ischemia by delaying its response to neurological signals that incite cascade of ischemia by using a neuroprotective agents which act on GABArgic neurotransmitters and affect ischemic cascade .


Article
Comparison between Transvaginal Sonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Findings in Patient with Endometrial Carcinoma

Authors: Fowz Adnan Yaser --- Ausama Ayaad Al-Bayati
Pages: 640-648
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Abstract

The main objective of this study is to compare between the findings that obtained from both TVS and MRI study in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma and differentiate it from other endometrial pathology and to assess the accuracy of both techniques in evaluation and detection of myometrium invasion. This prospective study was done in AL- Hilla Teaching Hospital from August 2016 to August 2017 on (22) patients, their ages were from 46-79 years old, (18) of them are postmenopausal and (4) patients are premenopausal, all of them were suffering from recurrent dysfunctional vaginal bleeding. Patients are examined by both TVS and MRI study with contrast endometrial carcinoma is suggested and histopathology insisted the diagnosis, comparison between two techniques is reported. By TVS (7) of the patients have bulky size uterus with different endometrial masses size and texture, other (15) patients have just irregular increase in endometrial thickness. Myometrial invasion which is the most important prognostic factor was as follows: (2) patients have no distinct invasion, (7) patients have less than 1/3 myometrial invasion, (9) patients have more than 2/3 of myometrial invasion; in comparison with enhanced MRI study; findings were that (13) of patients have well defined different sizes and intensity masses, (9) patients have irregular increase in endometrial thickness with different degree of myometrial invasion, myometrial invasion was as follows: (9) patients with less than 1/3 of myometrial invasion, (9) patients with more than 2/3 of myometrial invasion, (2) patients the invasion reaching to serosa and involving the cervix. The conclusions from this imaging assumes increasing importance in the management of patients with endometrial carcinoma in recent years. Transvaginal sonography that performed by expert specialist can be consider a feasible, economic imaging modality with diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of MRI in preoperative local staging of endometrial cancer. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI study is more accurate in diagnosis and evaluation of endometrial carcinoma and assessment of myometrial invasion. Early disease detection and accurate staging provide optimal management and minimize mortality and morbidity.


Article
Immunohitochemical Study of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Overexpression in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) and its Clinicopathological Correlation

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Abstract

Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men while is third highest incidence among women and is second after breast cancer in mortality. Most cases occur in older people in age 65 or older, while less than 2% are younger than 45. The pathogenesis of NSCLC is complex and developed in multistep process in which several gene mutations will occur and coordinate with each other in genotyping and phenotyping outcome. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) which represent 85% of all lung cancers, it represents the most common type, usually grows and spreads more slowly than other types, histologically is divided into Adenocarcinoma (ADC), Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and large cell carcinoma (LCC). Its incidence and mortality rates vary markedly around the world. The aim of this study was to assess Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) over expression in Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and its correlation with type, grade and stage of the tumor. Forty cases of NSCLC was included in this study, collected randomly from the period of February 2016- April 2017 from Al-Harirey Teaching Hospital in Baghdad and Al-Sadder Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf governate. The (40) patients (22 male and 18 females) of NSCLC, their median age 58.3 years range from (34-80) years. A group of 12 cases with benign brain tissue were included as a control group. A manual Envision procedure was used in the imunohistochemical analysis (Dako Cytomation Copenhagen, Denmark). ALK over expression was positive in (12.5%) of NSCLC, ALK immunohistochemical staining was more in ADC than SCC and its not correlated with grade and stage of NSCLC. These finding support the role of ALK in carcinogenesis of ADC and less commonly SCC of the lung.


Article
Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Level on the Severity of Chronic Periodontitis.

Authors: Sura Dakhil Jassim
Pages: 657 -662
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Abstract

Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial disease causing destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. The most important causing factor of chronic periodontitis is dental plaque however different systemic, environmental and behavioral factors may associate with this disease. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of different variables on the severity of chronic periodontitis and their effects on clinical periodontal parameters. A questioner including: age, gender and educational level was taken from (550) patients with chronic periodontitis and they were systemically healthy, also clinical periodontal parameters were obtained from each patient. The patients categorized into different groups according to the age, gender and educational level and the percentages of mild, moderate and severe periodontitis were calculated for each group. Also, clinical periodontal measurements were compared among groups. Statistical analysis revealed that the highest percentages of severe chronic periodontitis cases were found in male, with primary education and (50-59) age groups. Also, statistically significant differences among all groups of different variables were shown in all clinical periodontal measurement. All of the variable including: age, gender and education may affect the severity of chronic periodontitis.


Article
Effects of Thyroid Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

Authors: Maleeha Massud --- Manal Azat Aziz --- Hadeel Munem Jassim
Pages: 663 -669
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Abstract

The interactions between thyroid and kidney functions are well determined thyroid hormones affect renal development and physiology and kidney is required in the regulation of thyroid hormones metabolism. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The study included (50) hemodialysis patients. All subjects were investigated with laboratory tests to estimate thyroid function, including: serum free tri iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine ( FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Results were compared with the same measurements in (50) control groups. The incidence of CKD detected among those both with subclinical hypothyroidism (40.0%) and overt subclinical hyperthyroidism (34.0%) and low FT3 in H.D patients (5.6976±1.85334) in comparison with control groups. In conclusion. We observed high of thyroid function disorders in CKD patients. Low FT3 syndrome and high subclinical hypothyroidism are the frequently thyroid function disorders in CKD patients.


Article
Molecular Study of the Correlation between Hemophilia and the Thrombophilic Risk Factors in Dohuk Province by using CVD Strip Assay.

Authors: Rana Adel Hanoon
Pages: 670-675
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Abstract

Haemophilia A is an X-linked, recessively inherited bleeding disorder which results from deficiency of procoagulant factor VIII (FVIII). Forty hemophilic patients were enrolled in the current study. Blood sample were collected and DNA was extracted and subjected to multiplex PCR amplification using specific primers which resulted in bands containing all the suspected mutations associated with hemophilia; CVD Strip Assay was also used to differentiate the obtained mutations. The results showed that out of the (40) hemophilic individuals, the higher incidence (55%) was for the MTHFR (A1298C) heterozygotic type of mutation while the lower incidence (5%) for a mutation recorded for factor V (G1691A, leiden), factor V (H1299R, R2), prothrombin (G20210A), and facto XIII (V34L). For the Apo type mutation, B type hasn’t been detected while E type observed in all cases; A1/A2 mutation created the higher incidence with 25% on the other hand, A3/A3 hasn’t been detected and thus it represented 0% of all the Apo mutations


Article
Cystatin C As Marker for Detection of Renal Function in Comparison to Blood Urea and Serum Creatinine in Patient with Obstructive Uropathy.

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Abstract

Diagnoses obstructive uropathy is usually based on changes in serum Creatinine, which is a poor marker of early renal dysfunction, instead used Cystatin C for this purpose. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of Cystatin C with Creatinine and urea in serum to diagnosis uropathy. The current study was preformed (50) patients (34 males and 16 females). Admitted to Al-Hilla teaching Hospital. Control group include (39) healthy person (21 males and 18 females) to measure kidney biochemical measurement including (Cystatin C, Creatinine and urea in serum). In present study results showed the rate of male more than female with non-significant relation at (P value >0.173) between patients and control groups, Obstructive Uropathy found 52% due to ureteric stone in male and female, 28% due to BPH and the other causes followed in different percentage. According to the kidney biochemical tests, results shows there are non- significant correlation between (cystatin C- Creatinine), and (Cystatin C-Urea). The sensitivity and specificity of Cys C marker were 90% and 97,43% respectively. According to S. Cr the sensitivity and specificity were 28% and 94.87% respectively. We concluded Cystatin C has been a more sensitive marker in detection of renal function in obstructive uropathy than Creatinine and urea in Serum.


Article
Safety and Outcomes of Retrograde Semi-Rigid Ureteroscopy in the Treatment of Renal Pelvic Stones by Using Holmium: YAG Laser.

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility, safety and outcomes of semi-rigid ureteroscopy in the treatment of single renal pelvic stones by using Holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy. Hundred patients (56 females, 44 males), aged between (11) and (67) years (mean 41.5 years), with single renal pelvic stone range from 13-27 millimeter (mean size 21.8 millimeter). Inclusion criteria (any patient with single renal pelvic stone less than 30 millimeter in size regardless its composition and previous history of any urological intervention and the stone is visualized by uretroscope), treated with semi-rigid ureteroscopy by using Holmium: YAG laser for stones pulverization. DJ-stent had been inserted to all patients following stone fragmentation. Preoperative data, as well as stone free rate, operative time and associated perioperative complications were evaluated.The primary stone free rate (which was assessed by Ultrasonography and plain abdominal X-ray) was sixty-eight percent (68 patients) at the first postoperative day, which increased to eighty-six percent (86 patients) after one month by using ancillary procedures such as Extra Corporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy and medical treatment. the operative time was ranges from 44.3 to 97.8 minute (mean of 72.4 minute), there was no major perioperative complications. The study can conclude that Reterograde semi-rigid ureteroscopy using holmium: YAG Laser is effective and safe option for managing single renal pelvic stone less than 27 mm.


Article
The Role of β2 Antagonist (Timolol) and β2 Agonist (Salbutamol) on Cell Migration in vitro.

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Abstract

Cell migration is a complex and dynamic biological process, it's the movement of the cell from one area to another, generally in response to a chemical signal. It is an essential feature of living cells for functions such as wound repair, tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, and immune response. Keratinocytes have the enzymatic machinery to generate catecholamines, they can synthesize endogenous epinephrine, which could be locally secreted into the wound and function in an autocrine manner. To determine whether beta2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) antagonist and agonist altered endothelial cells (EC) migration, single-cell migration (SCM) assays were performed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in the presence and absence of β2AR agonist and antagonist. Screening the tested drugs revealed that the salbutamol (β2AR agonist) significantly decreases migration rate on (HUVEC) compared with control group, while timolol (β2AR antagonist) significantly increases the migration rate. In conclusion the administration of timolol increase single cell migration resulting and enhancement of re-epitheliazation, while administration of salbutamol decrease single cell migration resulting in inhibition of wound re-epitheliazation.

Keywords

Migration --- salbutamol --- timolol --- HUVEC --- In vitro


Article
Molecular Detection of Some Virulence Genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Patients with UTI Infection.

Authors: Saba Saadoon Khazaal
Pages: 701 -705
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Abstract

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes a wide range of bacterial diseases like pneumonia, UTI and sepsis. Therefore, this study was done to assess the prevalence and molecular characteristics of K. pneumoniae in 24 samples of men and women isolated from Iraqi patients which was suffering from urinary tract infection (UTI) compared with (10) of healthy individuals. All samples were collected from Educational laboratories of Medical city/Iraqi Health Ministry. The samples were screened for the presence of kfu and k2A genes through PCR. The results of this study represented by (7 out of 24) isolates percent with (29.17%) positive for kfu gene and (9 out of 24) isolates (37.5%) were positive for k2A gene while the other (8) isolates were none of these genes. The two genes revealed significant differences between them (p< 0.5), so as with healthy group (p< 0.01). The study concluded that two genes kfu and k2A may affect on pathological of K. pneumoniae. The aim of this study represented by detection of kfu (iron uptake system gene) and k2A genes in patients with UTI which have a role in the pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae isolates.


Article
Molecular Study of Most Common Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated From Conjunctivitis Patients In Baghdad

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Abstract

The current study was conducted to investigate the causes of bacterial eye infections which included inflammation of conjunctivitis, and detection of molecular study of most common pathogenic bacteria at different age groups]. The study was conducted in Educational laboratories of Microbiology-Baghdad medical city, involve taken sample from Ibn al-Haitham teaching hospital, Al-Kindi specialized hospital and Baghdad medical city / ghazi al– Hariri teaching hospital during the period from December / 2016 to Jun / 2017. Culture investigation showed 194 positive bacterial growth of 200,103 isolate represent Gram positive,91 isolate Gram negative, and 6 no growth. Most common bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus showed high percentage [41(20.5%)], While other bacteria less than Staphylococcus aureus. To the best of our knowledge this study was the first study in Iraq explained the molecular study of conjunctivitis patients. That concluded there 41cases infection with Staphylococcus aureus and showed all cases were methicillin resistance (MRSA), but not all carried gene mecA only [35(85.37%)], 13(31.71%) carried Panton-Valentine leukocidingene (PVL), and no one have VanA gene responsible of Vancomycin resistance.


Article
Adverse Health Outcomes of Neonates Born to Adolescent Mothers in Hilla City Babylon Province, Iraq.

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Babylon Governorate is the fifth most densely populated governorate in Iraq and has undergone significant demographic changes over the proceeding decades viz. the regression of the age of females who marry very early in adolescence. This trend has impacted the neonatal health of their offspring in the region. There is mounting evidence that this is linked to adverse neonatal outcomes including intrauterine retardation of fetal growth, premature birth, weight which is inappropriate for gestational age, and neonatal morbidity manifested by such illnesses as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), hemolysis, neonatal jaundice and sepsis. This descriptive cross sectional study, therefore was done aiming to observe the adverse outcomes of neonates born to adolescent mothers (10-19) years in Al-Hilla city, Babylon Province and to elucidate whether under- age child birth impacts neonatal outcome. The study found that pregnancy in adolescence is associated with high rates of dangerous and adverse neonatal outcomes. The mean and standard deviation of current maternal age and maternal age at marriage (year) were (17.54±1.96), (15.46±2.11) respectively, the mean birth weight of neonates born to adolescent mothers was 2659.75±630.1 and the mean gestational age of neonates at birth was 37.22±2.18.There was a significantly increased risk of LBW (33%), preterm birth (28.5%), neonatal jaundice (31.5%), admission to NICU/SCBU was (54.0%), RCU (3.0%) and general hospital wards (13.0%).


Article
Principles Information About Knowledge's Among Nursing and Paramedical Students of Ebola Virus Disease in Baghdad City

Authors: Ayyed Mohammed Namoos
Pages: 724 -731
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Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) previously discerned as (Ebola hemorrhagic fever) is acute, frequency killer disease, with a situation mortality average of approximately 90 %. The knowledge about Ebola Virus Disease is very critical in the reply to the new diffusion and in command to predominance its circulate. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of the nursing and paramedical students towards Ebola Virus Disease. This is across sectional descriptive study which was conducted on health science students in Nursing college Baghdad, Medical Institute Technical Al-Mansour and Medical Institute Technical Bab Al-Muadham of nursing and paramedical students. The study sample included 200 nursing and paramedical senior students of their last year of study. The duration of the study started from the first October 2015 to the end of February 2016. A pre tested structured questionnaire was designed and used to assess the knowledge about Ebola Virus Disease. The findings revealed that most of participants were males, students' knowledge about the real causative agent of the disease was very good (87%). Regarding the knowledge of symptoms highest proportion of respondents (78%) mention correctly that fever is the main symptom of the disease. The correct mode of transmission and diagnosis were mentioned by more than half of them. While unacceptable knowledge was identified with regard correct diagnosis and symptomatology of the disease, about one fourth of them mentioned that they didn’t know about these issues. Males and paramedical students had better knowledge but these differences didn’t reach the significant level p<0.05. This study is closed that the knowledge of Ebola Virus Disease was good in general with variations according to gender and type of studied.


Article
Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Synergetic with Insulin Resistance Potentially Contributes to the Development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

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Introduction: polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one from record common endocrine disorders, which is complicated in the multi system disease and its etiology is silent not clearly understood. The environment factors and the genetic factors production a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The obesity is android in type with greater waist to hip ratio and obese in posterior abdominal wall and mesentery. Due to that (50%) of women with PCOS are fat, additional the possibility of insulin resistance is the development of type 2 diabetes. Aims of the study to estimate the role of TNF-α and insulin resistance in pathogenesis of PCOs and identify the relationship of obesity with IR and TNF-α in PCOs. IR and TNF-α concentration was assessed by competitive ELISA method. Significant of differences were detected between PCOS patients and controls. Each the PCOS had raised up BMI, WHR, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) score, and serum TNF-α when matched with controls (p<0.05). The conducted examination indicated the contribution of TNF-α in path mechanism of PCOS being the basis of increase body weight which lead to development of insulin resistance.


Article
Hemolytic Activity of Acacia nilotica & Achillea millefolium on Human Red Blood Cells (in vitro Study)

Authors: Faten Rashid Hameed
Pages: 738 -742
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In this study, five concentrations of methanolic extraction of Acacia nilotica (10, 20, 50, 100, 250 mg) and six concentrations of Achillea millefolium (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200 mg) were used to study the extent of their effect on the damage of Red blood cells walls, the study were tested for replicates of blood samples for each concentration matched by controlled blood samples which were not used with the alcohol extract. The absorbance was obtained using a spectral device of a wavelength of 540 nm. The results indicated that there was a marked increase in red blood cell decomposition with the increasing of the concentration for both plants extractions.

Table of content: volume:14 issue:4