Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
*********************************

• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

Loading...
Contact info

Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:22 issue:1

Article
Using Paper Waste as Adsorbent for Methyl Violet dye removal from waste water
أستعمال المخلفات الورقية كمازة لأزالة صبغة المثيل البنفسجية من مياه الصرف الصحي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study has been conducted to examine the possibility of using waste paper as an adsorbent to remove methyl violet (MV) 2B dye from waste water. Initial dye concentration in the rang (20 to 80mg/L), pH of solution in the rang (4-10), adsorbent dose range (0.5-2.5 g) and contact time varying from (30 to 180)min, were studied. The experimental adsorption isotherms were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be more represented to the experiments with high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.8144). The results showed that the highest (MV ) dye removal efficiency was (97.63) at optimization condition pH 8, at room temperature for 120min, 2 g adsorbent dose and 20 mg/L dye concentration. The value of adsorption capacity was found to be 4.3 mg /g.


Article
التواصل في عمارة جامع المرادية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

يعد جامع المرادية في بغداد, والذي يعود تاريخ انشائه الى 978هـ/ 1570م, من أوائل الجوامع التي شيدت في بغداد خلال فترة الحكم العثماني للعراق, حيث لاتزال آثارها باقية لحد الآن مع احتفاظها بنظام تخطيطها وعناصرها المعمارية الأصلية. يحاول البحث الحالي إستكشاف التواصل في عمارة هذا الجامع, ولذلك حدد البحث مشكلته بغياب معرفة واضحة عن التواصل –إن وجد- على مستوى خصائص المفردات والمكونات المشكلة لعمارة جامع المرادية. فكان هدف البحث وضع تصور واضح عن التواصل -إن وجد- والتغير في مسيرة التواصل -إن تحقق- وذلك على مستوى مكونات عمارة جامع المرادية. ولتحقيق الهدف وضع البحث منهجا تألف من ثلاثة مراحل, هي: بناء اطار نظري لدراسة التواصل في عمارة جامع المرادية, أولا. وتطبيق مفردات الإطار على عمارة الجامع, ثانيا. وطرح الإستنتاجات والتوصيات. أخيرا. وقد استند التطبيق على مجموعة خطوات, الأولى تمثلت بانتخاب مكونات الجامع التي سيتم تقصي التواصل فيها. والثانية تضمنت التحليل المقارن لخصائص المكونات المنتخبة في جامع المرادية مع خصائص نفس المكونات في العمارة المحلية السابقة – لاسيما عمارة الجوامع والمساجد- ومع خصائص نفس المكونات في العمارة العثمانية الأناضولية. وقد توصل البحث أخيرا الى جملة استنتاجات أبرزها ان مكونات عمارة جامع المرادية المنتخبة للتطبيق بشكل عام أظهرت تواصلا مع مكونات العمارة العراقية السابقة لجامع المرادية, ولاسيما عمارة الجوامع والمساجد العراقية العائدة للقرون 6-8هـ.


Article
USE OF CLEAN ENERGY TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED SOIL
إستعمال الطاقة النظيفة في معالجة التربة الملوثة

Authors: Ahmed Alaa Hussein
Pages: 12-24
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this laboratory study is to investigate the feasibility of using solar energy in combination with electro-kinetic remediation without enhancement conditions to remove cadmium from artificially contaminated soil. Two tests were performed to investigate the effect of applying continuous and constant voltage from DC power supply, and non-continuous and constant DC voltage from solar panel. The experiment was carried out in Baghdad city. The DC volte was generated by two Solar panel each one has a maximum voltage of (17 V). The experiments were commented in the mid of May 2016 (average length of daytime 14 h 3 min). The results showed that the use of solar energy in the present study to remove cadmium from contaminated soil is not successful because of the low removal efficiencies and the need for more time to substitute the stoppage of night times.


Article
WATER BUDGET FOR ABU ZIRIG MARSH IN SOUTHERN IRAQ
الموازنة المائية لهور أبو زرك الواقع في الجنوب العراقي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The marshes of Iraq are located in the southern part of the country with small portion that is located in Iran. They cover an area of about 15000-20000 km2. The marshes consist of hydraulically connected shallow lakes and scattered ponds. Three major marsh areas are considered the core of the wetlands of Iraq: (i) Al Hammar Marshes; (ii) the Central Marshes and (iii) Al Hawizeh Marshes. During the last two decades of the twentieth century, the marshes were subjected to natural and deliberate dryness and destruction and their area reduced to about 10% of the original area. The Iraqi regime in the early nineties of the last century has cut off the marshes’ inflow supplies and dried out the majority of the core marshes permanently. The regime has constructed numerus dykes, manmade cannels to implement the draining the drying process. Efforts are underway to restore the dried marshes. The restoration process requires sustained surface water supplies to re-flood the area and sustain it. Abu Zirig is a small marsh that is part of the Iraqi Central Marshes (ICM). The marsh constitutes a natural depression at the mouth of al Gharraf River. It is situated about 40 km to the east of Nassiriah city. The marsh was one of the marshes dried by diverting flows away from it via manmade embankments. Abu Zirig was part of the re-flooded marshlands. The embankments were removed immediately following the fall of Saddam’s regime on the year of 2003. Its restored area was about 120 km². The marsh consists of two parts separated by manmade dyke; upper and lower parts. This paper is an attempt to study the hydrology of the Abu Zirig Marsh, specifically, the water budget. Determination of water budget component in situ (i.e. the marshes area) is needed to evaluate the restoration process. It was found that the only inflow source was surface water flowing from al Gharraf River. Losses were to infiltration and evaporation. The marsh was considered operating on steady state, so that change in storage during the study period was zero.


Article
OPTIMAL CONTROLLER FOR VECTOR-CONTROLLED MULTILEVEL INVERETER FED BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR
مسيطر مثالي لمحرك التيار المستمر عديم الفرش المسيطر اتجاهيأ و المغذى بمبدل متعدد المستويات

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper presents a high performance brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive system that achieves optimal speed response with minimized torque ripple and low total harmonic distortion (THD). The speed controller is optimally tuned using particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique; and the torque ripple is minimized by using vector control instead of the six-step (trapezoidal control) and by using multilevel inverter to lower the THD of the voltages and currents. The proposed system alongside the traditional six-step technique, are modeled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink program; and their simulation results are compared and discussed. The obtained results show that the proposed system speed response and torque ripple are greatly improved compared with the six-step technique.


Article
Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Biodegradable Municipal Solid Waste using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
تحديد الظروف المثلى لانتاج الوقود الحيوي من المخلفات البلدية القابلة للتحلل باستخدام منهجية (RSM)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this work the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biodegradable municipal solid waste (BMSW), was studied. The maximum yield of reducing sugar was 4102.27 mg/L with optimum conditions; initial concentration 4%, pH 6, incubation time 16 hrs., and inoculum 2%. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the process parameters of bioethanol production. Maximum bioethanol yield 332.9 mg/L, was practically achieved fllowing thirty different experimental runs, as specified by 24 –full factorial central composte design(CCD). The optimum values for the aforementioned four prameters, corresponding to the maximum yield. were; initial sugar weight = 75 g/L, pH = 6, fermentation time = 39 hrs. (aerobic fermentation = 24 hrs. and anaerobic fermentation = 15 hrs.), and finally yeast inoculum = 2 mL/L. The obtained data were utilized to develop a semi-empirical model, based on a second degree polynomial, which help to predict bioethanol yield. The model was tested using ANOVA software (Design Expert 10) and the (R2= 0.9771), which is acceptable. The develop model using to generate contour plots and yield response surface. Maximum bioethanol production was observed in lab scale bioreactor reached to 492.9 mg/L within optimum conditions


Article
UTILIZATION OF RICE HUSK IN THE SORPTION OF EUTROPHICATION NITROGEN AND PRODUCING A USEFUL ORGANIC FERTILIZER FOR PLANT PRODUCTION
إستخدام قشور الرز في إمتصاص النيتروجين المسبب للإثراء الغذائي وإنتاج سماد عضوي مفيد للإنتاج النباتي

Authors: Dr. Ghazi Maleh Mutter
Pages: 65-76
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

: In the present research, the optimum exploitation procedure of the agricultural waste was conducted reaching to zero residue level (ZRL). This aim was fulfilled via two steps. The first one was the removing of nitrogen from simulated synthetic aqueous solutions (SSAS) by using an agricultural waste (which is Iraqi rice husk, IRH)) as a bio sorbent material in a fixed bed continuous mode and under many multi operating conditions; which were concentration, pH, flow rate, contact time, temperature and height of adsorbent material in the fixed bed. The second step was the utilization of the adsorption residue, which is affluent with adsorbed loaded nitrogen, by mixing it with agriculture soil as a low cost compost for tomato harvest. The results show that the removal efficiency of nitrogen was decreased with increasing N concentration, pH and flowrate but increased with increasing the contact time, temperature and height of adsorbent material in the fixed bed. The maximum percentage adsorption efficiency was 96.74%. The adsorption residue exhibited a good behavior when used as manure and the weight of tomatoes was increased by 18.25%, compared with the same harvest produced without using this fertilizer. Thus it can be profiting from the agricultural waste by a simple, economic and eco-friendly method accessing to ZRL.


Article
BEHAVIOUR OF REACTIVE POWDER RECTAINGULAR DEEP BEAM WITH SHEAR ZONE OPENING SUBJECTED TO REPEATED LOAD
تصرف العتبات العميقة المصنوعة من خرسانة المساحيق الفعالة الحاوية على فتحات في منطقة القص والمعرضة الى أحمال متكررة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This investigation is devoted to study the experimental behavior of six simply supported Reactive Powder Concrete deep beams designed to be failed in shear loaded under two symmetrical point loads and subjected to monotonic and repeated load. Its blended with a same aspect ratio of steel fiber, but different value of the volume fraction which is either 1% or 2%. The tested deep beams had the same overall span of 1200 mm, constant cross section; 115 mm wide and 400 mm overall depth, and reinforced with the same amount of main tension bars (320), and a same amount of shear reinforcement ∅4mm@100 mm c/c. Each deep beam has two typical square opening. There are two different size of the opening; 40 mm and 80 mm. All deep beams have the same; water/cement ratio. Throughout the test operation, the crack patterns were drawn and identified the mode of failure of the tested deep beams. Also the load deflection curves were plotted It was found from observations of this study; a large opening often interrupt the load transfer by concrete struts in deep beams and cause a sharp decrease in strength and serviceability. Also, the presence of the opening in the deep beams decay the ultimate load of the RPC specimens with volume fraction 1% under repeated load by 2.27 times. In particular, it is shown that the presence of steel fiber, along with the RPC, play a crucial role in the transition from flexural to shear dominated failure modes of the beam.


Article
MATHEMATICAL MODELING FOR WATER HAMMER IN PIPE FLOW
التمثيل الرياضي للمطرقة المائية في انابيب الجريان

Authors: Qassem H. jalut --- Nisreen J. Rasheed
Pages: 95-108
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Water hammer phenomenon is a transient flow in pipes that was created by rapid changes of velocity in pipelines. This phenomenon can be caused strong positive and negative pressures in water pipelines. Overall, water hammer creates by suddenly closing valves, shutting off or suddenly restarting pumps. In this study, momentum (Euler) and continuity equations of water hammer is numerically simulated using MATLAB software. Sensitivity analysis has been investigated using several variables such as pipe diameter, wave’s velocity and friction factor. Method of characteristics (MOC) has been implemented in this study. Through the results obtained, it has been shown that when using pipe with diameter (1.2m) instead of (1m), the maximum pressure head decreased by 31.5%, and decreased by 47.7% in the case of using (1.4m) instead of (1m). In case of changing the values of friction factors, it has been shown that the maximum pressure head decreased by 0.86% when using the friction factor value (0.008) instead of (0.007), and decreased by 0.81% when using friction factor value (0.009) instead of (0.007). While for the effect of wave's velocity on the pressure head, it has been shown that the maximum pressure head increased by (10.6%) when using the wave's velocity (300 m/sec) instead of (250 m/sec) and increased by (19.13%) when using (350 m/sec) instead of (250 m/sec) and increased by (26.1%) when using (400 m/sec) instead of (250 m/sec). Also, it has been found that the ending section of pipe is the critical zone for water hammer.


Article
MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF SQUARE HOLE DRILLING MECHANISM
Ridha Alwan Ahmed

Authors: Ridha Alwan Ahmed
Pages: 109-120
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Square hole is produced by Press working, Broaching, Non-conventional machining process like Wire EDM, CNC machines, Laser cutting, etc. These methods which mentioned have a complexity of manufacture along with high cost. Creating a square hole using a drill, in addition to having an easier manufacturing process, reduce the cost and time. In this paper, mathematical model of triple cam rotation of constant width inside a square frame is discussed. So, by designing a drilling tool on cam it would be creating a square hole on the work piece. During the rotation of the cam, the center of rotation is not fixed and this is the major problem in this mechanism. There is need to a non-coaxial coupling to transmit the rotational motion. The result of Universal non-coaxial coupling has been used were shown that the rotational velocity of input and output shafts are equals. This coupling can be used for transmitting the rotational motion from the drill to the cam and drilling tool to get a square hole shape..


Article
PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE PILE UNDER COMBINED AXIAL AND LATERAL LOADS IN LAYERED SANDY SOIL
سلوك ركيزة منفردة معرضة لأحمال مركبة محورية وجانبية في التربة الرملية المتطابقة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A combination of axial and lateral was applied on a small scale model piles embedded in layered sand soil. Two types of piles were used (open and closed ended steel box piles), while the relative density (Dr) of the upper and lower sand layers were (55%) and (85%) respectively. The effect of slenderness ratio (L/D) were also considered in this study (L/D= 10, 15, 20, and 25). It is shown that the axial capacity of closed ended pile is greater than the open ended pile by (12 – 33) %. The presence of a vertical load caused an increase in the lateral load capacity at all slenderness ratios but the influence of vertical load decreases with increase in slenderness ratio of piles at all vertical load levels for both types of piles.


Article
EFFECT OF ADDITION OF CHOPPED CARBON FIBER ON THE BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS WITH VARIABLE (SHEAR DISTANCE TO EFFECTIVE DEPTH ) RATIOS.
تأثير اضافة الياف الكربون المقطعه على سلوك الكمرات الخرسانية المسلحة بنسب (مسافة قص الى عمق فعال) مختلفة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The main objective of this work is to evaluate strength and behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with discrete carbon fiber. Six beams were cast and tested up to failure under two concentrated static loads. Four beams were strengthened with discrete carbon fiber (two of them reinforced with carbon fiber of length 12mm and the other two with 6mm carbon fiber). The remaining two were casted without using carbon fiber as a reference beams. Load-deflection response of all the beams was evaluated. The effect of shear span to effective depth ratio and carbon fiber pecies length on the behavior of beams was studied. The results revealed a good improvement provided b the usage of carbon fiber as compared with the references beams (without carbon fiber). The results also show that. The use of carbon fiber lead to a good improvement in the ultimate load value [ (6mm) length carbon fiber increased (Pu) by 18.75% for (a/d = 4/3) and by 20% for (a/d = 4), while the (12mm) length carbon fiber increased (Pu) by 64.06% for (a/d = 4/3) and by 80% for (a/d = 4)].


Article
Color Image Compression and Encryption Based on Compressive Sensing
ضغط وتشفير الصورةالملونة باستخدام الضاغط الحساس

Authors: Haraa Raheem Hatem
Pages: 149-161
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper; a simple and powerful technique is proposed to encrypt and compress the color image in one step based on Compressive Sensing (CS) with using multi-chaotic system (Chen and Chua) as measurement matrix. The CS is used due to many properties; Greatly reduce the ratio of signal sampling, the size of capacity, power unitization, computational complexity that need to represent a sparse signal or images and lead signal processing into a new revolutionary era. In addition to all the above features; it combines encryption and compression in the one step. Also using chaotic system (Chen and Chua) as measurement matrix in CS provides high level of security to the encryption and compression image since each one of chaotic system has Three-dimension variable. The simulation results demonstrate the compression and encryption color image has low storage size and transmitted requirement, high security, large key size and low encryption time requirement since image compression and encryption in the same step, incoherence, key sensitivity, and resistance to brute force attack. Also the recovered image, has good quality (to human perception) and saves both the clarity and the characteristics of the image.


Article
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FACTORY SECURITY SYSTEM
تصميم وتنفيذ نظام ألأمن للمصنع

Authors: Jinan Nsaif Shehab
Pages: 162-171
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Security is a prime concern in our life. Security of factory is almost standardized nowadays. Safety from leaking of gas and fire are the most important requirements of home and factory security system for people. A conventional security system gives the signals in terms of alarm. Whereas, the proposed system uses GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) to alert about the gas leakage and flame via calling and higher alarm sound. When the proposed system detects the leaking of gas or flame in the air then it immediately alert by higher alarm sound (Buzzer) or by making calling to specified mobile phone. This system is built with open source hardware (Arduino uno 328) and Micro C language for programming microcontroller (Arduino uno 328). The advantage of this proposed detection and alerting system over the conventional method is that it gives fast response time and accurate detection of an emergency and in turn leading faster diffusion of the critical situation via calling to specified number for the system and higher alarm sound.


Article
Response of Laced Reinforced Concrete Beams subjected to Repeated Loading
السلوك الانشائي للعتبات الخرسانية ذات المقطع T وبتسليح متعرج تحت الاحمال المتكررة باتجاه واحد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this research, the structural behavior of Laced Reinforced Concrete T-beam of cross sectional dimensions (300mm × 80mm) flange and (150mm × 220mm) web under monotonic loadings was studied experimentally. Two types of lacing reinforcement with inclination angle of 45o and 60o with respect to the longitudinal reinforcement and 6 mm and 8 mm diameters for each type were used. During monotonic loading tests, the load deflection values at different locations of the tested specimens were recorded in addition to determination of the ultimate load. Also, the support rotation and the ductility ratio for each tested beam were calculated. The study of inclination angle of lacing reinforcement shows that lacing reinforcement of 60o inclination angle has more deflection than that of 45o inclination angle, also the ultimate load of first type above is more about 6% than other type. The results show that beams with lacing reinforcement are stiffer than beams with conventional stirrup reinforcement. Results have shown that specimens with lacing reinforcement are more ductile than beams without lacing (conventional vertical stirrups) and the ductility factor of laced reinforced beams ranges from 1.73 to 11.7, while it is 1.6 for unlaced (stirrups) beams. Also, the support rotation of laced reinforced concrete beams is about five times higher than that of conventional reinforcement.


Article
EFFICIENT GAIT VERIFICATION THROUGH TEMPLATE PRESERVATION
كفاءة توثيق طريقة المشي من خلال المحافظه على النموذج

Authors: Mays Kareem Jabbar Alsabah
Pages: 185-196
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, the effectiveness of biometric verification system has been achieved with template protection technique. Gait images of person are used; features are extracted from average gait images using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction. At enrollment phase, three gait energy images (GEI)-upper images of person are used. The most reliable component for each person is needed to find and encoded it through Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) encoding scheme to generate code word. A secrete binary string and hash value are generated for each person and stored in the database along with encoded template and position of strong reliable component. At verification phase, GEI-lower, slow and fast gait images are used. Those features are only selected from original features based on the position of strong reliable component and are used to generate code word and which is decoded using BCH decoder. The hash value is generated and compared with the hash value which was generated in the enrollment phase. If these two hash values are the same then the person is verified otherwise the person is not verified. Also comparison with other recently proposed studies is done to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Keywords

PCA --- hash value --- GEI.

Table of content: volume: issue: