Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073 25203339
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

AIMS AND SCOPE

The Journal of Engineering is an open access, monthly, refereed, peer-reviewed journal. It focuses on the different disciplines of engineering.

Its scope is to cover almost all the aspects of engineering and technology and their related topics. The Journal of Engineering tries to emphasize on publishing high-quality papers with an acceptable, professional and considerable background.

The submitted papers undergo plagiarism, a double-blind peer review by professionals in the paper specific specialty. This process is accomplished according to the Journal criteria of evaluation, where the manuscript, contents, and organization of the paper are to be checked. The papers will be available online for the readers.

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Contact info

Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:+964 7714076860
Email: info@jcoeng.edu.iq
https://www.jcoeng.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:24 issue:3

Article
Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends
تقييم خصائص المداهنة لخلائط زيت الخردل

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Abstract

A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment) properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40) on the tribological characteristics were investigated and compared with mineral oil using the four-ball tribotester. Mustard seeds oil was blended with mineral oil at a volumetric ratio ranging from 22.5 to 90%. All experimental works were confirmed to ASTM D4172-B standard. The results exhibit that some blends of mustard seeds oil with mineral oil have lower wear scar diameter, friction torque, Friction coefficient and a higher parameter of flash temperature value compared to mineral oil and neat mustard seed oil. In conclusion, the mustard seed oil blend (MU22.5) shows a better anti-wear and anti-friction performance compared to oil samples. Therefore, mustard seeds oil has the potential to be used as a lubricant of mating surfaces.


Article
Impact Response for Two Designs of Athletic Prosthetic Feet
استجابه الصدمه لتصميمين من الاقدام الاصطناعية الرياضيه

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Abstract

The present work evaluated the differences in mechanical properties of two athletic prosthetic feet samples when subjected to impact while running. Two feet samples designated as design A and B were manufactured using layers of different orientations of woven glass fiber reinforced with unsaturated polyester resin as bonding epoxy. The samples’ layers were fabricated with hand lay-up method. A theoretical study was carried out to calculate the mechanical properties of the composite material used in feet manufacturing, then experimental load-deflection test was applied at 0 degree position and 25 degree dorsiflexion feet position and impact test were applied for both feet designs to observe the behavior of the feet under static and impact loading and compare properties like stiffness, efficiency, rigidity, and shock absorption at different drop angles range from 25 degrees to 60 degrees which perform the foot positions while running. The load-deflection test result shows that the maximum deflection of the proposed design B was 32.2 mm at 0 and 38.45mm at 25. While it was 41mm at 0˚ and 39mm at 25˚ for design A. Impact test result shows that design B foot gives peak load of 128 .7 kg with a peak time of 0.06 sec, while design Afoot gives 125.32 kg peak load with a time of 0.069 sec.


Article
Numerical Simulation of Thermal-Hydrodynamic Behavior within Solar Air Collector
المحاكاة العددية للسلوك الحراري الهيدروديناميكي داخل مجمع الهواء الشمسي

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Abstract

Solar collectors, in general, are utilized to convert the solar energy into heat energy, where it is employed to generate electricity. The non-concentrating solar collector with a circular shape was adopted in the present study. Ambient air is heated under a translucent roof where buoyant air is drawn from outside periphery towards the collector center (tower base). The present study is aimed to predict and visualize the thermal-hydrodynamic behavior for airflow under inclined roof of the solar air collector, SAC. Three-dimensional of the SAC model using the re-normalization group, RNG, k−ε turbulence viscus model is simulated. The simulation was carried out by using ANSYS-FLUENT 14.5. The simulation results demonstrated that at same insolation; airflow, ground and air temperatures increase when the collector radius decreases towards the collector center. The ground temperature and air velocity increase, while airflow temperature decreases when the inclination angle increases from 0° to 20° due to changing in airflow movement. More decreasing in airflow temperature has been occurred when the inlet height increases from 0.1m to 0.25m. The simulation results were validated by comparing with the experimental data. In conclusions, the obtained results showed the capability of producing warm airflow to generate electricity in Baghdad city.


Article
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Inserted Twisted Tape inside Submerged Bundle Tubes on its Thermal Performance
التحقق عدديا لتأثيرات الشريط الملتوي المدخل داخل أنابيب الحزمة المغمورة على أدائها الحراري

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Abstract

Twisted tape insertion in smooth plain tube is one of types of passive methods that is used to enhance heat transfer. Swirl fluid flow inside tube and related heat transfer characteristics are very complex. ANSYS FLUENT (V 16.1) and ASPEN industrial program are used in analyzing this technique for enhancement heat transfer. A circular plain tube has length L=8534mm and 17 mm inner diameter with twisted tape has twist ratio of y = (H/D) = (150/17) =8.8 along with a plain tube were considered for this study. Eight Reynolds numbers (Re) of 784, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000 are used to analyze the response of thermal performance. Crude oil API 28 exit temperature, film heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number and overall enhancement ratio results are presented for both empty and inserted plain tube with comparison between the two cases. An increase of 0.76 to 2.36 overall enhancement is predicted with twist ratio 8.8 for Reynolds number 784 to 7000 respectively.


Article
Permeability Estimation by Using the Modified and Conventional FZI Methods
حساب النفاذية باستخدام طريقة FZI التقليدية والمطورة

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Abstract

There many methods for estimation of permeability. In this Paper, permeability has been estimated by two methods. The conventional and modified methods are used to calculate flow zone indicator (FZI). The hydraulic flow unit (HU) was identified by FZI technique. This technique is effective in predicting the permeability in un-cored intervals/wells. HU is related with FZI and rock quality index (RQI). All available cores from 7 wells (Su -4, Su -5, Su -7, Su -8, Su -9, Su -12, and Su -14) were used to be database for HU classification. The plot of probability cumulative of FZI is used. The plot of core-derived probability FZI for both modified and conventional method which indicates 4 Hu (A, B, C and D) for Nahr Umr formation based on the four straight lines. The permeability was calculated by two methods for comparison and choosing the best. The modified FZI method gives better results because the predicted permeability by this method demonstrates a coefficient of correlation (R2) higher than that of the conventional approach, where the value of R2 is 0.9645 of modified FZI method while 0.892 of the conventional approach. When plotting RQI versus ∅_z on a log-log scale, all core samples with similar FZI values will lie on a straight line with a unit slope. Other core samples that have different FZI values will lie on other parallel lines. All lines in (RQI and∅_z) plot of modified FZI method have unit slop and more parallel than these of the conventional approach. The plot of probability cumulative of FZIm is used to determine number of hydraulic flow unit for Nahr Umr formation. The plot of core-derived probability FZI for both modified and conventional method which indicates 4 Hus for Nahr Umr formation based on the four straight lines, these four straight lines of modified FZI method was more distinguished than these of the conventional approach.


Article
Anaerobic Co-digestion of Giant Reed for Biogas Recovery
الهضم المشترك اللاهوائي للقصب البري لاستخلاص الغاز الحيوي

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Abstract

This study investigated the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of giant reed (GR) inoculated with waste manure as a co-substrate for biogas production. The performance of co-digestion was evaluated in 4 anaerobic digesters operated in batch mode at different conditions. The effects of alkali pretreatment with NaOH (4% w/v) solution, inoculum type, and thermal condition were studied. The results demonstrated that the alkali-pretreatment of GR enhanced the biogas generation by about 15% at mesophilic conditions. Thermophilic conditions enhanced the biogas recovery from both alkali-free and alkali pretreated GR by 15% and 127%, respectively. The kinetic study of the co-digestion process of GR for biogas recovery suggested a significant agreement between measured and predicted values obtained by Modified Gompertz Model with correlation coefficients ≥ 0.98 indicating favorable conditions for the co-digestion of inoculated GR.


Article
Flexible Genetic Algorithm Based Optimal Power Flow of Power Systems
الخوارزمية الجينية المرنة المستخدمة في سريان القدرة المثالي في انظمة القدرة

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Nowadays, the power plant is changing the power industry from a centralized and vertically integrated form into regional, competitive and functionally separate units. This is done with the future aims of increasing efficiency by better management and better employment of existing equipment and lower price of electricity to all types of customers while retaining a reliable system. This research is aimed to solve the optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The OPF is used to minimize the total generations fuel cost function. Optimal power flow may be single objective or multi objective function. In this thesis, an attempt is made to minimize the objective function with keeping the voltages magnitudes of all load buses, real output power of each generator bus and reactive power of each generator bus within their limits. The proposed method in this thesis is the Flexible Continuous Genetic Algorithm or in other words the Flexible Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) using the efficient GA's operators such as Rank Assignment (Weighted) Roulette Wheel Selection, Blending Method Recombination operator and Mutation Operator as well as Multi-Objective Minimization technique (MOM). This method has been tested and checked on the IEEE 30 buses test system and implemented on the 35-bus Super Iraqi National Grid (SING) system (400 KV). The results of OPF problem using IEEE 30 buses typical system has been compared with other researches.


Article
Implementation of Power System Stabilizer Based on Conventional and Fuzzy Logic Controllers
تطبيق منظومة مثبت القدرة اعتمادا على النظام التقليدي والمسيطرات المنطقية المضببة

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Abstract

To damp the low-frequency oscillations which occurred due to the disturbances in the electrical power system, the generators are equipped with Power System Stabilizer (PSS) that provide supplementary feedback stabilizing signals. The low-frequency oscillations in power system are classified as local mode oscillations, intra-area mode oscillation, and interarea mode oscillations. A suitable PSS model was selected considering the low frequencies oscillation in the inter-area mode based on conventional PSS and Fuzzy Logic Controller. Two types of (FIS) Mamdani and suggeno were considered in this paper. The software of the methods was executed using MATLAB R2015a package.


Article
Risks of Design Stage in Iraqi Construction Project
مخاطر مرحلة التصميم في مشاريع التشييد العراقية

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Abstract

The management of construction projects needs to complete the basics of system management and work. Starting from the idea and how to turn it into a full study and ended at the construction project completion arriving at the purpose prepared for it, so the projects need to control on its operation and integration system in order to succeed. It is no secret for who concerned in construction projects field that the design stage is a very important stage in construction project because it determines the final features of the project through the requirements provided by the employer for the consultant to formulate it during this phase in the form of plans, drawings, and specifications, then translated on the ground as the shape of completed project meets those requirements. Therefore it has been necessary to focus in this paper on the design stage also demonstrated and analysis the most important risk facing this stage and their impact on a construction project by introducing a questionnaire to identify the most important risks factors at this stage affecting on the project. The paper had been shown that the effect of the design stage on Lump sum type of project contract was higher than the unit price, while the most important factor effect on a project its fast response of design team to prepare the design documents in order to facilitate the workflow and sequence of execution with effect level 3.714.


Article
Slab-beam Interaction in One-way Floor Systems
تداخل السقف-العتب في أنظمة الأرضيات باتجاه واحد

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Abstract

This study focuses on the slab-beam interaction in one-way systems. In the context of this study, slab-beam interaction means how beam deflection can affect moment distribution in one-way slabs. This interaction is usually neglected in the traditional approximate analysis that is adopted in engineering practice and design codes. Slab positive moments have been considered as indicators on the accuracy of approximate methods, as they overestimate negative moments while underestimating positive moments. After proposing of effecting parameters in slab-beam interaction including of panel length and width, beam dimensions, and slab thickness, Buckingham’s π theorem has been adopted to transform the dimensional-model into a non-dimensional qualitative one. Different case studies with finite element models have been adopted to generate points on the proposed qualitative non-dimensional model. Finally, linear regression analyses have been adopted to develop the corresponding quantitative models. Case studies and corresponding regression analysis indicate that non-dimensional parameters adopted in the model are related linearly with a correlation coefficient in the range of 0.97 and that an error up to 250% may be noted due to neglecting the slab-beam interaction. Therefore, a condition related to the relative stiffness of supporting beams should be added to the current conditions for the approximated methods to be more accurate and more compatible with those adopted in the analysis of two-way systems.


Article
Analysis of Double Skin Composite Slabs
تحليل البلاطات المركبة ذات غطائين

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Abstract

This paper deals with finite element modeling of the ultimate load behavior of double skin composite (DSC) slabs. In a DSC slab, shear connectors in the form of nut bolt technique studs are used to transfer shear between the outer skin made of steel plates and the concrete core. The current study is based on finite element analysis using ANSYS Version 11 APDL release computer program. Experimental programmes were carried out by the others, two simply supported DSC beams were tested until failure under a concentrated load applied at the center. These test specimens were analyzed by the finite element method and the analyses have shown that these slabs displayed a high degree of flexural characteristics, ultimate strength, and ductility. The close agreement has been observed between the finite element and experimental results for ultimate loads and load–deflection responses. The finite element model was thus found to be capable of predicting the behavior of DSC slabs accurately.


Article
Improvement of the Water Use Efficiency and Yield of Eggplant by Using Subsurface Water Retention Technology
تحسن كفاءة أستخدام المياه والانتاجية لنبات الباذنجان بأستخدام تقنية الأغشية الحافظة للماء تحت السطح

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Abstract

Sustainable crop production in a coarse soil texture is challenging due to high water permeability and low soil water holding capacity. In this paper, subsurface water retention technology (SWRT) through impermeable polyethylene membranes was placed at depth 35 cm below ground surface and within the root zone to evaluate and compare the impact of these membranes and control treatment (without using the membranes) on yield and water use efficiency of eggplant inside the greenhouse. The study was conducted in Al-Fahamah Township, Baghdad, Iraq during spring growing season 2017. Results demonstrated the yield and water use efficiencies were 3.483 kg/m2 and 5.653 kg/m3, respectively for SWRT treatment plot and 3.286 kg/m2 and 3.709 kg/m3, respectively for treatment without using SWRT. The increasing percentages for yield and water use efficiency were 6% and 52%, respectively. Additionally, saving in irrigation water in the SWRT membrane was about 44% of the total applied depth comparing with the control treatment.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminophosphate AlPO4-5 Molecular Sieve

Authors: Asir Alnaama
Pages: 161-175
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Abstract

Nanocrystalline aluminophosphate AlPO4-5 molecular sieves were synthesized by hydrothermal method (HTS). Synthesis parameters like time and temperature of crystallization were investigated. Type of template (R) and ratio of R/P2O5 were studied also. Characterization of the synthesized AlPO4-5 were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry analysis (DSC-TGA), and N2 adsorption-desorption BET analysis. XRD patterns results showed excellent crystallinity for two types of templates, di-n-propylamine (DPA) and tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) for alumminophosphate five (AFI) structure. Nano-level for particle size of 66 nm was revealed by AFM test. Good thermal stability was obtained in DSC-TGA results. Best time and temperature of crystallization of 24h and 190 O C were got. Optimum R/P2O5 for two kind of template was established.

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