Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Architecture & Planning

المجلة العراقية لهندسة العمارة والتخطيط

ISSN: 26179547 / 26179555
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Architecture Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning (IQJAP), abbreviated as IRAQI J. ARCHIT PLANN, is a biannually published applied/natural science peer-reviewed journal with interdisciplinary activity by the Department of Architectural Engineering at University of Technology in Baghdad. The journal has been publishing since 2001 with the aim of making significant contributions to applied research and knowledge across the globe, especially Iraq and the Middle East, through publication of original, high-quality research articles in the following fields: Architecture, Architectural Engineering, Architectural History, Architectural Sciences & Technology, Environmental Design, Interior Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Real Estate Development, and Urban & Regional Planning.
The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning publishes Arabic and English research articles, review articles, conference papers, and perspective/commentary articles, thereby providing a forum for reports and discussions on innovative perspectives in science. All submitted papers are subjected to strict double blind peer reviewing process. The Journal is committed to publishing manuscripts via a rapid, impartial, and rigorous review process. Once accepted, manuscripts are granted free online open-access immediately upon publication, which permits its users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts, thus facilitating access to a broad readership.

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Contact info

Iraqi Journal of Architecture & Planning
University of Technology
Tell muhammed- Baghdad-Iraq
P.O.b: 35010
TelFax:7180187
E-mail : ijarchitecture@gmail.com

Table of content: 2014 volume:10 issue:3-4

Article
The effect quantitative transformation in the products of local architecture
اثر اﻟﺘﺤوﻻت اﻟﻛﻤﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿﺔ

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Abstract

The concept of time is clearly in the architecture , but the elements of time alone is not enough to get into the production architect , so came this research in order to clarify the relationship shifts architectural -time in the local architecture , which are either as or Kiva but will be here to emphasize time quantitative exclusively as part of propositions lexical and scientific , philosophical and artistic as well as architectural and then be described within the transformations timetable in local architecture , hence emerged the research problem of the " there was a lack a knowledge about the nature of the changes to the architecture of local quantum level " Either hypothesis Search: " shifts in the local architecture in terms of quantity to be either at the level of whole or part , or both , " Proceeding from the premise has been the goal of research to study the changes in the local architecture to illustrate the level of quantum transitions in the local architecture as well as access to the level of quantitative shifts in local architecture .ﺒرز ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟزﻤن ﺒﺼورﻩ واﻀﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة، إﻻ إن ﻋﻨﺎﺼر اﻟزﻤن وﺤدﻫﺎ ﻻ ﺘﻛﻔـﻲ ﻟﻠوﺼـول اﻟـﻰ اﻟﻨﺘـﺎج اﻟﻤﻌﻤـﺎري، ﻟـذا ﺠـﺎء ﻫــذا اﻟﺒﺤــث ﺒﻬــدف إﯿﻀــﺎح ﻋﻼﻗــﺔ اﻟﺘﺤــوﻻت اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎرﯿــﺔ ﺒــﺎﻟزﻤن ﻓــﻲ اﻟﻌﻤــﺎرة اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿــﺔ واﻟﺘــﻲ ﺘﻛــون اﻤــﺎ ﻛﻤــﺎ او ﻛﯿﻔــﺎ وﻟﻛــن ﺴــﯿﺘم ﻫﻨــﺎ اﻟﺘﺄﻛﯿد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟزﻤن اﻟﻛﻤﻲ ﺤﺼـرﯿﺎ وذﻟـك ﻀـﻤن اﻟطروﺤـﺎت اﻟﻤﻌﺠﻤﯿـﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻤﯿـﺔ واﻟﻔﻠﺴـﻔﯿﺔ واﻟﻔﻨﯿـﺔ ﺒﺎﻹﻀـﺎﻓﺔ اﻟـﻰ اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎرﯿـﺔ وﻤـن ﺜـم ﺘوﻀــﯿﺤﻪ ﻀــﻤن اﻟﺘﺤــوﻻت زﻤﻨﯿــﺎ ﻓــﻲ اﻟﻌﻤــﺎرة اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿــﺔ، وﻤــن ﻫﻨــﺎ ﺒــرزت اﻟﻤﺸــﻛﻠﺔ اﻟﺒﺤﺜﯿــﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠــﺔ ﺒـــ " وﺠــود ﻗﺼــور ﻤﻌرﻓــﻲ ﺤــول طﺒﯿﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﺤوﻻت ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎرة اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘوى اﻟﻛم " اﻤـﺎ ﻓرﻀـﯿﺔ اﻟﺒﺤـث: "اﻟﺘﺤـوﻻت ﻓـﻲ اﻟﻌﻤـﺎرة اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿـﺔ ﻤـن ﺤﯿـث اﻟﻛـم ﺘﻛـون اﻤـﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘوى اﻟﺠزء او اﻟﻛـل او ﻛﻼﻫﻤـﺎ"، واﻨطﻼﻗـﺎ ﻤـن اﻟﻔرﻀـﯿﺔ ﻓﻘـد ﻫـدف اﻟﺒﺤـث اﻟـﻰ دراﺴـﺔ اﻟﺘﺤـوﻻت ﻓـﻲ اﻟﻌﻤـﺎرة اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻤﺴﺘوى اﻟﻛم ﺘوﻀﯿﺢ اﻟﺘﺤوﻻت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿﺔ ﻋﻼوة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟوﺼول اﻟﻰ ﻤﺴﺘوى اﻟﺘﺤوﻻت اﻟﻛﻤﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿﺔ.

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Article
The impact of laws and regulations in urban land management and urban Baghdad - A Case Study
أﺜر اﻟﻘواﻨﯿن واﻟﺘﺸرﯿﻌﺎت اﻟﻌﻤراﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ أدارة اﻻراﻀﻲ وﺘﺨطﯿط اﻟﻤدن ﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺒﻐداد – ﺤﺎﻟﻪ دراﺴﯿﺔ

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Abstract

To business management and operational control of reconstruction in the city of Baghdad, carried out through the legislative system consists of a set of laws, regulations and decisions issued by the various destinations and on successive phases, these laws had a direct impact on urban land use and urban development.And urban planning has a number of dimensions, including the legal dimension and the dimension of administrative and executive Urban in Iraq is subject to a number of dimensions by the departments and bodies and institutions is determined by regulations and the laws of multiple and conflicting with each other often, "which led to a lack of respect and lack of commitment by the result or resulted ina clear deterioration in the level of services currently provided "and confusion at the scene and the urban fabric in urban areas in Iraq in addition to the loss of a lot of effort and various resources.This research will address to the review and evaluation of laws and resolutions dealing with Ostamlat the ground and their relationship to the process of age of the city of Baghdad and the diversity of these laws and lack of comprehensiveness and opposes sometimes "may form a partnership heavy on action planning and the development and expansion of the city despite the positive role of the change in these laws in effect on features Urban of the city, to take the city of Baghdad as a case study for the application of those laws and see how they affect them. أن أدارة اﻻﻋﻤﺎل واﻟﺴﯿطرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت اﻻﻋﻤﺎر ﻓﻲ ﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺒﻐداد ﺘﺘم ﻤن ﺨﻼل ﻤﻨظوﻤﺔ ﺘﺸرﯿﻌﯿﺔ ﺘﺘﻛون ﻤن ﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺔ ﻤن اﻟﻘواﻨﯿن واﻻﻨظﻤﺔ واﻟﻘرارات اﻟﺼﺎدرة ﻤن ﺠﻬﺎت ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ وﻋﻠﻰ ﻤراﺤل زﻤﻨﯿﺔ ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ، ﻛﺎن ﻟﻬذﻩ اﻟﻘواﻨﯿن اﻟﺘﺄﺜﯿر اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸرﻋﻠﻰ أﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻت اﻻرض اﻟﺤﻀرﯿﺔ واﻟﺘطور اﻟﻌﻤراﻨﻲ ﻓﯿﻬﺎ. وأن اﻟﺘﺨطﯿط اﻟﺤﻀري ﻟﻪ ﻋدد ﻤن اﻻﺒﻌﺎد، ﻤﻨﻬﺎ اﻟﺒﻌد اﻟﻘﺎﻨوﻨﻲ واﻟﺒﻌد اﻻداري واﻟﺘﻨﻔﯿذي ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺨطﯿط اﻟﺤﻀري ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌراق ﯿﺨﻀﻊ ﻟﻌدد ﻤن اﻻﺒﻌﺎد اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘوم ﺒﻬﺎ أدارات وﻫﯿﺌﺎت وﻤؤﺴﺴﺎت ﺘﺘﺤدد ﺒﺄﻨظﻤﺔ وﻗواﻨﯿن ﻤﺘﻌددة وﻤﺘﻀﺎرﺒﺔ ﻓﯿﻤﺎ ﺒﯿﻨﻬﺎ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ" ﻤﻤﺎ أدى اﻟﻰ ﻋدم أﺤﺘراﻤﻬﺎ وﻋدم اﻻﻟﺘزام ﺒﻬﺎ أﺴﻔر او ﻨﺘﺞ ﻋن ذﻟك ﺘدﻫور واﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘوى اﻟﺨدﻤﺎت اﻟﻤﻘدﻤﻪ ﺤﺎﻟﯿﺎ" وارﺘﺒﺎك ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺸﻬد واﻟﻨﺴﯿﺞ اﻟﺤﻀري ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻨﺎطق اﻟﺤﻀرﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌراق أﻀﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻰ ﻀﯿﺎع اﻟﻛﺜﯿر ﻤن اﻟﺠﻬد واﻟﻤوارد اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ . ﻓﺄن ﻫذا اﻟﺒﺤث ﺴﯿﺘطرق اﻟﻰ اﺴﺘﻌراض وﺘﻘﯿﯿم اﻟﻘواﻨﯿن واﻟﻘرارات اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻨﺎول أﺴﺘﻌﻤﻼت اﻻرض وﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ أﻋﻤﺎر ﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺒﻐداد وأن ﺘﻨوع ﻫذﻩ اﻟﻘواﻨﯿن وﻋدم ﺸﻤوﻟﯿﺘﻬﺎ وﺘﻌﺎرﻀﻬﺎ أﺤﯿﺎﻨﺎ" ﻗد ﺸﻛل ﺸراﻛﺔ ﺜﻘﯿﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻤل اﻟﺘﺨطﯿطﻲ وﺘطوﯿر وﺘوﺴﻊ اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟرﻏم ﻤن اﻟدور اﻻﯿﺠﺎﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﯿر ﻓﻲ ﻫذﻩ اﻟﻘواﻨﯿن ﻓﻲ ﺘﺄﺜﯿرﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻼﻤﺢ اﻟﻌﻤراﻨﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺒﺄﺨذ ﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺒﻐداد ﻛﺤﺎﻟﺔ دراﺴﯿﺔ ﻟﺘطﺒﯿق ﺘﻠك اﻟﻘواﻨﯿن وﻤﻌرﻓﺔ ﻤدى ﺘﺄﺜﯿرﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﯿﻬﺎ .

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Article
Sustainability of Infrastructure for Iraqi City Analytical Study for Baghdad City
اﺴﺘداﻤﺔ اﻟﺒﻨﻰ اﻟﺘﺤﺘﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌراﻗﯿﺔ دراﺴﺔ ﺘﺤﻠﯿﻠﯿﺔ ﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺒﻐداد

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Abstract

The infrastructure is an important element in the growth and development of the city;they determine the city optimum size.When the city's infrastructure is efficient the city is efficient, and competitive with other cities, and linked with modern information systems. The infrastructure system of the city, mainly overlap with each other to provide a better human life, so the city must be efficient economically and socially integrated. Environmentally must be capable to protect itself. The concepts of sustainability have many dimensions ,economic, social, and environmental their purpose the human being.Sustainability have emerged in many fields, including infrastructure and relied on the principle of efficiency and economic competition in the provision of infrastructure to the community, to achieve less environmental damage and working to provide natural resources and re- recurrence. Iraqi cities suffering from inefficiency and the ability of existing infrastructure,and inability to accommodate population and its dependence on traditional unsustainable concepts,therefore suffers from many problems to not rivalry with developments in technology on the one hand, the depletion of natural resources dramatically,and its reliance on traditional methods of outcomes treatment,and lack of fitness with the concept of sustainability and the preservation of resources and increase efficiency and economic capacity. ﺘﻌد اﻟﺒﻨﻰ اﻟﺘﺤﺘﯿﺔ ﻋﻨﺼر ﻤﻬم ﻓﻲ ﻨﻤو وﺘطوﯿر اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ وﺘﺤدد ﻤن ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺤﺠم اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻻﻤﺜل , وﺘﻌد اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ذات ﻛﻔﺎءة وﻗدرة ﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﯿﺔ ﻤﻊ اﻟﻤدن اﻷﺨرى ﻋﻨدﻤﺎ ﺘﻛون ﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ اﻟﺘﺤﺘﯿﺔ ذات ﻛﻔﺎءة وﻗدرة وﺘﻛﻨوﻟوﺠﯿﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ وﺘرﺘﺒط ﺒﺎﻟﻨظم اﻟﻤﻌﻠوﻤﺎﺘﯿﺔ اﻟﺤدﯿﺜﺔ . وﺘرﺘﺒط اﻟﺒﻨﻰ اﻟﺘﺤﺘﯿﺔ ﺒﻤﻨظوﻤﺔ اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺒﺸﻛل اﺴﺎﺴﻲ وﺘﺘداﺨل ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻟﺘوﻓر ﻟﻼﻨﺴﺎن اﻟﺤﯿﺎة اﻻﻓﻀل , ﻟذﻟك ﻓﺄن اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﯿﺠب أن ﺘﻛون ذات ﻛﻔﺎءة اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯿﺎً وﻤﺘﻛﺎﻤﻠﺔ اﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺎً , أﻤﺎ ﺒﯿﺌﯿﺎً ﻓﻼﺒد ﻤن أن ﺘﻛون اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﻗﺎدرة ذاﺘﯿﺎً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻤﺎﯿﺔ ﺒﯿﺌﺘﻬﺎ , ان ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻻﺴﺘداﻤﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ اﺒﻌﺎد اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯿﺔ واﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ وﺒﯿﺌﯿﺔ وﻫدﻓﻬﺎ اﻻﻨﺴﺎن , وظﻬرت اﻻﺴﺘداﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻻت ﻋدﯿدة ﻤﻨﻬﺎ اﻟﺒﻨﻰ اﻟﺘﺤﺘﯿﺔ واﻋﺘﻤدت ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺒدأ اﻟﻛﻔﺎءة واﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓس اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﻓﻲ ﺘوﻓﯿر ﺒﻨﯿﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ وﺘﺤﻘﯿق اﻗل ﻀرر ﺒﯿﺌﻲ وﺘﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘوﻓﯿر اﻟﻤوارد اﻟطﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ واﻋﺎدة ﺘﺠددﻫﺎ . ﺘﻌﺎﻨﻲ اﻟﻤدن اﻟﻌراﻗﯿﺔ ﻤن ﻋدم ﻛﻔﺎءة وﻗدرة اﻟﺒﻨﻰ اﻟﺘﺤﺘﯿﺔ اﻟﻤوﺠودة ﻓﻲ اﻏﻠب اﻟﻤدن اﻟﻌراﻗﯿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﺴﺘﯿﻌﺎب ﻋدد اﻟﺴﻛﺎن واﻋﺘﻤﺎدﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﯿم اﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿدﯿﺔ ﻏﯿر اﻟﻤﺴﺘداﻤﺔ وﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺘﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻤن ﻤﺸﺎﻛل ﻛﺜﯿرة ﻟﻌدم ﻤواﻛﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ اﻟﺘطورات اﻟﺘﻛﻨو ﻟوﺠﯿﺎ ﻤن ﺠﻬﺔ , واﺴﺘﻨزاﻓﻬﺎ اﻟﻤوارد اﻟطﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ ﺒﺸﻛل ﻛﺒﯿر , واﻋﺘﻤﺎدﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟطرق اﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿدﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻤﺨرﺠﺎﺘﻬﺎ , وﻋدم ﻤﻼﺌﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻻﺴﺘداﻤﺔ واﻟﺤﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤوارد وزﯿﺎدة اﻟﻛﻔﺎءة واﻟﻘدرة اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯿﺔ .

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Article
The Role of Shape Grammar in Analyzing Architectural Compostion [A study in the Arab-Islamic Palaces]
دور ﻗواﻋد اﻟﺸﻛل ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻠﯿل اﻟﺘﻛوﯿن اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎري دراﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺼور اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ

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Abstract

The shape grammar technique appeared in the seventies of the last century at different levels of knowledge. The application of the technique in architecture focused on two main goals، which have become as approaches: the first is the analytical one[reading and analyzing the architectural antecedent and explore their languages and using them in future designs]، the second is the original designs،[producing novel designs]. Most of researches lacked to clarify the sufficient aspects relating to shape grammar especially the analytical methods with regard of Islamic architecture ، the research problem concentrated on this as stipulated [Lack of sufficient visualization of the role of shape grammar technique in reading and analyzing Islamic architecture]and the objectives are [detect the analytical methods of shape grammar and exploring its synthetic potentials]، The method of solving the research problem consist of three stages ، first establish a comprehensive conceptual framework concentrated on shape grammar technique inside and outside the field of architecture،second :conducting study; in addition the selected sample and the constraint of choosing it were described [ the samples were eight Islamic palaces، four of them belong to the Umayyad era ، and the others to the Abbasid period ]،then identifying the method of measurement.The third: analytical process of the selected samples. Afterwards، discussing and analyzing the results and final conclusions.ظﻬرت ﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ ﻗواﻋد اﻟﺸﻛل ﻓﻲ ﺴﺒﻌﯿﻨﺎت اﻟﻘرن اﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ و ﺘم ﺘﺄﻛﯿد اﻫﻤﯿﺘﻬﺎ ﻤن ﺨﻼل ﻤﺴﺘوﯿﺎت ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻀﻤن ﺤﻘول ﻤﺘﻨوﻋﺔ ، إذ ﻛﺎن ظﻬورﻫﺎ اﻻول ﻤن ﺨﻼل ﻤﺠﺎﻻت ﻤﺘﻨوﻋﺔ اﺒرزﻫﺎ اﻟﻤﺠﺎل اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎري . رﻛزت ﺘطﺒﯿﻘﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫدﻓﯿن رﺌﯿﺴﯿن و اﻟﺘﻲ اﺼﺒﺤت ﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ وﻫﻲ: اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ اﻟﺘﺤﻠﯿﻠﻲ اﻟذي اﻛد اﻫﻤﯿﺔ ﺘﺤﻠﯿل وﻗراءة اﻟﺘﺼﺎﻤﯿم اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎرﯿﺔ اﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ و اﺴﺘﻛﺸﺎف ﻟﻐﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻔﺎدة ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ، و اﻻﺨر اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿم اﻻﺼﻠﻲ اﻟذي رﻛز ﻋﻠﻰ اﻨﺘﺎج ﺘﺼﺎﻤﯿم ﺠدﯿدة.ان اﻏﻠب اﻟﺒﺤوث اﻓﺘﻘرت اﻟﻰ اﻟﺘوﻀﯿﺢ اﻟواﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﺠواﻨب اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ و ﺒﺎﻻﺨص اﻟطراﺌق اﻟﺘﺤﻠﯿﻠﺔ ﻓﯿﻤﺎ ﯿﺨص اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ ﻟذﻟك ﺘﺤددت ﻤﺸﻛﻠﺔ اﻟﺒﺤث ب]ﻋدم وﺠود ﺘﺼور ﻛﺎف ﻋن دور ﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ ﻗواﻋد اﻟﺸﻛل ﻓﻲ ﻗراءة و ﺘﺤﻠﯿل ﻨﻤﺎذج اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ[ وﻫدﻓﻪ ب]اﻟﻛﺸف ﻋن اﻻﺴﺎﻟﯿب اﻟﺘﺤﻠﯿﻠﯿﺔ ﻟﻘواﻋد اﻟﺸﻛل واﺴﺘﻛﺸﺎف اﻻﻤﻛﺎﻨﺎت اﻟﺘرﻛﯿﺒﯿﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ[ أﻤﺎ اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﻓﺘﺤدد ﺒـﺜﻼث ﻤراﺤل :اوﻻً ﺒﻨﺎء اطﺎر ﻤﻔﺎﻫﯿﻤﻲ ﺸﺎﻤل ﯿﺘﻌﻠق ﺒﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ ﻗواﻋد اﻟﺸﻛل داﺨل و ﺨﺎرج ﺤﻘل اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة، ﺜﺎﻨﯿﺎً ﺘﺤدﯿد اﻻﺠراءات اﻟﺘطﺒﯿﻘﯿﺔ ﻤن ﺜم ﺘﺤدﯿد اﻟﻌﯿﻨﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎرة و ﻤﺤددات اﺨﺘﯿﺎرﻫﺎ ]إذ ﺘم اﻨﺘﺨﺎب ﺜﻤﺎﻨﯿﺔ ﻨﻤﺎذج ﻟﻘﺼور ارﺒﻌﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ اﻤوﯿﺔ و اﻻﺨرى ﻋﺒﺎﺴﯿﺔ[ و ﺘﺤدﯿد اﺴﻠوب اﻟﻘﯿﺎس و اﻟﺘﺤﻠﯿل.اﻟﻤرﺤﻠﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ : ﺘﺤﻠﯿل اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج وﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ و اﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت.


Article
The effect of sur on zubair city form
ﺘﺄﺜﯿر اﻟﺴور ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻛوﯿن ﻤدﯿﻨﻪ اﻟزﺒﯿر

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Abstract

Most available studies lacked an understanding of the architectural aspects of zubair as a city; especial with relevance to the role of the sur (fortification) on the city form and how it had conserved this form. This study tries to follow up the formal transformation in planning, land use, and Urban life, To understand the role of thesur which was erroded through various stages of its history, the location and the geometry of this sur must be determined depending on up to date techniques. previous descriptive studies were analysed in compares on to other for tified cities With an emphasis on studies concerned with zubair, the research problem was identified as ''the lack of specialized and documented knowledge concerning sur effect on the city and to determine its location around the city, and how city form has transformed through the time. The study has managed ,finally, to determine the shape of the original sur and its effect on city form. Findings were presented in the end to address its impact and influence. ﺘﻔﺘﻘر ﻤﻌظم اﻟدراﺴﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎوﻟت ﻤوﻀوع ﻤدﯿﻨﻪ اﻟزﺒﯿر ﻤن اﻟﺠﺎﻨب اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎري اﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﻌرﻓﺔاﻟواﻀﺤﺔ ﺤول دور اﻻﺴوار ﻓﻲ ﺘﻛوﯿن ﺘﻠك اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ وأﻫﻤﯿﺘﻬﺎ اﻟﻛﺒﯿرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺤﯿث ﯿﻬدف اﻟﺒﺤث ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎوﻟﻪ اﻟﺘﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤدﯿﻨﻪ اﻟزﺒﯿر اﻟﻤﺴورة وﻛﯿﻔﯿﻪ ﺘﺄﺜﯿر اﻟﺴور ﻋﻠﯿﻬﺎ ﻤن ﺨﻼل ﻤﻌرﻓﻪ ﺘﺄﺜﯿرﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻛوﯿﻨﻬﺎ ﺸﻛﻠﯿﺎﺤﯿث ﺴﻌﺔ اﻟدراﺴﺔ اﻟﻰ ﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﻬﺘطور ﺸﻛل اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔوﻓﻲ اﻟﺠواﻨب اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ:ﺨطﻪ اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ-اﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻت اﻻرض-اﻟﻨﺴﯿﺞ اﻟﺤﻀري، وﻟﻐرض ﻤﻌرﻓﻪ دور اﻟﺴور اﻟذي ﻫدم ﻋﺒر اﻟﻌﺼور ﻤﺎ ﺘطﻠب ﻤن اﻟﺒﺤث ﺘﺤدﯿد ﻤوﻗﻌﻪ ﻋﺒر ﻤﺨططﺎت ﻓﻀﺎﺌﯿﺔ ﺒﺼورﻩ ﺘﻔﺼﯿﻠﯿﻪ . ﺘم اﻋﺘﻤﺎد اﻟدراﺴﺎت اﻟﻨظرﯿﺔ، اﻟذي اﺴﺘطﺎع اﻟﺒﺤث ﻤن ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻨﻘد وﺘﺤﻠﯿل اﻻدﺒﯿﺎت اﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔﻟﻨﻤﺎذج اﻟﻤدن اﻟﻤﺴورة وﻨﻘد ﻟدراﺴﺎت ﺘﻨﺎوﻟت ﻤدﯿﻨﻪ اﻟﺒﺼرة واﻟزﺒﯿر وﺒﯿﺎن اﻟﻨﻘص اﻟﻤﻌرﻓﻲ اﻟﻤوﺠود ﻓﯿﻬﺎ، وﺘم اﻟﺘوﺼل اﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﺸﻛﻠﺔاﻟﺒﺤﺜﯿﺔ:ﺒﻌدم وﺠود ﻤﻌرﻓﻪ ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻪ وﻤوﺜﻘﻪ ﻟﺘﺄﺜﯿر اﻟﺴور ﻓﻲ ﺘﻛوﯿن ﻤدﯿﻨﻪ اﻟزﺒﯿر وﺘﺤدﯿد ﻤوﻗﻊ اﻟﺴور ﻨﺴﺒﻪ اﻟﻰ ﻤﻛوﻨﺎت اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔاﻟﻘدﯿﻤﺔ واﻟﺘوﺴﻌﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺤدﺜت ﻓﯿﻬﺎ ﻷﺴﺒﺎب ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ". ﻤن ﺨﻼل اﻟﺒﺤث اﻟﻤﯿداﻨﻲ ﺘﻤﺘدر اﺴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﯿر اﻟﺴور ﻤن ﺨﻼل ﺘﺤدﯿد ﻤوﻗﻊ وﻤﺴﺎر ﺴور ﻤدﯿﻨﻪ اﻟزﺒﯿر ﺜم ﻤﻌرﻓﻪ ﺘﺄﺜﯿرﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺘﻐﯿرات اﻟﺸﻛﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ طرﺌﺘﻠﺘﻠك اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ . ﺘوﺼل اﻟﺒﺤث ﺒﻌد ﺘﺤﻠﯿل ﺒﯿﺎﻨﺎت وﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ اﻟدراﺴﺔاﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ وﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻬﺎ وﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﯿرات ﻟﺘﺤﻘﯿق ﻤوﻗﻊ اﻟﺴور وﺘطور ﺸﻛل اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ واﻟﺨروج ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎﺘﺘﺨص اﻟدراﺴﺔاﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﯿﻨت ﻛﯿﻔﯿﻬﺘﺄﺜﯿر اﻟﺴور ﻓﻲ ﺘﻛوﯿن ﻤدﯿﻨﻪ اﻟزﺒﯿر .

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Article
Deterioration in the centers of historic towns The case study : the residential environment for the ancient of Kut city
التدهور العم ا رني في مراكز المدن التاریخیة دراسة حالة البیئة السكنیة لمدینة الكوت القدیمة

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Abstract

This research deals with the subject of deterioration of the urban environment of housing in the historic center of the old city in Kut which impacts negatively on the social characteristics and health of the population that represents the research problem. So, the aim of the research is to build a knowledgeable base to the phenomenon of deterioration of the urban environment of housing in the historic city centers, and was the most important findings of the research , environmental degradation Urban housing in the study area for there are suffering of humidity and lack of exposure to the sun and the narrow space of housing. Making an impact on the health aspects of the population, where the influence of moisture and snow albedo and narrow area of dwelling on the injury population diseases such as asthma and allergies , rheumatism , make the research dealing with the residential environment tin the historic centers according to the concepts of urban design and achieve communication time between the old and the new as a solution to urban and social isolation caused by the deterioration of such housing.یتناول البحث موضوع التدهور العم ا رني للبیئة السكنیة في المركز التاریخي لمدینة الكوت القدیمة والذي اثر سلبا على الخصائص الاجتماعیة والصحیة للسكان ، وهو ما یمثل مشكلة البحث ، لذا هدف البحث الى بناء قاعدة معرفیة لظاهرة التدهور العم ا رني للبیئة السكنیة في م ا ركز المدن التاریخیة ، وكانت اهم النتائج التي توصل الیها البحث تدهور البیئة العم ا رنیة للمساكن في منطقة الد ا رسة لمعاناتها من الرطوبة وقلة تعرضها الى الشمس وضیق مساحة المسكن. مما أثر على النواحي الصحیة للسكان ، حیث یؤثر وجود الرطوبة وتساقط البیاض وضیق مساحة المسكن على اصابة السكان بالأم ا رض كالربو والحساسیة والروماتیزم ، لذا اكد البحث على التعامل مع البیئة السكنیة في الم ا ركز التاریخیة وفق مفاهیم التصمیم الحضري وتحقیق التواصل عبر الزمن بین القدیم والجدید كحل للعزلة الحضریة والاجتماعیة التي سببتها حالة التدهور لتلك المساكن .


Article
The Fixed Spiritual aspects in the Islamic Thought Architecture
الجوانب الروحية الثابتة في عمارة الفكر الإسلامي

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Abstract

The issue of search for the spiritual aspects of fixed took distinct place among researchers who specialized in the architecture of Islamic thought because it represent the area between the two main approaches of the theorists of Islamic architecture ; The first one derived from Islamic Sharia laws and jurisprudence of construction and their suitability to the environmental and social conditions and the other one focused on the symbolical Formality reference for the final product and as a result of the different approaches are in the nature and diversity of the formal sources, the first focused on the need to function the shape to achieve social and environmental demands, second return the form to the spiritual and symbolism reference earn shape mysterious and complex incorporeal dimension ; this research merge the two approaches above in order to focus on the substance of Islamic Thought,. That's how determined the goal of research: approaching a paradigm of theoretical framework that reflects fixed spiritual aspects of Islamic thought in variable formal products and examine their existing in the contemporary architectural products . and then the research problem determined :there is a need to discover the continuity of spiritual aspects and being fixed in the humanistic contemporary architectural Islamic product .أحتلت قضية البحث عن الجوانب الروحية الثابتة مكانه متميزة لدى الباحثين والدارسين المختصين في عمارة الفكر الإسلامي لكونها تمثل منطقة التمفصل بين التوجهين الاساسيين لمنظري العمارة الاسلامية ; الاول مستمد من الشريعة الاسلامية وقوانينها وفقه العم ا رن وملائمتها للظروف البيئية والاجتماعية والاخرى تركز على المرجعية الرمزية الشكلية للمنتج النهائي ونتيجة لاختلاف التوجهين في طبيعة المصادر الشكلية وتنوعها حيث يركز الاول على ضرورة توظيف الشكل في تحقيق مطالب اجتماعية وبيئية, أما الثاني يرجع الشكل الى م ا رجع روحية ورمزية تكسب الشكل بعداً معنوياً يتسم بالغموض والتعقيد; فقد تم في هذا البحث دمج لما جاء في التوجهين اعلاه بهدف التركيز على مضمون الفكر الاسلامي الذي تتكامل فيه الجوانب الشكلية المادية مع الجوانب الفكرية الروحية. وبهذا تحددت هدف البحث : الوصول الى إنموذج إطار نظري تنعكس فيه المضامين الثابتة للفكر الاسلامي في نتاجات شكلية متعددة واختبار مدى تحققها في النتاج المعماري المعاصر . كذلك تحددت المشكلة البحثية : هناك حاجة لإستكشاف إستم ا ررية القيم الروحية وثباتها في النتاج الإنساني المعماري الاسلامي المعاصر .

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