Table of content

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES

مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية

ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

AlNhrain Journal for Engineering Sciences is a refereed scientific engineering journal published by the College of Engineering, Nahrain University two times per year. The journal publishes the scientific output of researchers from Iraq and abroad in the fields of architectural, chemical, civil, computer, electrical, information technology, laser and optoelectronics, mechanical and medical engineering as well as in related fields. Papers written in Arabic and English are accepted and they are subjected to proper evaluation and accordingly classified as follows:
• Original research papers and papers on novel design, analysis or construction methods of great value to the engineers which include basic and practical results.
• Short communications or short discussions on papers which have already appeared in the journal provided that whose text should not exceed 800 words.

The material of the paper should not violate any intellectual property right of any person or entity and should not contain any subject matter that contravenes any laws and should meet ethical standards applicable to the research discipline.

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Contact info

Editor-in-Chief
College of Engineering Journal
Al-Nahrain University
P.O. Box 64040 , Al-Jadyriah
Baghdad-Iraq.
e-mail: journal.engineering@nahrain-eng.org
jourengnah@gmail.com
Phone: +964 (0) 7817 202 662

Table of content: 2017 volume:20 issue:5

Article
Microstructure and Density Characterization for Nano and Micro Alumina-Aluminum Composites Produced by Powder Metallurgy Process

Authors: Abdulrahman Najim Abed --- Ban Ali Sabri
Pages: 1024-1033
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Abstract

Al2O3 is a major reinforcement in aluminum-based composites, which have been developing rapidly in recent years. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of alumina phases and amounts on the physical properties of fabricated Al-Al2O3 composite. Alpha micro and gamma nano of alumina with particle size of 30µm and 20 nm respectively reinforced aluminum matrix of 45 µm. The percentage of reinforcement material were in the range of (5, 10 and 15wt.%) fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. Specimens dimensions were a disc specimens with 11mm diameter and 5 mm thickness. The green density was achieved under compaction pressure of 500MPa, and then sintered under pressure less sintering at 500ºC in a vacuumed tube furnace for two hours Physical properties of the composite samples have been studied such as relative density, sintered density, porosity, microstructure characteristics, particles distribution, agglomeration, grain sizes and granularity accumulation distribution. It has been noticed that at the micro alumina phase, its relative densities are decreased when there is an increase in amount of micro alumina addition, on the contrary in case of nano composites, where the relative density are increasing along with the increase in nano alumina addition. At micro and nano composites, the produced relative densities are less than the pure aluminum relative density. Agglomeration are increasing with the increase in amount of reinforcement, while its more obvious with nano composite. Grain size reduced with the increase in amount of alumina in micro and nano composites, while, the obtained average grain size diameter is less in nano composite than in micro composites. It is obvious from the results that the variation in physical properties and microstructure of Al-Al2O3 composite are depends on both of alumina phases (size) and percentages. At 15wt.% of nano alumina higher relative density and lower porosity will be obtained.


Article
Porous Silicon Refractive Index Measurements with the Assistance of Two types of Lasers

Authors: Saad A. Mohammed Salih
Pages: 1034-1039
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Abstract

Porous Silicon (PSi) samples with (100) orientation n-type were prepared by photo-electrochemical etching process for different variable parameters and fixed electrolyte solution HF:C2H5OH:H2O (2:3:3). Physical and optical properties of PSi would be varied with the variation of process parameters such as current density, anodization time and laser wavelengths. Two types of 50 mW diode lasers were chosen, 473 nm Blue & 532 nm green at 20 mA/cm2 & 15 min etching time to assist the iodization process. The band gap of the fabricated layer has raised up to (2.9 eV) which is more than twice its original value for the c-Si (1.12 eV). Exploiting the obtained gap energy values, the refractive index of porous silicon layer was calculated depending upon Vandamme empirical relation. It was observed that the porosity is modifiable through etching conditions, which in turn makes refractive index also modifiable. Thus, the calculation depended on taking certain parameters as the current density and etching time in order to compare the effect of applying the two laser wavelengths. AFM was applied to observe the homogeneity and roughness of the PSi mono-layer. The results are in a very good agreement with the range of the refractive indices of PSi and the illumination with green laser gives a better conclusion to use in solar cells as a good absorber and a bad reflector.


Article
The Shear Behavior of Reinforced Concrete I – Beams With Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Luay M. Al-Shather --- Ahmed Ajel Ali --- Hayder Mahdi Abed
Pages: 1040-1046
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This research submits theoretical and experimental realization of shear behavior of RC I-beams with polypropylene fiber with different volume fraction of plastic fiber as additive. The enhance of the sustainability of structural elements through the development of its mechanical performance by adding new materials such as plastic raw materials has become more important in the current period , particularly I- beams that was used in the long spans structure to become more environmentally-friendly. Seven specimens were tested in this study and only the amount of fiber volume fraction was varied. Experimental results showed that the ultimate strengths are increased in range (4.4% to 35.27%) that of control IB-1 for the tested beams containing Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete (PPFRC) with varied amount percentage of fiber material. Crack arrest mechanism of polypropylene fibers, and compressive strength of concrete increased in range (7.42% to 29.3%) that of plain concrete, and improved the tensile response in range (8.36% to 92.7%) that of plain concrete, limited crack propagation. So, improved behavior was obtained. ANSYS 11, Finite Element models software are used to emulate two tested I-beams. 3D - nonlinear solid elements was utilized to model the concrete, while, the steel reinforcement was demonstrated by spar element. It was found that the general practices of the FE models demonstrated acceptable concurrence with perceptions and information from the experimental tests.


Article
SDN-Based Load Balancing Scheme for Fat-Tree Data Center Networks

Authors: Shavan Askar
Pages: 1047-1056
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— this paper proposes a new load balancing algorithm for data center networks by means of exploiting the characteristics of Software Defined Networks. Mininet was utilized as an emulation tool for the purpose of emulating and evaluating the proposed design, Miniedit was utilized as a GUI tool for the same purpose. In order to obtain a realistic environment to the data center network, Fat-Tree topology was utilized with the following parameters; 4 pods, 16 edge switches, 16 aggregation switches, 4 core switches, and 16 hosts. Different scenarios and traffic distributions were applied in order to cover as much possible cases of the real traffic. POX controller was chosen as an SDN controller. The suggested design showed outperformance when compared to the traditional scheme in term of throughput and loss rate for all the evaluated scenarios. The first scenario assumes joining of new hosts while in the second scenario; there was an increase in the demand of the already established connections. The proposed algorithm showed a loss free performance in the first scenarios, whereas, the traditional scheme presented 15% to 31% loss rate for the same scenario. In the second scenario, the proposed algorithm recorded up to 81% improvement in the loss rate when compared to the traditional scheme. Moreover, the proposed algorithm showed a superiority over the traditional scheme in term of throughput, where it maintained the throughput intact without any reduction in the first scenario in contrast to the traditional scheme that underwent from a considerable degradation in the throughput value. The traditional scheme underwent from an average throughput reduction of 5Mbps in the case of joining of new hosts (first scenario). In the second scenario, both schemes underwent from a throughput reduction, however, the proposed scheme always showed superiority over the traditional scheme, whereas, it recorded up to 16.6% improvement in the throughput average value.


Article
H_2-Optimal Control Synthesis using State Derivative Feedback

Authors: Hazem I. Ali
Pages: 1057-1063
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Abstract

In this paper, the derivation of H_2 optimal control using state derivative feedback to obtain a new control approach is presented. A control approach similar to linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is applied to find the optimal gain matrices that achieve the desired performance. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller can be shown using the uncertain and under-actuated overhead crane system. The results show that the proposed controller can robustly stabilize the system in the presence of system parameters uncertainty. Further, more desirable time response specifications can be obtained using state derivative feedback H_2 control in comparison to the state feedback H_2 control.


Article
Modeling Contractor’s Cash-in-Flow in Public School Building Projects in Karbala

Authors: Zeyad S. M. Khaled --- Gafel Kareem Aswed
Pages: 1064-1070
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Public school building projects in Karbala Province experiences payment problems due to improper cash-flow planning by both parties; contractors and clients. These payment problems lead to work stoppages and conflicts. This research aims at developing a suitable model to forecast the expected contractors’ cash-in-flow in public school building projects in Karbala based on historical data. Complete sets of interim payments of (33) out of (38) school building projects finished in the years (2007-2012) in Karbala were interpolated using seven different regression methods namely; Polynomial, Gompertz, Morgan-Morgan-Finney, Logistic, Exponential, Gaussian and Linear in order to identify the best-suited model. It is found that the third degree polynomial model is more suitable for cash-in-flow forecasting of the case under study with coefficient of correlation of (97.89%) and standard error of (0.0441). Data of the remaining (5) projects were used to test the validity of the best-fitted model using Mean Absolute Percentage Error, Root Mean Square Error and Average Accuracy Percentage. The model is expected to be of high advantage in predicting contractors’ cash-in-flow in public school building projects in Karbala, and consequently clients’ cash-out-flow as well.


Article
Effect of Using Internal Steel Plates for Shear Reinforcement on Flexural Behavior of Self-Compacting Concrete Beams

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Abstract

This research was conducted to investigate the effect of using internal steel plates for shear reinforcement on flexural behavior of SCC beams instead of using traditional reinforcement bars (stirrups) and to study the effect of their spacing and thickness on strength. The experimental work included destructive tests on six SCC beams under two-point load. The results showed that the yield loads in all of the beams with steel plates were lower than the reference beam by (5.21%) on average, the deflection at yield load was higher by (13.72%) on average and the ultimate loads were lower by (6.77%) on average except in one beam where it was higher by (0.37%). It was also found that the ultimate deflection in beams with internal shear steel plates was lower by (10.01%) on average except in the aforementioned beam where it was higher by (2.31%). Ductility in all beams with steel plates was lower by (20.08%) on average and the strain before a load of (200kN) was higher in the longitudinal reinforcement and lower in shear steel plates and vice versa after a load of (200kN). Theoretical analysis was also carried out for all beams using the finite element program ANSYS (version 15) where theoretical results of load versus mid-span deflection relations, longitudinal reinforcement strain, shear reinforcement strain, variations of neutral axis depths and cracks patterns showed good agreement with experimental ones. Finally, some specific further studies were recommended.


Article
Effects of Sand Density and Reinforcement on the Behavior of Buried Tunnel

Authors: Adel H. Majeed --- Layth K. Shannoon
Pages: 1083-1089
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This paper aim to study the effects of earth reinforcement on the stresses generated within a semicircular cross-section tunnel lining buried in sandy soil due to surface loading. The effect of position and number of reinforcement layers was studied. Also, the relative density of soil was investigated. The depth of soil above the tunnel crown was fixed to be three times the tunnel radius. Two relative densities for soil were used, 55.3% and 73.3%. One layer of reinforcement that was used located at distance equal to the radius or two times the radius above tunnel crown. Also, two layers of reinforcement were located at distance equal to radius and two times radius above the tunnel crown. The results show that the use of earth reinforcement will reduce the stresses generated in the tunnel lining due to application of surface loading.


Article
Kinematic Analysis of WMR Tracked by a Camera Vision System

Authors: Hasan M. Alwan --- Qasim A. Atiyah --- Hussein A. Hasan
Pages: 1090-1096
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This paper presents a study of a nonholonomic differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR) of the type (BOE-Bot). In this paper, two aims are presented: the first is the study of the WMR movement on a specific trajectories to get the desired goals positions and the second is the evaluation of the kinematic performance factor of the WMR movement. The kinematic model of the robot movement in terms of the robot wheels velocity is studied by making the robot to move on the desired trajectories. The determination of the actual robot centre position in two dimensions (X) and (Y) is done by tracking the movement of a red point located above the robot by using a fixed camera attached to the ceiling. The position error between the theoretical and actual WMR position vectors is studied and calculated in global and local coordinates' frames. The values of the position error percentage ratios when the robot moved on a (S-shape) trajectory were higher than its values when the robot moved on a (straight-line) trajectory because of the existence of a gyroscopic torque resulted from the WMR circular movement around an axis perpendicular to the axis of the WMR wheels rotation. Finally, the kinematic performance factor of the WMR movement is evaluated depending on the position error in the global coordinate.


Article
A Modified Reverse Engineering Approach Using Bezier Curve Approximation

Authors: Mustafa Saad Ayoob Al-Khazraji
Pages: 1097-1104
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Abstract

Reverse Engineering is a process of re-producing existing parts by obtaining digital models using a special data taken from the original parts using specific techniques. It can be used to redesign existing parts either due to lost data or the parts are no longer available. In this paper, surface modelling technique using special data taken from CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) was employed to redesign a candle holder. Specific MATLAB code was generated to model the data taken from the surface of a candle holder made of glass. Bezier curve technique was implemented in this research to model the curve of the outer surface of the candle holder. Various orders of Bezier curves were discussed and used to give better approximation of the original data curve with error percentage monitoring each time. The thickness of the candle holder was reduced from 5mm to 3mm and the volume reduction was calculated. The amount of reduction in the glass volume when reducing the thickness was found to be 210mm3. In addition, the amount of increase in the area of glass section was calculated to be 138.5mm2. This reduction gives a better vision of the amount of glass saved using this procedure. Two different shapes were found and plotted by varying the control points coordinates.


Article
Experimental and Numerical Stress Distribution of Molar Teeth with Different Type of Fillings

Authors: Bashar Owaid Bedaiwi --- Zaineb Wared Matab
Pages: 1105-1111
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The human body poses the most important aim for many researchers. In nowadays, the science complex required the involvement of many resources and the coordinated team work of doctors, engineers, and other from the specialists. In the case of dental medicine, due to the nature of teeth material, their dimension and geometrical position, very important problems, like cavities that led to tooth losses. In this study, both the Experimental methods as well as the numerical finite element method have been used to analyze the stress within human teeth under forces similar to those that usually occur during chewing process with different type of food in experimental work. It was manufactured a device Resembling chewing process with vertical movement by converting circular movement into reciprocating. And used DAQ system (strain gauge sensor, DAQ and LABVIEW program) to measure the stress and strain resulted from tooth during the mastication process. Models of Natural lower first molars teeth were collected. All the teeth were cleaned from the soft tissue and stored in saline at room temperature. The teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups according to the treated cavities shape (class I and class II) each class restored with two type of dental fillings material (Nanohybrid composite and Microhybrid composite), and then strain gauge was bonded at a buccal surface of tooth used. Their installed in acrylic jaws and applied different vertical loads. With used various morsels with different elastic modulus. The stress was calculated at the crown. In numerical 2D model of teeth were created by software Auto CAD (V.14) using wheeler 's data were transfer to ANSYS mechanical APDL (V. 16), subjected load at model similar at that applied at the Experimental work. Class I exhibited the highest stresses compared with class II, in two case Nanohybrid bear stress higher than microhybrid composite. At class I the stress at Nanohybrid is higher than Microhybrid for all morsels by rate (12.96%, 21.48%, 41.8%, 16.56%, 16.86% and 15.74%) at (E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6) respectively, and the stress at Nanohybrid is higher than Microhybrid by almost (36.67%, 45.69%, 47.89%, 34.21%, 41.2% and 165.01%) respectively at the same morsels used at class II.


Article
Tuneable Fiber Bragg Grating for Magnetic Field Sensor

Authors: Farah S. Al-Thahaby --- Anwaar A. Al-Dergazly
Pages: 1112-1123
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In this work, four fiber Bragg gratings are fabricated by infiltration different volumes of liquids (star line Glass Mechanix optical adhesive material, olive oil diluted with ethanol) into the hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC19-1550 (Thorlab Company)). The amplitude splitting interferometric technique with a high resolution specially designed translation stage was used for the fabrication process. This stage is capable of moving the fibers in micrometer resolution steps. The fabrication was carried out using blue laser operated at wavelength of 405 nm. The infiltrated four photonic crystal fibers were exposed to the blue laser beam of 405 nm forming periodic fringes for Bragg grating generation. These fringes were generated from the interference of two splitted laser beams. All fabricated fibers have the same Bragg length of 3.8 cm and average gratings periods of 0.224 μm. The four fibers were analyzed by an optical microscope which displayed the areas that were cured using blue laser. The fabricated fibers also were tested by putting laser beam at one end of the fiber and determining the transmittance at the other fiber end by optical signal analyzer (Thorlabs-CCS200). The resulted Bragg grating fibers have 653.3 nm Bragg reflected wavelength. The results also showed that fiber with higher volume of olive oil has the highest reflection peak about 96.09647 % with the greatest FWHM (full width at a half maximum) about 0.74 nm. In addition, three of the fabricated fibers (B, C and D) that contained olive oil were prepared for testing magnetic field sensor. The results show that all the fibers shifted to near infrared range. The results also showed that fiber with higher concentration of olive oil has the greatest magnetic wavelength shift about 653.4 nm, the highest fiber sensitivity about 0.000494623656 nm/ Gauss, the highest reflection peak about 96.91827 %, and the greatest FWHM about 0.98 nm.


Article
Estimation of Optimum Conditions for Cadmium Removal from Contaminated Soil using Electro-Kinetic Remediation

Authors: Ahmed Alaa Hussein
Pages: 1124-1129
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The aim of this laboratory study is to estimate the best initial pH of purging solution for cadmium clean-up from an artificially contaminated soil using electro-kinetic cell. An efficiency enhancement scheme was employed involving pH control and injection wells as a part of the investigative program. Seven tests were performed at different pH controlled in the anode, cathode and injection wells start from 2 to 8. Sandy loam soil was contaminated with cadmium concentration equal to 2000 mg/kg and an initial moisture content equal to 30%. The duration of remediation was seven days with a potential gradient of 1.2 V/cm. The experimental results showed that the best removal efficiency was 62.8% at pH=3.


Article
Design and Simulation of Hiding Message Encrypted using Pseudo Random Number and Sequential Encoding

Authors: Sabah A. Gitaffa
Pages: 1130-1134
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In this paper, a hiding encrypted message using pseudo random number generator and sequential encoding is proposed. This algorithm can provide better security of hiding information in image. The main emphasis in mine results will be on visual image quality and also the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) value which is a measure of quality of embedding. The results of statistical analyses like average difference, PSNR and MSE indicate high security and suitability of the proposed scheme. The obtained result shows the peak signal to noise ratio is 79dB. The programming language MATLAB is used for implementing the proposed algorithm.


Article
Study The effect of Microwave Furnace Heat Energy Effects On Mechanical Properties And Estimated Fatigue Life of AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6

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The research aims to make a comparison between two highly used aluminum alloy though studding the effects left by the microwave furnace wavelengths by (middle dry and amid aqueous solutions) on the mechanical properties and estimated fatigue life of highly resistant widely use aluminum alloy AA 7075-T6 and AA 2024-T3. Since the microwave effect differ from other heating methods through its effects (Heat Transfer) r heating methods effects on the surface of the alloy, which might change some of its properties as well as resistance to fatigue, also to see how this effect changes from alloy to another through this study. The results show some great effects on both mechanical properties and estimated fatigue life for both alloys but with different levels. This new technique is differing from other traditional heat treating ones that is simple, cheap and fast accurate method than the other techniques. There is a common misconception about the use of minerals in microwave ovens and the concept is unscientific and based on false grounds and simplest proof of that is that most of these ovens are built from the inside metal fully, how dangerous this is consistent? This research aims to focus on and remove those problematic and misconceptions.


Article
Evaluation of Combined Sewer Network Design Using GIs and Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM)

Authors: Zeena Adil Najeeb
Pages: 1143-1153
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In this Research Geometric network modeled for combined sewer network pipe design were establish for AL-Nahrain University site by Arc map and GIS tools which is built within a feature dataset in the geodatabase. The geometric networks consist of lines and points which refer to the pips and junctions respectively. Data were collected for manholes location, flow direction, slop and elevations. Many influencing features were used in multi criteria decision making (MCDM) vie Super decision 2.0.8 software which be selected to fix the problem and find the alternative for two sewer networks. The first sewer network (A) considered the existing one and the second was the alternative one (B) , Bentley sewer Cad V8 have the ability to work with ArcGIS program as a part of it by export data as shape file from GIS then by scenario report form program that exam the part of network and find the alternative . The purpose of this research was to use this data GIS model, and developed it in future event by predicting some function like rainfall amount or adding population increasing density represent by both student and employers. As a result using (ANP) analysis this method allow to make consideration alternative we found the network(A) need to add some routs depending in the amount of person daily consumption with the amount of rain fall Intensity for the next years., judgment based on expert advice is obtained through pair-wise comparisons. Afterwards, the corresponding matrix is established, and sanity of the comparisons is checked by super decision software. Finally Existing network (A) shows highest benefit score and efficiency in this time for steady case depends on two criteria coast and optimum flow for person consumption.


Article
Estimating Elastic Buckling Load for an Axially Loaded Column Bolted to a Simply Supported Plate using Energy Method

Authors: Mustafa Kamal Al-Kamal
Pages: 1154-1159
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This paper deals with the elastic stability of a column bolted at its mid-height to a simply supported square plate and subjected to a concentrated load, using energy method. A uniform homogeneous column is assumed to be pinned at both ends. From symmetry considerations, half of the column is modeled by making the plate acting as a torsion spring on the column at its mid-height. The column length and cross-section, plate dimensions and thickness, and the material properties for the column and the plate catch the interest of the author. The problem is solved by using energy method and ultimately, the elastic buckling load is found. The analytical elastic buckling load is compared with a numerical solution obtained from finite element method using SAP2000. The numerical results agree with the analytical solution. The finite element model is refined to catch the actual effect of the bolted plate on the elastic buckling load. It has been found that the elastic buckling load is increased due to the increase in the rotational stiffness provided from the plate.


Article
Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Vibration of a Drum Type Washing Machine at Different Speeds

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In the present work, theoretical and experimental Study of vibration of a drum type of Horizontal Washing Machine. The effect of the Isolators stiffness, damping coefficient and the drum mass for specific laundry capacity also has been studied. The work in this research has been carried out analytically by using MATLAB, and Study experimentally the effect of different speed and unbalance force during the spinning cycle of the washing machine at four sides of it. This analysis aims to reducing the excited vibration. This was achieved theoretically by investigate the effect of various parameters in order to assign property values to increase the isolation efficiency to reach optimum design. The results is show that drum vibration amplitude reduced to 42 % at spinning speed 1000 rpm and 41% at 1200, 1400 rpm when the applied selected parameters.


Article
Enhancement of Corrosion Resistance in Steam Turbines Blades Using Nanoparticles Coatings

Authors: Bashar Owaid Bedaiwi --- Abeer Kadhum Abd
Pages: 1172-1181
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Corrosion in turbine blades may be considered the most crucial problems in power plants. Corrosion may lead to unbalance masses in turbine blades and therefor serious vibration problems. In this study coating nanomaterials namely Al2O3 and TiO2 are used to resist the corrosion. Coatings consist of Al2O3 with 13 wt% TiO2 are generally used to improve the corrosion, erosion and wear resistance. Tests specimens were taken from the portion of turbine blades in Al-Doura station which located in the south of Baghdad. The specimens are divided into two groups, the first group without coating and the second group with nanoparticale coating including alumina (Al2O3) and (Al2O3-13 % wt TiO2), the coating applying by airbrush device using atomization technique with the aid of nitrogen 2 bar pressure . The properties of coated specimens have been investigated by SEM. The SEM showed that the deposition of nanoparticles on the surface of the samples was uniform and homogeneous. The thickness of coated layers was obtained using gravimetric method. Nano alumina with 13% wt of Titanum oxide coating gave the highest thickness 7.1 µm because of agglomeration of these particles comparing with other particales. Electrochemical properties was achieved by corrosion test at 90 ° for 20 min, the properties indicated that the corrosion resistance increased for coated specimens and these properties showed that the nano alumina with 13% wt of nano Titanium oxide was better than other coating and get a protection efficiency equal to 85.56%.


Article
Enhancement the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties for Pb-Sn-Sb Alloys by Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

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This study aims to enhance the compression strength in one type of Pb-Sn-Sb alloys which wellknown by (Babbitt-ASTM B23 Alloy 13). The ‎processing doing via equal channel angular extrusion technique. Three casting were implemented to ‎manufacture the alloy; Chill Casting (CC), New Rheocasting (NRC) and Gravity Die Casting (GDC). The ‎microscope examination shows that the microstructures contain two phases, α-Pb and cubic shaped ‎intermetallic compound (β-SbSn) in a matrix of ternary phases. CC was fine equiaxed as well as NRC, while ‎in GDC was a dendrite α-Pb phase with remaining β-SbSn phase as a cubic shape. Higher mechanical properties in compression were recorded for Gravity die casting (12.7 %) while the NRC registered the highest value in yield strength (11.7 %). On the other hand, the casting techniques had a slight difference in Young's modulus. The other resulted data like hardness showed that NRC is the first reading (12.55 %) and then gravity casting recorded as second score comparing with other (11.79 %), The results ‎showed aslo that increasing forming temperature during angular extrusion has an adverse effect on compression ‎strength. The study ‎concluded that microstructural change caused by ECAP softens the material due to the break-up the original ‎ precipitate and accelerate from the dynamic recrystallization.


Article
Efficient Approach for De-Speckling Medical Ultrasound Images Using Improved Adaptive Shock Filter

Authors: Anas F. Ahmed
Pages: 1192-1197
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The problem of filtering medical images is regarded one of the most important challenges that researchers are competing to solve it, where the filtered image helps to get the correct diagnosis of the diseases. This paper introduces an effective approach for filtering the medical ultrasound images. The main type of noise which corrupts the ultrasound images is the speckle noise. There are many methods for de-speckling this type of images addressed by the researchers including classical filters such as Weiner, Kuan, and Lee and adaptive filters such as shock filter. The performance of the proposed approach of this paper is compared with these filters using three performance evaluation metrics: "Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)", "Mean Square Error (MSE)", and "Universal Image Quality Index (UIQ)". The empirical results illustrate that the proposed approach outperforms better than the others in term of these evaluation criteria. The proposed approach at noise variance=0.5 achieved the following values: (PSNR=32.0847db, MSE= 0.0962, and UIQ= 0.9829).


Article
Towards an Efficient Electric Pole’s Material for Iraqi Electric Network

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The traditional electric poles in Iraq are usually made from steel materials. Such materials induced high weight, corrosion, permanent deformation caused by high wind speed, etc. The study aimed to numerically examine the strength of few poles made from different materials. The pole subjected to pressure developed by actual measured wind speed of 140 km/h. The numerical model of different materials and cross sections, an octagonal section electric pole made from composite material FRP–HDPE–FRP is suggested to replace the traditional one. The results showed high safety factor, approximately 5.51 besides the low ratio of high strength to weight as compared to steel materials. Using HDPE as reinforced material resulted in pole elastically deformed with only 0.222 mm. Therefore, it can be assumed that the suggested pole acts partially as a damper. Straight octagonal cross - section of pole promoted high reduction (74.22%) in maximum Von–Misses stress of that obtained in cylindrical three-stage pole. High reduction (5.87 times) in maximum deformation value was obtained when composite octagonal pole was used as compare to tapered pole made from steel.


Article
Intelligent Controller for Monitoring Vehicles at the Roads

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Many mobile applications use infrared (IR) and Ultrasonic sensors for distance measurements. In this paper, these two types of sensors have been used in building obstacle detection system and the attributes of each sensor has been tested, the system consists of transmitter and receiver circuit, furthermore, Arduino UNO card has been used for transmitting and receiving signal for each type of sensor based on the Arduino software. The test was performed through distributing these sensors on the road then analyze the reflected signal. Neural network trained and used for monitoring the street and producing the number of cars in each line of street and the total number of cars in the same street.


Article
Optimization of Nano Hydroxyapatite/chitosan Electrophoretic Deposition on 316L Stainless Steel Using Taguchi Design of Experiments

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The aim of this work is to determine the optimum parameters for deposition of chitosan and mixture of chitosan and hydroxyapatite (HA) layers using electrophoretic deposition. The layers were on 316L stainless steel substrate. Taguchi approach was utilized to select the optimum parameters for both layers. The parameters used for deposition chitosan are voltage, time and temperature while the parameters used for HA and chitosan are voltage, time, concentration and temperature. Zeta potential tests were employed to measure the solutions stability. Coating layers were characterized for thickness, porosity and nanoroughness using optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results from Taguchi design of experiments demonstrated that the best conditions for deposition of chitosan and HA layers are 50 V, 5 min, 3 g HA/L and 30C. The corresponding thickness, % porosity, nanoroughness and microroughness for optimum conditions were 22 µm, 3.53, 4.48 nm and 3.85 µm respectively.


Article
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Slot Groove Circular Tube with Internal Twisted Tape

Authors: Humam Kareem Jalghaf
Pages: 1228-1239
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Abstract

Numerical and experimental investigation on the turbulent enhancement convective heat transfer inside slot and plain dimples tubes with internal twisted tape were performed in this study. An experimental rig was constructed and instrumented to evaluate the heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop at this surface. Air was used as working fluid, and steam was used as a heating source where constant wall temperature condition of (135C˚) was achieved. Heat transfer and pressure drop data were obtained from four configuration tube. The test facility was capable for providing turbulent flow with Reynolds number varied from 4000 to 15000. Thermal and hydrodynamic flow pattern was numerically studied using commercial code FLUENT15. The average heat transfer of the experimental results was in good agreement with the numerical ones. The result depict that the slot dimple tube with twist tape and plain tube with twist tape give high enhancement in heat transfer relative to plain tube due to increase in area of heat transfer. The average enhancement ratio for slot dimple tube with (TR =4 and 8) are (1.204 and 1.202) respectively .This indicates that 15.5-20.4% of heat transfer area can be saved at the same pumping power for present cases configuration compared with the plain tube heat exchanger.

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Article
The Effect of Iraqi Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Addition to a Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels on Emission of an Industrial Furnace Burner

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Abstract

The emission sources have great effects on our environment. Further using of fossil fuels because of our needs for heating purposes and developments leads to raising the emission concentration in the air which caused to health risks to human society and its environment. This paper deals with using a different percentage of Iraqi liquefied petroleum gas from 10% to 25% with different percentage of Iraqi Gas-oil fuel from 90% to 75%, keeping the thermal load constant in order to indicate the possibility of reducing the pollutant emissions . A dual fuel burner and equivalence ratio range from 0.8 to 1.4 is used to study the emission concentrations based on these equivalence ratio. For further reducing in emission and heat recovery from the exhaust gases the cooling effect also investigated for water mass flow-rate from 12 kg/s to 48 kg/s roughly. The results showed that for further increasing equivalence ratio the UHC, CO, and Soot increased by about 3% and NOx, and CO2 decreased by 2.5% and this due to decreasing the oxygen ratio in the mixture and incomplete combustion occurred. Also for increasing percentage participating of LPG fuel as a secondary fuel, UHC, CO, and Soot decreased by 8%and NOx and CO2 increased slightly. With heat recovery process the concentration of UHC, CO, and Soot increased slightly while NOx, CO2 decreased by 1.5% because of decreasing of combustion chamber temperature.

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