Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552265X 25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Contact info

Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:1 issue:224

Article
The phenomenon of repetition and its technical implications in the
ظاهرة التكرار ودلالاتها الفنيّة في شعر الدكتور علي مجيد البديري

Authors: أ.م.د. رسول بلاوي
Pages: 1-16
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Abstract

The repetition is an artistic phenomenon that Arab poetry has known since ancient times. It has been accepted by the great poets to express their ideas and aspirations. It has different psychological and emotional connotations dictated by the nature of the context and is considered as a means of forming the internal music. The phenomenon of repetition of important and exciting phenomena in the poems of the Iraqi poet Ali Majeed al-Budairi. The repetition in his poetry added artistic beauty, richness and rhythmic rhythm, and brought him out of the surface to the elegance and artistic proficiency. He also contributed to creating an atmosphere that encourages the reader to enjoy and enjoy the text and keep him away from tiredness, boredom and stupidity. Al-Badairi used the phenomenon of repetition in its three types: the letter (sound), the word, and the phrase; and he was proficient in the use of repetition in his poetic experience that he is studying. In this research, the descriptive-analytic approach aims at exploring the expressionistic energies and the technical influences behind this remarkable stylistic phenomenon in his book entitled "Between the Clay and the Despair" published in 2012.


Article
Writing Apprehension And Performance Of Iraqi Efl Students According To Their Academic Locus Of Control Orientation
كتابة تخوف وأداء الطلاب العراقيين في إفل وفقا لموقعهم الأكاديمي من توجيه السيطرة

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Abstract

This study aims at investigating Iraqi EFL students' level of writing apprehension, writing performance, and locus of control orientation. It also seeks to find out the correlation between these three variables according to the academic locus of control orientation (internal and external). The instruments of the study are administered to (160) participants who are randomly selected from two departments of English in the University of Baghdad. The statistical manipulation of the data collected indicates that the participants show external orientation of academic locus of control, high level of writing apprehension, and low level of writing performance. The study also reveals that academic locus of control orientation (including both internal and external) does not correlate with writing apprehension, while, writing performance correlate negatively with external orientation of academic locus of control and positively with the internal orientation. Finally writing apprehension and writing performance are found to negatively correlate in both cases of academic locus of control orientation.


Article
Cause and Effect in the Legal Text: An Approach in the Languages of Text
السبب والمُسَبَّب في النص القانوني مقاربة في لسانيات النص

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Abstract

This study is an attempt to highlight the textual composition in the language of law register through an analytic vision of a basic binary that has played a vital role in the understanding the legal texts in terms of words and actions. This binary is the about 'the cause and the effect' and the intellectual framework in which linking points between law and linguistics are arranged within the structural linguistics, which was established on the concept of openness of linguistic layout.


Article
Factors roles in Communication and Effective Teaching for the Fourth Year students in Modern British and American Novel lesson classes and their Impacts on Students' Motivation.

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Abstract

Motivation was and still is the aim of each instructor in teaching. No matter what mood or psychological state both the instructor and the students undergo during lecturing, still there are crucial academic processes that improve the students' state and affect their process of motivation. Depending on certain pedagogical theories, modern experiences and techniques and applying them during lecturing,the researcher hypothesizes that certain factors are necessary for encouraging and keeping the students highly motivated. Such factors include, variety in the style of teaching, the ability of the instructor to comprehend and respond to each level in the class. Responding to the students' need concerning a suitable curriculum and presenting certain facilities like key words to motivate them and maintaining a good relationship between the instructor and the students by giving them chances to express their views especially when it is related to the cultural aspect of the British or American text and the students' own culture. Choosing modern approaches like new criticism, the reader-response theory, the analytical procedure and stylistic approach will be necessary to be applied on the modern novels. A questionnaire of twenty items are distributed among forty students of fourth year for two groups to observe the students' feedbacks and motivation. The aim of this research is to minimize the barriers of communication and create an effective atmosphere for teaching in the class. Another important aim is to realize the significance of literature through modern theories and techniques which reflect our life, specially Modern Novel.


Article
Quranic text in the speech of Hussein A study in the Light of Referential Pragmatics
النص القرآني في كلام الإمام الحسين (ع) دراسة في ضوء التداوليات الإشارية

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to find out the significance of the Qur'anic texts that were mentioned in the speech of Al-Hussein, the reason for their use, and why Hussein used these texts in a specific position. The research used the indicative transactions to study the texts from which the research consisted, in accordance with the purpose of the research, and the belief that the result of this study is neutral and scientific.


Article
Investigating Iraqi EFL Intermediate School Students’ Difficulties in Reading Literary Texts
استقصاء الصعوبات التي يواجهها طلبة المرحلة الاعدادية العراقيين من متحدثي اللغة الانكليزية لغة اجنبية في قراءة النصوص الادبية

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Abstract

The current study aims at identifying intermediate school students’ difficulties in reading literary texts from teacher’s viewpoints, and identifying and classifying intermediate school students’ difficulties in reading literary texts from students’ viewpoints. To achieve the aims, two samples were used, fifteen teachers and thirty students/forth preparatory, were used. The researchers constructed two types of questionnaires to determine the difficulties faced by intermediate school students from both teachers and students points of view. The items of the questionnaires have been collected on the basis of the related literature, interviews, the open ended questionnaire, the information found in the teacher's guide, previous studies which deal with teaching techniques and experts opinions. In the light of the results obtained, recommendations which are concerned with teachers and students are put forward.

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Article
Towards establishing a Major sociolinguistic Theory Interaction Between Content Interactions and Associative Affiliation
نحو تأسيس نظرية سوسيولسانية كبرى مقاربة بينية بين تجاذبات المحتوى وعقدية الانتماء

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Abstract

When sociolinguistic became the concern of linguists and sociologists alike, being a fertilized land for cultivation, the need became necessary to suggest a comprehensive sociolinguistic theory which deals with sociolinguistic research. Such theory should become a link between linguistics and sociology. The theory should sort out all the problems and phenomena which have been neglected by the theory. Such investigation resulted in many attempts in two dimensions: on one hand, understanding the sociological aspects of language, and on the other, understanding various linguistic aspects of society. Accordingly, many terms and concepts emerged into existence such as (macro and micro, sociolinguistics) which became centers of gravity within the area of sociolinguistics. Different aspects of sociolinguistic appear and increased in the lessons of the area. Such phenomena became more complicated with the development of the societies which later became a big impediment in suggesting a more comprehensive theory, characterized by stability according to necessity as the basic principles are unclear. The most obvious phenomena are language variation and linguistic disparity which cannot be recognized and differentiated clearly and became an area of misunderstanding regarding many sociolinguistic terms. Such terms have been neglected and have not been their due attention. Thus, their views and perspectives became vague, that is why the area requires a thorough investigation to identify many basic concepts in sociolinguistics.


Article
The Effect of Collaborative Reading on Iraqi EFL Intermediate School Pupils' Reading Comprehension
أثر القراءة الجماعية على القراءة الاستيعابية لطلبة المدارس المتوسطة لدارسي اللغة الانكليزية في العراق

Authors: م.م. رنا سالم عبيد
Pages: 53-66
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Abstract

The present study aims at investigating the effect of Collaborative Reading on Iraqi EFL Intermediate School Pupils' Reading Comprehension. To fulfill the purposes of this study, (60) second -class pupils are randomly chosen to be the sample of the present study. They are divided into experimental (30 ) and control group(30 ). During the experiment, the experimental group is taught reading collaboratively, while, the control group is taught conventionally. After conducting the post test, the findings indicate that there is significant difference in reading comprehension between the performance of the experimental and control groups the post – test. In other words, collaborative reading is found to have a positive effect on student' reading comprehension. On the basis of the results obtained, a set of recommendations is put forward.

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Article
The Use of Allusions in T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land
استخدام الاشارات في الارض اليباب ل تي اس اليوت

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Abstract

The research summarizes the use of allusions and tries to reveal the hidden meanings and reasons behind their use. It starts with T. S. Eliot’s frame of mind, through an example of advice to a follower. Moreover, it traces the development of his mind along his life. The following part is Eliot and his respect to tradition then how he stands on the shoulders of old writers to produce new ideas. Also myth and Eliot’s use of it in his poetry to represent, compare, contrast, and reconcile the past with the present. In the depth of the research stand allusions and their use in the “Waste Land”; the bits of the broken culture. The allusions divided into classical, biblical and literary according to the type of the reference of the allusion. In the end the conclusion gathers the findings of the reseach.


Article
The lexical and ideological pragmatics in Al-Sahifa Al-Sadiqiya
الدلالة المعجمية و الإيديولوجية في الصحيفة الصادقية

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In this study, we tried to investigate the lexical and ideological pragmatics such as the use of derivative and sensual utterances, common and standard utterances, and synonyms in enchanting verses. In every section of this study we listed Imam’s sayings concerning the topic of the research because any literary text has an ideological dimension that represent the cognition and trend of the author and his expectations of reality. Imam Sadiq (P) cared about selecting his words. For instance, we see many sensation phrases in a verse in which he asked to push the enemy’s evil, however we see cognitive content. Derivative utterances overcome sensation ones because the subject of the verse is the relationship between Imam and God. We did not find any defect in Al-Sahifa Al-Sadiqiya because Ahl Ul Bait are the origin of eloquence. imam Sadiq (P) said: analyze our sayings because we are eloquent people. Imam Sadiq (P) did not use common words that might take out the eloquence. Concerning synonyms, Imam emphasized synonyms and their meanings, which is why we see in all parts of Imam’s Verses the word “forgiveness” and its derivations. Devine forgiveness is ignoring sins and their traces. Word selection in Imam Sadiq (P) speech coincides with the content of the verses. We benefited from this stylistic linguistic analysis and from its linguistic dimension that analyzes relations between linguistic levels of the text.


Article
Time Travel in Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse- Five
التنقل بالزمن في رواية فونجنت مجزر رقم5

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Abstract

For many years, time travel was the stuff of science fiction. This was all just part of the world's imagination until recently. Science authors, among them, Kurt Vonnegut (1922-2007) post-modern American writer, believe that one can travel through time forward or backward asking his memories and stream of consciousness to give sensory impressions of his thoughts and actions, that what Billy did in Vonnegut's Slaughter house- Five (1969). The protagonist Billy Pilgrim finds himself "unstuck in time" jumping between several periods of his life. Travelling between his experiences as a prisoner of war in World War II to his family life in 1950s, and 1960s and his time on Tralfmadorian Planet, Billy has the freedom and ability to travel; he has no control over these transitions. The present study falls into three sections plus a conclusion. The first section deals with the concept of time travel in literature and fiction. Section two presents historical and literary context to Vonnegut's novel. The treatment of time travel concept will be discussed in the third section. Then, the conclusions which sum up the findings of the research.


Article
The Spousal Abuse of Women in Susan Glaspell’s Trifles
إساءة معاملة الزوج للمرأة في مسرحية سوزان كلاسبل تفاهات

Authors: م.م. شيرين كمال احمد
Pages: 101-118
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Abstract

This research plans to focus on the spousal abuse of women in Susan Glaspell’s Trifles. Susan Glaspell (1876-1948) is one of the remarkable American female playwrights whose main literary concern is focusing on women issues. The drama of Trifles is considered her master piece in which she sympathises with the American abused women and speaks up for them. American woman is still suffering from spousal abuse but in the early 20thcentury this problem was ignored, excused or denied because women did not have their legal rights and were treated as being inferior than men. The system then gave men the authority over women in all aspects of society even at home. When speaking about abused women, critics’ main concern is the physical effects of the abuse ignoring other types of the spousal abuse, their impacts and consequences. Through her realistic drama of Trifles, Glaspell exposes different types of spousal abuse which are important as the physical onesince they have bad impact on the victims. This research will analysethe types of spousal abuse in Susan Glaspell’s Trifles, their impact and consequences.


Article
Time in the pioneers’ poetry Poetics of narrative time in the pioneers’ poetry
الزمن في شعر الرواد " شعرية الزمن السردي في شعر الرواد "

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Abstract

The research tries to investigate the poetics of time because of the current dispute in determining the poetics of time in poetry. It is a complex concept due to its connection with various fields and sides of life. Furthermore, it is a moral concept which has mental dimensions because it is related to the creative process. It is well known that every poet has his own concept concerning time because there are no fixed criteria to decide time poetics. Every time era has its own poetry and every environment has its own unique poetry. Furthermore, every poem differs for the single poet. However, poetics in poetry keeps its aspect as a relative concept based on the critical and literary visions. Some poets are familiar with this concept via its “physical” time origin, others from its psychological, pragmatic, and narrative structure. Saying that, we tried to choose the title of the study carefully to be “Poetics of narrative time in the pioneers’ poetry”. Moreover, we tried to limit the study to the pioneers of modern poetry because they are from one generation and they share many points in their concepts of poetry and its novelty frames. Every generation has its own time scope characterized by religious, social, cultural, and political relations; which is why we selected the pioneers’ poetry because it limits the frame of this study. Then, we specified the effective way in investigating the topic by a descriptive interpretive analytical approach based on comparisons. This approach recognizes the development of poetry and its narrative structural meaning in the poem. It aims at discovering the time transformations and the scenes movement accompanied..


Article
The Effect of the Learning Targets on Assessment Tasks
تأثير أهداف الدرس على مهام التقويم

Authors: كوثر حميد فاضل
Pages: 119-146
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Abstract

Before starting teaching, teachers must establish the needs of the learners and this could be done best by determining or recognizing the learning targets which should be clearly stated and there should be matching between the learning targets and the assessment tasks. Learning targets are the interim academic goals that teachers establish for students who are working toward meeting more comprehensive learning standards. Despite the importance of the learning targets in leaning and teaching in general and for assessemnet tasks in particular , most teachers donot realize this or ignore it or may be donot know how to write learning targets and matching them with the assessment tasks. This study is an attempt to present a framework for understanding the importance of learning targets where they play an integral role in teaching and learning and in assessment tasks .The study also tries to draw the intention to an important view which is involving students by sharing them the learning targets and self assessment. Consequently ,the major aims of this study are to : 1.explore the effect of learning targets on assessment tasks and to 2. present a model of writibg learning targets according to Bloom’s cognitive domain and machibg them with the assessment tasks. In order to achieve the aims of the study , the following procedures are going to be followed : 1.carry out theoretical review related to learning targets and assessment ,providing satisfactory definitions and identifying types and the importance of them , 2.survey the most prominent taxonomies for educational targets , 3.investigate the effect of learning targets on assessment tasks, 4.apply Bloom’s taxonomy to write a model of matching learning targets with the assessment tasks. It is hoped that this study will be beneficial to EFL teachers of English language since it deals with two important points that affect the process of learning and teaching :the leaning targets and assessment which fall under applied linguistics.


Article
The Woman as a Marginal Entity A Cultural Criticism in the History of the Masculine Interpretation of the Value of Woman until the Onset of Islam
المرأة هامشاً نقد ثقافي في تاريخ التأويل الذكوري لقيمة المرأة حتى مطلع الإسلام

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Sacredness and beauty were the strongest weapons used by cultures to pass on their ideas concerning the female body. Culture is not a bias blog and it is not an inanimate power. Culture is power. When the first generation could not find scientific justifications to women’s biological differences, they depended on magical means. The problem with this issue and other first cultural experiences is the construction of sunken samples of human consciousness, which blocked the truth. Thinking from scratch is impossible, because conscious self is a historical self as Gadamer thought. Cultural researchers have to ride the time rail of Woman’s train of values to see the pictures of Woman’s frame. That is why we divided our pauses at feminine picture to main situations, which are: the woman in ancient Iraq, the first civilization where Man urbanized, then the research moves to cultural placement of the woman in Greek civilization, which paid attention to philosophy and knowledge, explaining how they connotated with the cultural line. Then the study investigated women in relation to Judaism as a transformer of previous priesthood that affected the upcoming religious values. The study focused on Woman and sexual discourse. It recognized three connected levels: sex, sexuality, and sexual discourse, in order to know how to transfer power to her desires throughout beauty/religious texts. Then we moved to investigate women in relation to the development of religiosity in the Christian Code to find that its interiority was further strengthened in Christianity. The Church considered women secondarily based on the “general order” of the universe. We concluded the research by specifying perfect women who appeared in the cultural milieu. Their appearance at first glance refers to the idea that women are not marginal, but are founders as men are. This fact led to discovering the cultural misfortune that works to reduce the value of women / reality. Full women were constituted by giving away their feminism. This completion was another trick used by culture to model the woman / reality inferiority because the woman is the owner of a body that does not rise to the status of the completed bodies, those bodies that have been sanctified by the desecration of feminine bodies.


Article
Irak Örneğinde İnternet İletişim Araci Whatsapp'ta Halk Edebiyati Ürünleri Üzerine Bir İnceleme

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Abstract

Günümüzde internet ve internetin iletişim araçları çağımızda vazgeçilmez hâle gelmiştir. İletişim araçları sayesinde dünya artık küçük bir köy konumuna dönüşmüş ve farklı kıtalardaki ülkelerde yaşanan gelişmeler insanlar tarafından anında paylaşılır ve takip edilebilir duruma gelmiştir. Teknolojinin geliştirdiği bu araçlar sayesinde değişik etnik gruplara mensup ve farklı dilleri konuşan insanlar arasında hızlı ve oldukça aktif bir kültür etkileşimi yaşanmaktadır. İki farkı kıtada yaşayan insanlar canlı olarak görüntülü ve sesli sohbet kurabilmekte ve birbirlerine mesaj gönderebilmektedir. Dünyanın muhtelif yerlerinde yaşanan olaylarla ilgili haberler ve gelişmeler anında paylaşılır ve çok geniş kitlelere ulaştırılır. Söz konusu internet iletişim araçlarının başında Facebook, Viber, WhatsApp, Instagram, Twitter, Skype, Tango gelmektedir. Irak coğrafyasında en fazla Facebook ve daha sonra Whatsapp, Viber, Instagram'in kullanıldığı söylenebilir. Bu iletişim araçlarında siyasi, sosyal, kültür, edebiyat, sanat vb. konularla ilgili farklı ve rengarenk paylaşımlar yapılmaktadır. Bu paylaşımlar arasında halk edebiyatı ürünleri de yer almaktadır. Dolayısıyla halk edebiyatının geleneksel ortamı yanında modern bir elektronik ortamı oluşmuştur Bu çalışmada iletişim aracı WhatsApp’ta yer alan halk edebiyatı ürünleri ele alınarak tespit ve tasnif edilmiş ve incelenmiştir.


Article
تعدّد الأصوات ومنطق الحواريّة التّناصيّة في رواية ملوك الرمال للكاتب العراقي علي بدر

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Abstract

میخائیل باختین در پاره¬ای از انگاره¬های نظری خود در باب متن ادبی، «گفتگومداری» را به مثابه¬ی «هم¬کنشی متون»، مهم¬ترین ویژگی متن دانست و «چندصدایی» گفتمان را به عنوان مؤلفه¬ای نوین در رمان مطرح کرد. از آن پس، بسیاری از اندیشمندان و نظریه¬پردازان مطالعات ادبی و فرهنگی، نظیر ژنت و کریستوا به گسترش و تقریر این مبحث پرداختند و صورت¬بندی¬های مختلف و گاه پیچیده-ای از آن را ارایه کردند. به هر روی امروز می¬توان بُعد «بینامتنی» را در فصل مشترک پایداری میان تعابیر و تفاسیر متفاوت از گفتگومداری باختین، بینامتنی کریستوا و ترامتنی ژنت به حساب آورد و با تکیه بر این نظریات، تبیینی جامع¬نگر از مفاهیم «گفت¬وگومداری بینامتنی» و «چندصدایی» در یک متن ارایه داد. این تحقیق با روش تحلیلی- توصیفی، تلاشی است برای تبیین چندصدایی و منطق گفتگومداری بینامتنی رمان «ملوک الرمال» از نویسنده¬ی عراقی علی بدر که با تکیه بر دیدگاه¬ها¬ی میخائیل باختین و ژرار ژنت صورت می¬پذیرد. یافته¬های این تحقیق نشان می¬دهد که تلفیق ژانرها و مکاتب ادبی و تعدّد راوی¬ها، داستان را به سوی مفهوم گفتگومندی بینامتنی و چند صدایی سوق می¬دهد و وجود این ویژگی¬ها، در مجموع ویژگی¬های ممتاز ساختار سبکی رمان را نشان می¬دهد.

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Article
Colonialism Revisited: Reading in Selected Poems of the Nineteenth Century

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This paper will try to discover and discuss the colonial contentsof some of the nineteenth-century British poets. At that time, the colonial ideology and impetus were increasingly elevated and demanded as the British Empire notably expanded and significantly flourished. Colonialism was among the main aspects in the British political and social life. Literary figures and scholars dealt with thisnewly-born phenomenon differently; some welcomed and adhered it, while others showed some doubts and suspicion. There was no unified thread about the colonial project the Europeans held. Did exist there a kind of consensus? Or was there a sense of ambivalence about it? This paper is going to address these issues and attempt to reach at some plausible answers and results. To do this, the paper will analyze a group of poems by William Blake, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, and Rudyard Kipling.


Article
The Recognition of Misrecognition: Identity Formation in Austen’s Northanger Abbey and Dickens’ Bleak House
الاعتراف بعدم الاعتراف تشكيل الهوية في دير نورثانجر في أوستن و ديكنز 'البيت بليك

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This research paper argues that the conditions of identity formation in both Northanger Abbey and Bleak House are determined by the dialogue between the misrecognition and recognition of certain objects, events, and characters. The paper also answers questions like what is the identity of the individual and how can it be integrated into the identity of a group of people? What is negative and positive identity?

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