Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Architecture & Planning

المجلة العراقية لهندسة العمارة والتخطيط

ISSN: 26179547 / 26179555
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Architecture Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning (IQJAP), abbreviated as IRAQI J. ARCHIT PLANN, is a biannually published applied/natural science peer-reviewed journal with interdisciplinary activity by the Department of Architectural Engineering at University of Technology in Baghdad. The journal has been publishing since 2001 with the aim of making significant contributions to applied research and knowledge across the globe, especially Iraq and the Middle East, through publication of original, high-quality research articles in the following fields: Architecture, Architectural Engineering, Architectural History, Architectural Sciences & Technology, Environmental Design, Interior Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Real Estate Development, and Urban & Regional Planning.
The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning publishes Arabic and English research articles, review articles, conference papers, and perspective/commentary articles, thereby providing a forum for reports and discussions on innovative perspectives in science. All submitted papers are subjected to strict double blind peer reviewing process. The Journal is committed to publishing manuscripts via a rapid, impartial, and rigorous review process. Once accepted, manuscripts are granted free online open-access immediately upon publication, which permits its users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts, thus facilitating access to a broad readership.

Loading...
Contact info

Iraqi Journal of Architecture & Planning
University of Technology
Tell muhammed- Baghdad-Iraq
P.O.b: 35010
TelFax:7180187
E-mail : ijarchitecture@gmail.com

Table of content: 2014 volume:10 issue:1-2

Article
The Effect of Urban Street Planting on Improving the Climate of Baghdad city
اثر تشجير اﻟﺸوارع اﻟﺤﻀرﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ تحسين اﻟﻤﻨﺎخ اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this research is to study the effect of tree planting on the reduction of thermal load of solar radiation falling on the area of Baghdad city and its contribution to weather treatments; since the temperature of green mass of trees is less than the human body and higher than air temperature in winter, so one expects condense tree plantation and foliage may participate in reducing air temperature in summer and could make the climate of the city to approach near the human temperature comfort limits .The impetus to encourage the authors to undertake the research is the positive results and indications derived from earlier authors' research work and that done by other researchers. Recent advances of modern scientific and technological in the field of electronic instrumentation measurements and sophisticated thermal imaging devices, which are expected to help in measurement and obtain temperature pattern of every point on the trees or at any point on block trees, besides measuring the thermal effect of shading on human body of people using the road (the camera has an accuracy of (0.1 oC). In order to ensure high precision and optimum reliability of experimental results in the proposed work, experts from the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad were approached to assist in selecting one of the best suitable tree for Baghdad environment. Their choice was ( Albizia Lebbech ), and by the use of (GIS) photos of Baghdad city, the most suitable site to perform the experimental measurements in Baghdad city is chosen as the Baghdad University, in view of abundance of Albizia in addition to the availability of all other required variables. With the kind permission of the Presidency of Baghdad University, experiments have been performed on the 21st of June 2012, since this day has the highest amount of solar radiation all over the year The results and analysis have shown that there is a distinct effect of shading with trees in reducing temperature street air temperature and in providing better human effective temperature than shading the walkways with buildings . In an attempt to theoretically verify the extent of this impact on the entire city of Baghdad calculated, only the whole length of the main streets of Baghdad city are found by satellite images "GIS" ( within the boundaries of Municipality of Baghdad). It shows that the forestation process, including the effect of shading and evaporative cooling is equivalent to 45 million tones of refrigeration, which certainly will help in reducing the required energy for buildings' cooling . Therefore, the results will encourage in recommending forestation over all main streets as well as all streets in residential districts, which in return will change the whole climate of the city of Baghdad. ﯿﻬـدف اﻟﺒﺤـث اﻟــﻰ دراﺴـﺔ ﺘــﺄﺜﯿر زراﻋـﺔ اﻷﺸـﺠﺎر ﻋﻠــﻰ اﻟﺤـد ﻤــن اﻟﺤﻤـل اﻟﺤـراري ﻟﻺﺸــﻌﺎع اﻟﺸﻤﺴـﻲ اﻟﺴــﺎﻗط ﻋﻠـﻰ رﻗﻌــﺔ ﻤدﯿﻨــﺔ ﺒﻐــداد وﻤﺴــﺎﻫﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻓــﻲ ﺘﻐﯿﯿــر ﻤﻨــﺎخ اﻟﻤدﯿﻨــﺔ ﻷن درﺠــﺔ اﻟﺤــرارة اﻟﻛﺘﻠــﺔ اﻟﺨﻀــراء ﻟﻼﺸــﺠﺎر أﻗــل ﻤــن ﺤــرارة ﺠﺴــم اﻹﻨﺴــﺎن ﺼـﯿﻔﺎ وأﻋﻠـﻰ ﻤـن درﺠـﺔ ﺤـرارة اﻟﻬــواء ﻓـﻲ ﻓﺼـل اﻟﺸـﺘﺎء، ﻟـذﻟك ﻨﺘوﻗـﻊ ان زراﻋــﺔ اﻷﺸـﺠﺎر ﺒﺸـﻛل ﻛﺜﯿـف ﺴﯿﺸـﺎرك ﻓـﻲ ﺘﻘﻠﯿــل درﺠــﺔ ﺤــرارة اﻟﻬــواء ﻓــﻲ اﻟﺼــﯿف، وﯿﻤﻛــن أن ﺘﺠﻌــل ﻤﻨــﺎخ اﻟﻤدﯿﻨــﺔ ﯿﻘﺘــرب ﻤــن ﺤــدود درﺠــﺔ اﻟراﺤــﺔ اﻟﺤرارﯿــﺔ ﻟﻼﻨﺴــﺎن . ﻟﻘــد ﺸــﺠﻌﻨﺎ ﻋﻠــﻰ إﺠــراء ﻫــذا اﻟﺒﺤــث ﻤــﺎﺘم ﺴــﺎﺒﻘﺎً ﻤــن دراﺴــﺎت ﻤــن ﻗﺒﻠﻨــﺎ وﻤــن ﻗﺒــل آﺨــرﯿن واﻟﺘــﻲ اﻋطــت ﻤؤﺸــراً اﯿﺠﺎﺒﯿــﺎً ﺨﺎﺼــﺔ ﺒﻌــد ﻤﺎوﻓرﺘــﻪ اﻟﺘﻛﻨوﻟوﺠﯿــﺎ اﻟﺤدﯿﺜــﺔ ﻤــن اﺠﻬــزة ﻗﯿــﺎس اﻟﻛﺘروﻨﯿــﺔ دﻗﯿﻘــﺔ وﻛــﺎﻤﯿرات ﺤرارﯿــﺔ ﻤﺘطــورة ﯿﻤﻛــن ان ﺘﺴــﺎﻋد ﻓــﻲ ﻗﯿــﺎس ورﺴــم درﺠﺎت ﺤرارة ﻛل ﺠزء ﻤن اﺠـزاء اﻟﻛﺘﻠـﺔ اﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﯿـﺔ اﻟﻤﺼـورة وﺤﺘـﻰ اﻟﺘـﺄﺜﯿر اﻟﺤـراري ﻋﻠـﻰ اﻷﺸـﺨﺎص ﻤﺴـﺘﺨدﻤﻲ اﻟطرﯿـق وﺒدﻗـﺔ ﻗﯿﺎس ﻤﻘدارﻫﺎ 0.1 ﻤن اﻟدرﺠﺔ اﻟﻤﺌوﯿﺔ. وﻟﺠﻌل اﻟدراﺴﺔ واﻗﻌﯿﺔ وذات ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘطﺒﯿق, ﺘـم اﻻﺴـﺘﻌﺎﻨﺔ ﺒﻤﺨﺘﺼـﯿن ﻤـن ﻛﻠﯿـﺔ اﻟزراﻋـــﺔ ﻻﺨﺘﯿـــﺎر واﺤـــدة ﻤـــن اﻓﻀـــل اﻻﺸـــﺠﺎر اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴـــﺒﺔ ﻟﺒﯿﺌـــﺔ ﻤدﯿﻨـــﺔ ﺒﻐـــداد وﻫـــﻲ ﺸـــﺠرة (Albizia lebbeck) , ﻛﻤـــﺎ ﺘـــم وﺒﺎﻹﺴﺘﻌﺎﻨﺔ ﺒﺼور اﻟﻤﺴﺢ اﻟﺠوي(GIS) ﻟﻤدﯿﻨـﺔ ﺒﻐـداد اﺨﺘﯿـﺎر ﻤوﻗـﻊ ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ ﺒﻐـداد ﻟوﺠـود ﻛﺎﻓـﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻐﯿـرات اﻟﻤطﻠوﺒـﺔ، وﺒﻤواﻓﻘـﺔ ﻛرﯿﻤﺔ ﻤن رﺌﺎﺴﺔ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺒﻐداد اﺠرﯿت اﻟﺘﺠﺎرب ﻤوﻗﻌﯿﺎً ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺎدي واﻟﻌﺸرﯿن ﻤـن ﺤزﯿـران ﺼـﯿف ﺴـﻨﺔ 2012 ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒـﺎرﻩ اﻟﯿـوم اﻟذي ﺘﺴﻘط ﻓﯿﻪ اﻛﺒر ﻛﻤﯿﺔ ﻤن اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﺸﻤﺴﯿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤدار اﻟﺴﻨﺔ, ﺜم ﺘم ﺘﺤﻠﯿل اﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﺤﺎﺴـوﺒﯿﺎً، ﻓظﻬـر ان ﻫﻨﺎﻟـك ﺘـﺄﺜﯿر ﻛﺒﯿـر ﻓـﻲ درﺠــﺎت اﻟﺤـرارة ﻨﺘﯿﺠــﺔ ﺘﺸـﺠﯿر اﻟﺸــﺎرع اﻟـذي اﺠرﯿــت ﻓﯿــﻪ اﻟﻘﯿﺎﺴـﺎت ﺤﯿــث اﻗﺘرﺒـت درﺠــﺔ ﺤـراة اﻟﻬــواء ورطوﺒﺘـﻪ وﺘﺤرﻛــﻪ ﻤــن ﺤدود اﻟراﺤﺔ اﻟﺤرارﯿﺔ ﻻﻨﺴﺎن اﻟﻤﻨﺎطق اﻟﺤﺎرة اﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ واﻟﺘﻲ ﻟم ﺘﺘﺤﻘق ﺒﻨﻔس اﻟﻛﻔﺎءة ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺘظﻠﯿل ﺒﺎﻟﻛﺘـل اﻟﺒﻨﺎﺌﯿـﺔ. وﻟﻤﻌرﻓـﺔ ﻤدى ﻫذا اﻟﺘﺄﺜﯿر ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﻛﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻛﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺒﻐداد ﺘـم ﺘﻌﻤـﯿم ﻋﻤﻠﯿـﺔ اﻟﺘﺸـﺠﯿر ﻨظرﯿـﺎً ﻟﻛـل اﻟﺸـوارع اﻟﺤﻀـرﯿﺔ )داﺨـل ﺤـدود اﻤﺎﻨـﺔ ﺒﻐداد( اﻟرﺌﯿﺴﯿﺔ واﻟﺘﻲ ﺤﺴﺒت اطواﻟﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎد اﻟﺼـور اﻟﻔﻀـﺎﺌﯿﺔ )GIS(. ﻓظﻬـر ان ﻋﻤﻠﯿـﺔ اﻟﺘﺸـﺠﯿر ﺒﻤـﺎ ﺘﺤدﺜـﻪ ﻤـن ﺘظﻠﯿـل و ﺘﺒرﯿد ﺘﺒﺨﯿري ﺘﻌﺎدل ﺤواﻟﻰ 45 ﻤﻠﯿون طن ﺘﺒرﯿد وﻫذا ﻤﺎﺴﯿﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻘﻠﯿل اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﻛﻬرﺒﺎﺌﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﺼروﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻛﯿﯿف اﻟﻤﺒـﺎﻨﻲ ، وذﻟك ﻤﺎ ﺸﺠﻌﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘوﺼﯿﺔ ﺒﺘﺸﺠﯿر اﻟﺸوارع اﻟرﺌﯿﺴـﯿﺔ وﻛـذﻟك ﺘﺸـﺠﯿر ﺸـوارع اﻻﺤﯿـﺎء اﻟﺴـﻛﻨﯿﺔ ﻤﻤـﺎ ﺴـﯿﻐﯿر ﻤﻨـﺎخ ﻤدﯿﻨـﺔ ﺒﻐداد ﺒﺎﻟﻛﺎﻤ


Article
Revivalist Translation in Contemporary Arabic Architecture
الترجمة الاحيائية في العمارة العربية المعاصرة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Translation lead in general a prominent role to transfer different sciences , knowledge and cultures, particularly in keeping up with scientific and literary developments. Because of the importance of translation and its relationship to architecture led to the identification of general axis of the research, which represents the “Employment translation in architecture”. The research discussed the previous Architectural Studies that related to concept of translation and show that there was a difference in dealing with the translation of various movements in architecture, and the appearance of several employments can be identified with differences, pluralism, revivalism, interpretation, paradox, then the research problem identified by ((lack of objective holistic vision reveals privacy revivalist translation in contemporary Arab architecture)), and the objective of this research was represented by ((the formation of a theoretical, objective, comprehensive framework for the properties of the revivalist translation and using them to discover the application privacy of the concept in Arab contemporary architecture)) .Research reached conclusions and recommendations.تؤدي الترجمة بشكل عام دو ا ر بار ا ز في نقل عموم الشعوب المختمفة ومعارفيا وثقافتيا، وخاصة في مجال مواكبة التطو ا رت العممية والادبية، ولاىمية الترجمة وعلاقتيا بالعمارة تم تحديد المحور العام لمبحث الذي تمثل ب"توظيف الترجمة في العمارة"، وقد تم التطرق الى الطروحات المعمارية السابقة ذات العلاقة بمفيوم الترجمة وتبين إن ىنالك اختلاف في التعامل مع الترجمة في مختمف الحركات المعمارية وظيور عدة توظيفات يمكن تحديدىا بالاختلاف ، اولتعددية، اولاحياء، اولتأويل، اولمفارقة، كما برز عدم وضوح توظيفات المفيوم في العمارة العربية المعاصرة وبذلك تبمورت المشكمة البحثية التي تحددت ب))عدم وجود تصور نظري موضوعي شمولي يكشف خصوصية الترجمة الاحيائية في العمارة العربية المعاصرة(( ليتمثل ىدف البحث ب ))تشكيل إطار نظري موضوعي و شامل لخصائص الترجمة الاحيائية وتوظيفيا لاكتشاف خصوصية تطبيق المفيوم في العمارة العربية المعاصرة(( وصولا الى الاستنتاجات والتوصيات.


Article
Moving architecture The Impact of position movement of architectureon the recipient
العمارة المتحركة أثر الحركة الموضعية للعمارة في المتلقي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The moveable building is considered to be one of the most recent productions of the era which is related to the concepts of the benefit, beautyand the technique. These concepts have great impact on the movement of society and human being through his awareness to his recent needs that are changing through the time, which effect the role of techniques that related to the humans services through spotlighting the relationship between these effects from one side and the human from the other side to get anew architectural product represented through the moveable building. This product interacts with the humans existance in the society through many factors which can be used communicatively with the society in general.This product affects the human directly becouse it’s a product which has an aesthetic action, functional, and technical. This research illustrates the connection of the moveable pattern elements through its design and the effect of this movement to the recipient; this point illustrats the need of studying the relationship between the moveable product and human. The target of this research is to put a cognitive framework leads to illustrate knowing the moveable building through establishing a theoretical framework which will connect between the movement in the building and its relationship with the recipient,for this reason the problem of the research is ( the absense and deficiency of the existing knowledge about the relationship between the moveable building and the recipient ), after that apply this relationship to a number of particular knowleging indicators, analyse this applicaion, illustrate the relationship between the moveable building and the recipient and finally find conclusions for Research.ﻌد اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة اﻟﻤﺘﺤرﻛﺔ اﺤدى ﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت اﻟﻌﺼر اﻟﺘﻲ ارﺘﺒطت ﺒﻤﻔﺎﻫﯿم اﻟﻤﻨﻔﻌﺔ واﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ واﻟﺠﻤﺎل وﻟﻬـذﻩ اﻟﻤﻔـﺎﻫﯿم اﻟﺘـﺄﺜﯿر اﻟﻛﺒﯿـر ﻓﻲ ﺤرﻛـﺔ اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤـﻊ واﻹﻨﺴـﺎن ﻤـن ﺨـﻼل رؤﯿﺘـﻪ ﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘـﻪ اﻟﻤﺴـﺘﺤدﺜﺔ ﻤـﻊ ﺘﻐﯿـر اﻟزﻤـﺎن اﻟﻤـؤﺜر ﻓـﻲ ﺒﯿـﺎن دور اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿـﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼـﺔ ﻟﺨدﻤــﺔ اﻹﻨﺴــﺎن ﻤــن ﺨــﻼل ﺘﺴــﻠﯿط اﻟﻀــوء ﻋﻠــﻰ اﻟﻌﻼﻗــﺔ ﻤــﺎﺒﯿن ﻫــذﻩ اﻟﻤــؤﺜرات واﻻﻨﺴــﺎن ﻨﻔﺴــﻪ ﻟﻠﺨــر وج ﺒﻨﺘــﺎج ﻤﻌﻤــﺎري ﺠدﯿــد ﯿﺘﻤﺜــل ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤــﺎرة اﻟﻤﺘﺤرﻛــﺔ ، إذ ﯿﺘﻔﺎﻋــل ﻫــذا اﻟﻨﺘــﺎج ﻤــﻊ اﻟوﺠــود اﻻﻨﺴــﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤــﻊ ﻤــن ﺨــﻼل ﻋــدة ﻋواﻤــل ﯿﻤﻛــن اﺴــﺘﺨداﻤﻬﺎ ﺒﺼورة ﺘواﺼﻠﯿﺔ ﻤﻊ اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻋﻤوﻤﺎ وﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﯿﻌـود ﺘﺄﺜﯿرﻫـﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ اﻻﻨﺴـﺎن ﻤـن ﺨـﻼل ﻛوﻨـﻪ ﻨﺘـﺎج ﻟـﻪ ﻓﻌـل ﺠﻤـﺎﻟﻲ وﻓﻌـل وظﯿﻔـﻲ وﻓﻌــل ﺘﻘﻨــﻲ وﻫــذا ﻤــﺎ ﺘوﺠــﻪ ﻨﺤــوﻩ اﻟﺒﺤــث ﺒﺘوﻀــﯿﺢ ارﺘﺒــﺎط اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼــر اﻟﺸــﻛﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺤرﻛــﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﻨــﻰ ﻤــن ﺨــﻼل اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿــﺔ اﻟﺘﺼــﻤﯿﻤﯿﺔ وﺘوﻀﯿﺢ ﻤدى ﺘﺄﺜر اﻟﻤﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﺒﻤوﺠﺔ اﻟﺤرﻛﺔ ﻫذﻩ , وﻫﻨﺎ ظﻬرت اﻫﻤﯿﺔ دراﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﺎﺒﯿن اﻟﻨﺘﺎج اﻟﻤﺘﺤرك واﻻﻨﺴﺎن. و ﯿﻬدف ﻫذا اﻟﺒﺤث اﻟﻰ طرح اطﺎر ﻤﻌرﻓﻲ ﯿﺴﻬم ﻓﻲ ﺘوﻀﯿﺢ اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة اﻟﻤﺘﺤرﻛﺔ ﻤن ﺨﻼل ﺒﻨﺎء اطﺎر ﻨظري ﯿرﺒط ﻤﺎﺒﯿن اﻟﺤرﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة وﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﻟﺘﻛون ﻤﺸﻛﻠﺔ اﻟﺒﺤث ﻫﻲ)ﻏﯿﺎب اﻟﻤﻌرﻓﺔ اﻟﻤطروﺤﺔ وﻗﺼورﻫﺎ ﺤول طﺒﯿﻌﺔ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒـﯿن اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة اﻟﻤﺘﺤرﻛﺔ واﻟﻤﺘﻠﻘﻲ ( وﻤن ﺜم ﺘطﺒﯿق ﻫذ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋدد ﻤن اﻟﻤؤﺸرات اﻟﻤﻌرﻓﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﺤددة وﺘﺤﻠﯿل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫـذا اﻟﺘطﺒﯿـق واﺴﺘﻛﺸﺎف وﺘوﻀﯿﺢ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﺎﺒﯿن اﻻﻨﺴﺎن واﻟﻌﻤﺎرة اﻟﻤﺘﺤرﻛﺔ ﻤﻊ طرح اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﯿﻪ ﻟﻠﺒﺤث.


Article
Effect of Virtual Reality Technology on the Accomplishment of the Natural Self-Existing In Virtual Interior Space
دور ﺘﻛﻨوﻟوﺠﯿﺎ اﻟواﻗﻊ اﻻﻓﺘراﻀﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﯿق اﻟطﺒﯿﻌﺔ اﻟوﺠودﯿﺔ ﻟﻠذات داﺨل اﻟﻔﻀﺎء اﻻﻓﺘراﻀﻲ

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Due to the major technological development happened in the last 20 years, technology had great role in changing the architectural constants and classifying its priorities. Many studies focused on technology notion and its application in architecture. But they did not focus on the rule of technology to realize Human reliance on internal and external spaces in which the people spend most of their time in.The information technology with its developments has great impact on actions & behaviors of human beings. Here the research idea in “Lack of sufficient scientific knowledge about the impact of technology of virtual reality to achieve the existential nature of the personality in virtual space. The search aimed to discuss "Clarifying the role of virtual reality technology to establish an internal virtual theoretical framework of space which seeks to achieve human existential lost in realistic space achieving the goal required having Comprehensive theoretical framework . This theoretical framework as a first stage of theoretical framework .The second stage of tries to clarify the main levels of the practical study to clarify truth fullness of indicators achieved through out:selecting items of theoretical framework. The final conclusions of the research which include theoretical framework conclusions, application results conclusions.ﻟﻌﺒت اﻟﺘﻛﻨوﻟوﺠﯿﺎ ﻨﺘﯿﺠﺔ اﻟﺘطور اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ اﻟﻛﺒﯿر اﻟذي ﺤﺼل ﺨﻼل اﻟﻌﻘدﯿن اﻟﻤﻨﺼرﻤﯿن ﻟﻠﻘرن اﻟﻌﺸرﯿن، دوراً ﻛﺒﯿراً ﻓﻲ ﺘﻐﯿر اﻟﺜواﺒت اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎرﯿﺔ وأﻫداﻓﻬﺎ أو ﺘﺼﻨﯿف أوﻟوﯿﺎﺘﻬﺎ ، وﻗد رﻛزت اﻟﻌدﯿد ﻤن اﻟدراﺴﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟﺘﻛﻨوﻟوﺠﯿﺎ وﺘطﺒﯿﻘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة ، إﻻ أﻨﻬﺎ ﻟم ﺘرﻛز ﻋﻠﻰ دور اﻟﺘﻛﻨوﻟوﺠﯿﺎ ﻓﻲ إدراك اﻟذات اﻟﺒﺸرﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﻀﺎءات اﻟداﺨﻠﯿﺔ . ﻓﻘد أﺜرت اﻟﺘﻛﻨوﻟوﺠﯿﺎ اﻟﻤﻌﻠوﻤﺎت وﺘطوراﺘﻬﺎ أﺜرت ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺸﺎط وﺴﻠوك اﻹﻨﺴﺎن، وﻟم ﺘﻘﺘﺼر ﺘﺄﺜﯿراﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ واﻟﻌﺎﻟم اﻟﻤﺎدي ﺒل ﺘﻌدت ﻟﺘﺸﻤل ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻹﻨﺴﺎن وٕادراﻛﻪ ﻟﻠﻔﻀﺎء واﻨﺘﻤﺎﺌﻪ ﻓﯿﻪ. ﻓﻛﺎن ﻨﻘص اﻟﻤﻌرﻓﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﯿﺔ اﻟﻛﺎﻓﯿﺔ ﺤول اﺜر ﺘﻛﻨوﻟوﺠﯿﺎ اﻟواﻗﻊ اﻻﻓﺘراﻀﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﯿق اﻟطﺒﯿﻌﺔ اﻟوﺠودﯿﺔ ﻟﻠذات ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﻀﺎء اﻻﻓﺘراﻀﻲ اﻟداﺨﻠﻲ)اﻟﻤﺸﻛﻠﺔ اﻟﺒﺤﺜﯿﺔ(. و ﯿﻛون ﺘوﻀﯿﺢ دور ﺘﻛﻨوﻟوﺠﯿﺎ اﻟواﻗﻊ اﻻﻓﺘراﻀﻲ ﻓﻲ إﻨﺸﺎء ﻓﻀﺎء داﺨﻠﻲ اﻓﺘراﻀﻲ ﯿﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﯿق وﺠودﯿﺔ اﻹﻨﺴﺎن اﻟﻤﻔﻘودة داﺨل اﻟﻔﻀﺎء اﻟواﻗﻌﻲ)ﻫدف اﻟﺒﺤث (. و اﺴﺘﻠزم ﺘﺤﻘﯿق اﻟﻬدف ﺒﻨﺎء إطﺎر ﻨظري ﺸﺎﻤل، ﺜم ﺘوﻀﯿﺢ اﻟﻤراﺤل اﻷﺴﺎﺴﯿﺔ ﻟﻠدراﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ، ﺜم ﺤﻠﻠت اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ. واﺴﺘﺨرﺠت اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﯿﺔ اﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤث واﻟﻤﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ اﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت اﻹطﺎر اﻟﻨظري واﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ اﻟﺘطﺒﯿق


Article
Thermal Effect of External Cladding Materials on The Microclimate in Urban Environment
الأثر الحراري لمواد انهاء جدران المباني الخارجية في المناخ الموضعي للبيئة الحضرية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

It has been found recently, that many architects are using new imported materials for external cladding, which might cause an increase in air temperature of the urban environment, and creating new microclimate thermally differ from other places according to the type of cladding materials used on building façade , especially in commercial streets, which is believed that most people feels changes in thermal difference in commercial streets more than the difference in residential districts, where people are usually indoors. So due to the lack of information about the effect of such material on urban environment, the paper aimed to contribute in discovering the effect of thermal reflectivity and emissivity of number of cladding materials commonly used by local designers, in order that designers can have useful information, so that they will be free to choose the proper and the best suitable materials. For getting better and more realistic results, an experimental model of a part of commercial street represents 8 three story buildings Scale 1:10 has been built on the roof of Department of Architecture, University of Technology , Baghdad, Iraq during August & September 2012. The selected scale model has been chosen because it is suitable for taking measurements with the available infra red image camera (Fluke Came Ti32), the electronic digital thermometers as well as the suitability for the available thickness of selected cladding materials The skeleton of the commercial street model has designed in a way that it can help in changing and testing easily any type of cladding material. The experiments for six common cladding materials, shows that the material with highest thermal effect on microclimate during day time is the white aluminum composite panels, and the least effect is by using ruff white cement rendering. It has to be pointed out her that using the experimental model in this study is closer to reality than mathematical calculations even when reducing the size of the model, due to the fact that model factor is influenced directly proportional to the model scale, and because we could not find commercial streets with uniform and similar cladding material.لوﺤظ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻐﻠﯿـف اﻻﺒﻨﯿـﺔ ﻓـﻲ اﻻوﻨـﺔ اﻻﺨﯿـرة اﺴـﺘﺨدام ﺒﻌـض ﻤـواد اﻹﻨﻬـﺎء اﻟﺘـﻲ ﻗـد ﺘﺴـﺒب زﯿـﺎدة ﻓـﻲ درﺠـﺔ ﺤـرارة ﻤﻨـﺎخ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ اﻟﺤﻀرﯿﺔ وﺘﻛوﯿن ﻤﻨﺎخ ﻤوﻀﻌﻲ ﯿﺨﺘﻠف ﻓﻲ ﺤرارﺘﻪ ﻋن ﻤﻨﺎخ ﻤﻨطﻘﺔ اﺨرى ﺒﺤﺴب اﻟﻨوﻋﯿﺔ اﻟﺴﺎﺌدة ﻓـﻲ ﺘﻠـك اﻟﻤﻨطﻘـﺔ ﻤن ﻤواد اﻨﻬﺎء وﺨﺼوﺼﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸوارع اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﯿﻌﺘﻘد ان ﺘﺤﺴس اﻟﻨﺎس ﺒﻬذﻩ اﻟﺘﺎﺜﯿرات ﯿﻛون اﻛﺜر ﻤن اﻟﻤﻨﺎطق اﻟﺴﻛﻨﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﯿﺘواﺠد اﻟﻨﺎس ﻓﯿﻬﺎ داﺨل اﻟﺒﯿوت, ﻟﻘـد ﺴـﻌﻰ اﻟﺒﺤـث اﻟـﻰ اﻟﻛﺸـف ﻋـن اﻷﺜـر اﻟﺤـراري ﻟﻠطﺎﻗـﺔ اﻟﺤرارﯿـﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺒﻌﺜـﺔ واﻟﻤﻨﻌﻛﺴـﺔ ﻟﻤواد اﻻﻨﻬﺎء اﻟﺴﺎﺌدة اﻻﺴﺘﺨدام ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠدﻨﺎ ﻟﺘﺘوﻓر ﻟدى اﻟﻤﺼﻤﻤﯿن اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻨﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻀوﺌﻬﺎ ﯿدﻋم اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎري اﺨﺘﯿﺎراﺘﻪ . اﻋﺘﻤد اﻟﺒﺤث اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ اﻟﺘﺠرﯿﺒﻲ ﻤن ﺨﻼل ﺒﻨﺎء أﻨﻤوذج ﻟﺠزء ﻤن ﺸﺎرع ﺘﺠﺎري ﺒﻤﻘﯿﺎس رﺴم 10:1 وأﺒﻌﺎد )3,2م طـول X 2م ﻋرضX 1,1م ارﺘﻔﺎع( ﯿﻤﺜل ﺜﻤﺎﻨﯿﺔ أﺒﻨﯿﺔ ﺒﺎرﺘﻔﺎع ﺜﻼﺜﺔ طواﺒـق ﻟﺸـﺎرع ﻋرﻀـﻪ )12( ﻤﺘـر ﻤـن اﻟواﻗـﻊ اﻟطﺒﯿﻌـﻲ )ﺠـزء ﻤـن ﺸﺎرع اﻟرﺸﯿد/ ﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺒﻐداد( ﺤﯿث ﺠرى ﺘﺼﻤﯿم اﻟﻨﻤوذج واﺨذ اﻟﻘﯿﺎﺴﺎت ﻓﻲ ﺸﻬري آب و أﯿﻠول )2012(، ان اﻋﺘﻤﺎد اﺴﻠوب اﻟﻨﻤوذج اﻟﺘﺠرﯿﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻫذﻩ اﻟدراﺴﺔ اﻗرب اﻟﻰ اﻟواﻗـﻊ ﻤـن اﻟﺤﺴـﺎﺒﺎت اﻟرﯿﺎﻀـﯿﺔ ﺤﺘـﻰ ﻋﻨـد ﺘﺼـﻐﯿر ﺤﺠـم اﻟﻨﻤـوذج ﻟﻛـون ﺜﺎﺒـت اﻟﻨﻤوذج ﯿﺘﺎﺜر طردﯿﺎ ﺒﺘﻛﺒﯿر وﺘﺼﻐﯿر اﻻﺒﻌﺎد ﺨﺎﺼﺔ اﻨﻪ ﻟم ﻨﺘﻤﻛن ﻤن ﺘوﻓﯿر ﺸوارع ﺘﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺒﻬﺎ اﻻﻨﻬﺎءآت ﺼــﻤم ﻫﯿﻛــل اﻟﻨﻤــوذج ﺒﺎﻟﺸــﻛل اﻟــذي ﯿﺘﺤﻤــل ﺘﻐﯿــر أي ﻋــدد ﻤــن ﻤــواد اﻟﺘﻐﻠﯿــف و اﻟﺴــﻤﺎح ﺒﺎﺨــذ ﻗﯿﺎﺴــﺎت ﺤرارﯿــﺔ ﺤﯿــث ﺘــم أﺨﺘﺒـﺎر ﺴـﺘﺔ ﻋﯿﻨـﺎت ﺘـم ﺘرﻛﯿﺒﻬـﺎ ﺒـﺎﻟﺘواﻟﻲ ﻓـﻲ اﻟﻨﻤـوذج وﺘﺼـوﯿر اﻷﺒﻨﯿـﺔ ﺒﺠﻬـﺎز ﻗﯿﺎﺴـﺎت ﺤرارﯿـﺔ ﻤﺘطـور )Fluke Camera Ti32( ﻤـﻊ اﺴـﺘﺨدام ﻤﺤـﺎرﯿر ﻟﻘﯿـﺎس درﺠـﺔ ﺤـرارة اﻟﻬـواء, واﻋﺘﻤـد ﻓـﻲ ﺘﺤﻠﯿـل اﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﺒرﻨـﺎﻤﺞ )Smart View ( وﻫـو ﺒرﻨـﺎﻤﺞ ﺤﺎﺴوﺒﻲ ﻤﻠﺤق ﺒﺎﻟﻛﺎﻤﯿرا اﻟﺤرارﯿﺔ ﺒﻐﯿﺔ ﺘﺤﻠﯿل اﺜر اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﺤرارﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺒﻌﺜﺔ واﻟﻤﻨﻌﻛﺴﺔ ﻟﻛل ﻤﺎدة إﻨﻬﺎء. أظﻬرت ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ اﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎر ﻟﻠﻌﯿﻨﺎت اﻟﺴﺘﺔ اﻟﺸﺎﺌﻌﺔ اﻻﺴﺘﺨدام اﻟﺘـﻲ اﺨﺘﺒـرت ﻓـﻲ ﺸـﻬر اﯿﻠـول )2012 ( ان أﻋﻠـﻰ ﻤـﺎدة إﻨﻬـﺎء ﻤـن ﻨﺎﺤﯿﺔ أﺜرﻫﺎ اﻟﺤراري ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻨﺎخ اﻟﻤوﻀﻌﻲ ﺨﻼل اﻟﻨﻬﺎر ﻫو اﻻﻟﯿﻛوﺒون اﻷﺒﯿض, واﻗل ﻤﺎدة إﻨﻬﺎء ﻟﻬﺎ أﺜر اً ﺤرارﯿﺎ ﺨـﻼل اﻟﻨﻬـﺎر ﻫو اﻟﻨﺜر اﻻﺒﯿض.


Article
Architecture Design Methods According to Advance Human's Intellect & Technology
ﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿم اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎري ﻓﻲ ﻀوء اﻟﺘﻘدم اﻟﻔﻛري واﻟﺘﻛﻨوﻟوﺠﻲ ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎن

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper explain design method as a ring or relationship link between theory and applied , and it discuss the important developments in the field of architectural design methods according to advance human's intellect & his technology ; firstly from intuition thinking ( according to try and error ) to the industrial revolution that is followed mathematical and rational limitation thinking , and this thought go directly to un-limitation thinking that’s followed new scientific revolution , and it is arrive to contemporary digital revolution . Beside this that paper search for a development relationship between architectural form and architectural design methods . Finally must be recommendation how to effect this important development in design methods and tools on the task of teach architectural design. ﯿﺘطرق ﻫذا اﻟﺒﺤث ﻟدراﺴﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿﻤﯿﺔ ﺒوﺼﻔﻬﺎ ﺤﻠﻘﺔ اﻟوﺼل ﺒﯿن اﻟﻨظرﯿﺔ واﻟﺘطﺒﯿق ، وﯿﻨﺎﻗش أﻫم اﻟﺘطورات و اﻟﻘﻔزات اﻟﻌﻠﻤﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ طرأت ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﻬﺠﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿم ﻋﻤوﻤﺎ واﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿم اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎري ﺨﺼوﺼﺎ ﻓﻲ ظل اﻟﺘﻘدم اﻟﻔﻛري واﻟﺘﻛﻨوﻟوﺠﻲ ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎن اﻟذي اﺒﺘدأ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻛر اﻟﺘطﺒﯿﻘﻲ اﻟﺤدﺴﻲ ، وﺘﺄﺜر ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻛر اﻟﻌﻘﻼﻨﻲ واﻟرﯿﺎﻀﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻛر اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ اﻟﺤدﯿث اﻟﻤرﺘﺒط ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻨظﯿم واﻟﺘﺤدﯿد اﻟﺼﺎرم ﺒﺎﻟﺨطوات اﻟﻔﻛرﯿﺔ اﻟﻤواﻛب ﻟﻠﺜورة اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ ، وﻟﯿﺘﺠﻪ ﻨﺤو اﻟﻼ ﺘﺤدﯿد اﻟذي ﺠﺎءت ﺒﻪ اﻟﺜورة اﻟﻌﻠﻤﯿﺔ ﻤﻨﺘﺼف اﻟﻘرن اﻟﻌﺸرﯿن ، وﺼوﻻ ً اﻟﻰ اﻟﺜورة اﻟرﻗﻤﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼرة وﺘﺄﺜﯿرﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﯿﺎت ﺘﺼﻤﯿم اﻟﺸﻛل اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎري اﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼر ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﯿﺤﺎول اﻟﺒﺤث أن ﯿﻌﻘد ﺘراﺒطﺎ ﺒﯿن ﺘطور اﻟﺸﻛل اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎري ﻓﻲ ظل ﺘطور ﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿم ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ . ﻤﻊ ﻀرورة اﻟﺘوﺼﯿﺔ ﺒﺎن ﯿﻛون ﻟﻬذﻩ اﻟﺘطورات ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿم وﺘﻘﻨﯿﺎﺘﻪ اﺜر ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ ﺘﻌﻠﯿم اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿم اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎري .


Article
The Effect of Religious Monuments in the Plan of the ArabianIslamic city Samarra City – Case Study
أﺜر اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨطط اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ ﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺴﺎﻤراء – ﺤﺎﻟﺔ دراﺴﯿﺔ

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Religious monument is considered as one of the most distinguished elements which form one of the components of architectural structure, religious monument’s importance stands out from the religious affiliation of the city’s people (Spiritual affiliation). Also considered one of the distinguished architectural elements and recognized architectural identity, which have drawn the mental image for the formation of religious cities in people’s memory. The research depends on studying the plans of the religious cities specifically the Arabian Islamic cities; for its religious importance and the clearness of the religious factor’s impact in its creation and planning, and from reviewing the previous studies those dealt with analyzing the Arabian Islamic city the research problem had been determined in “There is a knowledge gap about the role of religious monuments in planning of the Arabic Islamic cities”,the research hypothesis have been formulated as The religious monument has a regulatory role in planning the Arabian Islamic city, in its impact on axial connection on both local stage and global level. The research has defined the religious monuments as landmarks or architectural elements of the city’s plan which differentiate in attendant appearance in people’s memory, which is generally showing in worship places, from all that the research’s target has been determined as: Clarifying religious monuments' role in Planning of Arab Islamic cities according to the impact that it have played as a regulatory element for the urban fabric. Samarra have been chosen for the required practical study, considering it’s one of the most important Arab Islamic cities, for what it has of religious monuments, which perform as regulatory power for the local and global connection, research confirms from experience research’s letter using (GIS: ArcView 3.3) computer software for the chosen urban formation that: the impact of the religious factor reflects on the components of the urban fabric of the Arabian Islamic city from both of the form and the space in its planning and regulation, which shows on the group of planning elements for the city, also the religious monuments have an effect on the orientation of spatial connection, and creating public areas in the city, and preparing complete spaces which have a high permeability around its locations, As well as its effect on the most complete distribution type in other parts of the system.ﯿﻌد اﻟﻤﻌﻠم اﻟدﯿﻨﻲ أﺤد أﻫم اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼر اﻟﻤﻛوﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻤدن اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ وﻤﻨﻬﺎ اﻟﻤدن اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ واﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻛل اﺤد ﻤﻛوﻨﺎت اﻟﻬﯿﻛل اﻟﻌﻤراﻨﻲ، إذ ﺘﺒرز اﻫﻤﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻠم اﻟدﯿﻨﻲ ﻤن ﺨﻼل اﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎء اﻟدﯿﻨﻲ )اﻟروﺤﻲ( ﻟﺸﺎﻏﻠﻲ اﻟﻤدن، ﻛﻤﺎ ﺘﻌد ﻤن اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼر اﻟﻌﻤراﻨﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﯿزة واﻟﻤﻌرﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻬوﯿﺔ اﻟﻌﻤراﻨﯿﺔ، واﻟﺘﻲ رﺴﻤت اﻟﺼورة اﻟذﻫﻨﯿﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﯿﺔ اﻟﻤدن اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ذاﻛرة اﻟﻨﺎس اﻟﺠﻤﻌﯿﺔ. إذ اﻋﺘﻤد اﻟﺒﺤث دراﺴﺔ اﻟﻤﺨطط ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤدن اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ وﺘﺤدﯿداً اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ؛ ﻷﻫﻤﯿﺘﻬﺎ اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ووﻀوح أﺜر اﻟﻌﺎﻤل اﻟدﯿﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺸﺄﺘﻬﺎ وﺘﺨطﯿطﻬﺎ، وﻤن ﺨﻼل اﺴﺘﻌراض اﻟدراﺴﺎت اﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎوﻟت ﺘﺤﻠﯿل اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ ﺤددت اﻟﻤﺸﻛﻠﺔ اﻟﺒﺤﺜﯿﺔ: "ﺒوﺠود ﻗﺼور ﻤﻌرﻓﻲ ﺤول اﻟدور اﻟﺘﻨظﯿﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺨطﯿط اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ"، وﻋﻠﯿﻪ ﺼﯿﻐت ﻓرﻀﯿﺔ اﻟﺒﺤث: ﺒﺎن ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ دوراً ﺘﻨظﯿﻤﯿﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺘﺨطﯿط اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ، ﺒﺄﺜرﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻرﺘﺒﺎطﺎت اﻟﻤﺤورﯿﺔ وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺘوﯿﯿن اﻟﺸﻤوﻟﻲ واﻟﻤوﻀﻌﻲ. ﻋرف اﻟﺒﺤث اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ: اﻟﺸواﺨص أو اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼر اﻟﻌﻤراﻨﯿﺔ ﻀﻤن ﻤﺨطط اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺘﺎز ﺒﻬﯿﺌﺔ ﺸﻛﻠﯿﺔ ﺤﺎﻀرة ﻓﻲ ذاﻛرة اﻟﻨﺎس اﻟﺠﻤﻌﯿﺔ، واﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﺒدور اﻟﻌﺒﺎدة ﺒﺸﻛل ﻋﺎم، وﻋﻠﯿﻪ ﻓﺄن ﻫدف اﻟﺒﺤث ﺘﺤدد ﻓﻲ: ﺘوﻀﯿﺢ دور اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻨظﯿم ﻤﺨطط اﻟﻤدن اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ وﻓق اﻷﺜر اﻟذي ﺘﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﻛﻌﻨﺼر ﻤﻨظم ﻟﻠﻨﺴﯿﺞ اﻟﺤﻀري. ﺘم اﻨﺘﺨﺎب ﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺴﺎﻤراء ﻟﻠدراﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ؛ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻫﺎ واﺤدة ﻤن أﻫم اﻟﻤدن اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻤﯿز ﺒﻪ ﻤن ﻤﻌﺎﻟم دﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻛﻘوة ﻤﻨظﻤﺔ ﻟﻼرﺘﺒﺎطﺎت اﻟﻤوﻀﻌﯿﺔ واﻟﺸﻤوﻟﯿﺔ، وﻤن اﺨﺘﺒﺎر ﻓرﻀﯿﺔ اﻟﺒﺤث ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺒراﻤﺞ )GIS: ArcView 3.3( ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﻨﯿﺔ اﻟﺤﻀرﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺨﺒﺔ ﺘوﺼل اﻟﻰ ان: اﺜر اﻟﻌﺎﻤل اﻟدﯿﻨﻲ ﯿﻨﻌﻛس ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻛوﻨﺎت اﻟﻨﺴﯿﺞ اﻟﺤﻀري ﻟﻠﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ ﻤن ﻛﺘﻠﺔ وﻓﻀﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺘﺨطﯿطﻬﺎ وﺘﻨظﯿﻤﻬﺎ، وﯿﺒرز ذﻟك اﻟﺘﺄﺜﯿر ﻤن ﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺔ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼر اﻟﺘﺨطﯿطﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤدﯿﻨﺔ، ﻛﻤﺎ ان ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ أﺜر ﻓﻲ ﺘوﺠﯿﻪ اﻻرﺘﺒﺎطﺎت اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺌﯿﺔ، وﺨﻠق اﻟﻤﻨﺎطق اﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ وﺘﻬﯿﺌﺔ ﻓﻀﺎءات ﻤﺘﻛﺎﻤﻠﺔ ذات ﻨﻔﺎذﯿﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﺤول ﻤواﻀﻌﻬﺎ، ﻓﻀﻼً ﻋن أﺜرﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ طﺒﯿﻌﺔ ﺘوزﯿﻊ اﻟﻤﺤﺎور اﻻﻛﺜر ﺘﻛﺎﻤﻼ ﻓﻲ اﺠزاء اﻟﻨظﺎم اﻻﺨرى

Table of content: volume: issue: