Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:58 issue:1B

Article
Assessment of ISNAG fluorimeter (Total fluorescence measurements at+ 90° & - 90° using four solar cell on each side for 100mm distance at 2mm path length) with well-known fluorescent molecules via CFIA
تقييم مقياس الفلورة ISNAG (القياس للفلورة الكليةعلى +90° و -90°بإستخدام اربعة خلايا شمسية على كل جانب لمسافة100mm وبمسار تشعيع 2mm) مع جزيئات الفلورة المعروفة عن طريق تقنية الحقن الجرياني المستمر

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Abstract

Two well-known fluorescent molecules: fluorescein sodium salt (FSS) and 2,7-dichloro fluorescein (DCF) were tried to prove the efficiency, trustability and repeatability of ISNAG fluorimeter by using discrete and continuous flow injection analysis modes.A linear range of 0.002-1 mmol/L for FSS and 0.003-0.7 mmol/L was for DCF, with LOD 0.0018 mmol/L and 0.002 mmol/L for FSS and DCF respectively, were obtained for discrete mode of analysis. While the continuous mode gave a linear range of 0.002-0.7 mmol/L and 0.003-0.5 mmol/L for FSS and DCF respectively, the LOD were 0.0016mmol/L and 0.0018 mmol/L for FSS and DCF respectively. The results were compared with classical method at variable λex for both fluorescent molecules at 95% confidence level. The comparison data shows that ISNAG fluorimeter is the choice with excellent extended detection and a wider applicability.


Article
Effects of RVLM Stimulation on Blood Pressure and Vasopressin-Like Levels in Brain Sites and Plasma are an Anesthetic Dependent.
تاثيرات تحفيز منطقة RVLM/C1 على ضغط الدم ومستويات الفاسوبريسين في بلازما الدم ومناطق مختلفة في الدماغ تتأثر بنوع المخدر

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Abstract

The study is sought to determine specific alteration in AVP-LI level of plasma and sites of the hypothalamic-neurohypophysial-system; supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), neurointermediate lobe (NIL), and median eminence (ME), related to effects of stress of different anesthetics and electrical stimulation of RVLM area. Urethane or halothane anesthetized Wistar rats were subjected to intra-RVLM electrical stimulation of 10 sec train, 1msec pulse duration at 40 Hz, and 2V every 30s. After 30min stimulation, AVP-LI extracted from plasma, NIL, ME, SON, and PVN and measured by RIA, were compared with that of sham-stimulated urethane- or halothane-anesthetized rats and unstimulated unanesthetized control rats. Data were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. and analyzed using as appropriate Student's paired or unpaired t-test, and one way ANOVA. The results demonstrates presence of differential effects of the used anesthetics on resting BP, and increased BP to RVLM-stimulation, as well as a differential reduction in AVP-LI level which is significant (p<0.05) with urethane in SON NIL, ME, and blood plasma, but not in PVN, which is in contrast to urethane was significant with halothane, suggest a central role for halothane on release of PVN-AVP vs. role for urethane on the release of AVP at the level of hypothalamic-neurohypophysial-system. However, stimulation of RVLM abolished the regional specificity of anesthetics on SON vs PVN-AVP levels, indicated neither anesthetic prevented the central mechanisms involved in the response of AVP neurons to RVLM stimulation. In conclusion, halothane is preferred for examining the effects of RVLM-stimulation on AVP changes, whereas in term of their effects on the pressor response to stimulation of the RVLM area, urethane appears preferable.

Keywords

RVLM/C1 --- AVP --- urethane --- halothane --- plasma --- NIL --- ME --- SON --- PVN


Article
Alcoholic extract effect of Withania somnifera roots on cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in male rabbits
تاثير المستخلص الكحولي لجذور نبات الوذنية (Withania somnifera) ضد فرط الدهون المستحدث بوساطة الكوليسترول في ذكور الارانب

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Abstract

The current study was used 20 male rabbits that divided into four groups (consist of five rabbits in each group), The first group was considered as control and fed normal diet and given tap water, The second group was consisted of rabbits that fed on high cholesterol diet for six weeks, The third group was consisted of rabbits that fed on high cholesterol diet and 50mg root extract for six weeks, The forth group was consisted of rabbits that fed on high cholesterol diet and 100mg root extract for six weeks. The male rabbits that feeding on high cholesterol diet showed significant increased (P < 0.05) the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, MDA and HMG-CoA reductase while HDL and GSH levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with to control group. It was concluded from this study that root extract has amply good effective role on hyperlipidemia of male rabbits.


Article
Effect of maternal exposure of silver nanoparticles on the histogenesis of cerebellum in post-implantation of albino rats embryos
تاثير تعرض الامهات لدقائق الفضة المتناهية الصغر في التكوين النسجي للمخيخ بعد انغراز اجنة الجرذان البيض

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Abstract

The central nervous system is the most important system and is very sensitive to any accidental infection during ontogenesis; it includes brain and spinal cord. The cerebellum is the second largest part of the brain after cerebrum and it’s very sensitive to the abnormal changes during the embryological development. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the maternal exposure of selected concentrations of suspension of nanoparticles on the ontogenesis of the rat cerebellum after embryos implanted in uterus. A total of 60 female pregnant rats were divided in to three groups, each contains 20 females. Group1 (G1) was treated orally with 2mg/kg /body weight (b. wt) of suspension of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). While group 2 (G2) was treated with 20mg/kg/b. wt of AgNPs after implantation from 7th day of pregnancy until delivery at day 21st, for 15 day. And group3 (G3) was considered as control whose received Distal water (D.W) only. We had selected the following embryonic day for treatment (ED12, 15, 18 and 21). The histological results showed a defect in the ontogenesis of the cerebellum cortex layers of embryos, through lack of density of external granular layer, as well as degeneration and dispersion of the glial cells in the internal granular layer of cerebellar cortex, in addition to less distribution of cells in the molecular layer due to the ability of AgNPs to pas the placenta and blood brain barrier (BBB) to the embryo’s brain after female exposure to the AgNPs during pregnancy. AgNPs at low concentration 2mg/kg/day and higher concentration 20mg/kg/day can produce many histological toxicity to the embryo’s hindbrain and cerebellum when administrated to the dams during pregnancy period.


Article
Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat selectedegenotypese and local varieties for saltetolerance by usingeRAPD and ISSR analysis
تقدير التباين الوراثي بين التراكيب الوراثية المنتخبة والاصناف المحلية لصفة تحمل الملوحة باستخدام تحاليل RAPD و ISSR

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Abstract

Three genotypes of wheat developede for saltetoleranceethroughe plant breeding program and two local cultivars were screened for genetic variation under salinity conditions through RAPD and ISSR markers. Eight selected primers (OP1-06, OPE-16, OPN-07, OPO-17, OPD-20, OPL-05, OPI-01 and OPJ-13) were used in randomeamplifiede polymorphic eDNA (RAPD-PCR reaction) and three selected primers (UBC 809, UBC 810 and UBC 811) were used in ISSR markers. According to the results of the amplification and ISSR markers, the genetic distance and dendogram illustratedegeneticefingerprint and relationshipsebetweeneselected genotypes and local cultivars were determinant. Results revealed that there are genetics differences between the selected genotypes and the local cultivars in some specific segment at different size (bp) with all primers which used in this study, except the result of the primer (OPE-16) showed that there are no bands appeared in all selected genotypes and local cultivars. Other results of RAPD markers showed that there are differences among the selected genotypes in their banding patterns only with primers (OP1-06, OPN-07 and OPO-17) at different size. The results of ISSR markers showed differences that there are also differences between the selected genotypes and local cultivars in specific segment with the three primers which used, the selected genotypes were similar in banding patterns with UBC 809 and UBC 811primers. Genetically, the results showed that all the selected genotypes and local cultivars differed in their genetic distance, variations among the selected genotypes in their genetic distance. In conclusion the selected genotypes (salt tolerant) genetically differed from the local cultivars (salt sensitive).


Article
Energy Band Diagram of NiO: Lu2 O3/n-Si heterojunction
NiO: Lu2 O3/Si مخطط حزم الطاقة للمفرق المتباين

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Abstract

Crystalline NiO and doped with rare earth lutetium oxide (Lu2O3) at (6%wt)., have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), The Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam was incident at an angle of 45° on the target surface, and the energy of the laser was 500 mJ, wavelengths of 532nm, and frequency 6Hz. XRD pattern shows all doped and undoped films are polycrystalline, and cubic structure. The 200nm thin NiO showed an average optical energy band gap of 3.4eV, and increase with doping at 6% Lu2O3. The Hall Effect measurements confirmed that holes were predominant charges in the conduction process (i.e p-type). D.C conductivity measurements with temp-erature (T), show that the films prepared have the two activation energy increase with doping of Lu2O3. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were performed for films prepared, where the built in voltage has been determined and decreases in value when doping with the rare earth. In this study we assumed an energy band diagram for p-NiO /n-Si heterojunction.


Article
Polymer optical fiber sensor side-pumped with polymer clad doped lasing compounds
متحسسات الالياف البصرية بالضخ الجانبي ذات اغلفة بوليمرية مطعمة بصبغات ليزرية

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Abstract

Optical fibers were produced by the system manufactured for this purpose and then, PMMA core of polymer optical fiber (POF) and PMMA doped Rhodamine B (RhB) claddings were studied and determine their UV–vis absorption and emission. The study adopted the mechanism of lateral pumping of the product polymer optical fiber by using laser with 404 nm excitation to study optical specifications of the factory fiber. It was noted that there were blue shift in maximum peak wavelength in absorption and fluorescence from the doped polymer before use it as clad. The obtained results by using the doping polymer with (RhB) for clad the amplified spontaneous emission ASE seems in fluorescence study. The side excitation shows that there were no an overlap between the excitation laser source and the RhB molecule fluorescence. The results indicate that POF can be a strong candidate for the development of optical fiber sensors.

Keywords

Optical fiber --- PMMA --- POFs --- RhB


Article
Linear Optical Properties of Bromocresol Green Dye Doped Poly Methyl Methacrylate Thin Films
الخواص البصرية الخطية لاغشية بولي مثيل ميثاكرلايت المطعمة بصبغة بروموكريسول الخضراء

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Abstract

In this study, we investigated the effect of Bromocresol green dye (BCG) of the PMMA thin films optical properties. Films of Poly Methyl Methacrylate doped by 10% BCG doping ratio to prepared two concentrations 2x10-4 and 6x10-4 M of PMMA-BCG dye were deposited on glass substrate using free casting method at room temperature. The optical properties of the films were determined using UV-Visible absorbance and transmittance spectra at the 300 - 900 nm wavelength range. The linear absorption coefficient and the extinction coefficient were calculated. The results showed that the optical properties were increasing by increasing the dye concentration, while the optical energy gap was decreasing with the doping. Also from the linear optical properties result the PMMA-BGC thin films are a promised materials for nonlinear optics applications.


Article
Measurement of the radioactivity in raw materials used in the ceramic industry in AL-Ramadi ceramic factory using (HPGe) detector
قياس النشاط الاشعاعي في المواد الاولية المستخدمة في صناعة السيراميك في معمل سيراميك الرمادي باستخدام كاشف ((HPGe

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Abstract

In this research, we have measured specific activity concentrations in five samples for raw materials used in ceramic industry in AL-Ramadi ceramic factory by using (HPGe) detector. The results have shown that, the average specific activity, for 238U, 232Th and 40K are equal to (18.300±6.4 Bq/kg), (17.988±6.1 Bq/kg), (167.952±63.5 Bq/kg), respectively. In order to assess the radiological hazards of the radioactivity in samples, radium equivalent activity, absorbed gamma dose rate, indoor and outdoor annual effective dose rates, gamma Index and both (external and internal) hazard effects have been calculated. All results were found to be less than the allowed global limit given by (UNSCEAR, 2000).


Article
Integration Study of a New Gravity and Seismic Survey along NE- SW Profilein Al- Najaf Desert
دراسة متكاملة لمسح جذبي و زلزالي على طول مقطع ممتد بإتجاه شمال شرق – جنوب غرب في صحراء النجف

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Abstract

A new gravity and seismic survey along a profile length (70 Km) carried out at the area of exploration Block- 11 in Al- Najaf desert, southwest Iraq. The obtained gravity and seismic value compared with the previous available data that achieved by IPC and OEC for gravity and seismic data respectively. The difference between the new gravity profile and the old one is mainly in small anomaly not more than (14 %) that related to shallow depth levels and presents through power spectrum analysis. Previously, Ghulaissan-1 well which drilled in (1960) depend on a positive gravity and magnetic anomaly interpret, which is considered as an anticline structure in sub surface. It did not indicate any hydrocarbon shows after drilling, the integration study shows, that the positive anomaly appear in gravity record may be results from extension of presence thick Ophiolites and syn- tectonic gabbro.


Article
Development of Ratawi Oil Field, Southern Iraq
تطور حقل رطاوي النفطي في جنوبي العراق

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Abstract

Ratawi Field is a promising hydrocarbon bearing structure conforming several reservoirs, and lies northwest of the Basrah city and west of Northern Rumaila Field. Kinetic Analysis referred to that the type of Fold of Ratawi Structure similar to the types which are associated with Salt Structure activity.Geophysical Interpretation referred to the presence of Salt Structure beneath Ratawi Structure. The Isopach Maps shows that the crest thickness is less than the limbs, this characteristics is always due to those of salt structures beneath Ratawi field. Both of Tectonic Movement and Salt Structure play a great role in forming and development of Ratawi Structure.


Article
Evaluate the climatic conditions for the Karbala
Climatic conditions, Classification of Climate, Water balance, Water surplus, Karbala area.

Authors: Qusai .Y. Al-Kubaisi --- Munaf. K. Aziz
Pages: 337-348
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Abstract

This study includes determining the climatic conditions and the nature of the reservoirs in the region with the determination of the flow direction of the aquifer. The meteorological data for the Karbala station for the period 1976-2016 showed that the values of the monthly rates of temperature, precipitation, evaporation, relative humidity, wind speed and Sunshine duration are (24.19 C◦), (95.5 mm), (2828.6mm), (46.75%), (2.76 m/sec), and (8.61 h/day) respectively. Thorenthwait method was used to calculate the values of Potential Evapotranspiration (PE) then determine the annual value of WS and WD which equal 28.11mm and 941.94mm respectively. Mean monthly water surplus for the period (1976-2016) was recorded about (9.36mm) in December, (13.11mm) in January and (5.64mm) in February of the whole amount of Rainfall and Equal to 29.34 of the total rainfall. The study showed the existence of a shallow aquifer unconfined in the Quaternary deposits. The flow net map is shown by mainly that the groundwater flow in the area, it is from the northwestern parts towards the Eastern and southestern parts.

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Article
Calculating of Groundwater Recharge using Meteorological Water Balance and Water level Fluctuation in Khan Al-Baghdadi Area
حساب تغذية المياه الجوفية باستخدام الموازنة المائية المناخية وتذبذب مناسيب المياه في منطقة خان البغدادي

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Climate and hydrological conditions in any hydrological basin are multi-combined reflection of natural factors of morphology and soil nature, as well as the changing in climate factors that affect directly on hydrological cycle. Water balance techniques are a means of solution of important theoretical and practical hydrological problems, while estimating the physical properties of water-bearing layers is an essential part of groundwater studies. One of the most effective ways of determining these properties is to conduct and analyze aquifer tests. The aim of this research is to compare groundwater recharge in Khan Al-Baghdadi area which located to northwest of Anbar governorate in the west of Iraq, depending on meteorological water balance and calculated hydraulic parameters of groundwater aquifers in order to predict the suitable methods to determine groundwater recharge. Geographical position, elevations, static water levels, depths, thicknesses and maximum yields were carried out during field work. Meteorological parameters of Hit station during the period (1995-2010) was used to calculate water surplus using Thorntwaite formula, while cooper-Jacob and Theis recovery solutions were used to calculate transmissivity and storage coefficient. The result indicate that water surplus was (16.71) mm. divided into (10.13) mm as runoff and (6.58) mm as groundwater recharge. The average annual of groundwater recharge in the area was (41.38) million cubic meters depending on water balance technique, while annual groundwater recharge calculated based hydraulic parameter was (41.51) million cubic meters.


Article
Classification of k-Sets in PG(1,25), for k=4,…,13
تصنيف المجاميع-k في PG(1,25) عندما k=4,…,13

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Abstract

A k-set in the projective line is a set of k projectively distinct points. From the fundamental theorem over the projective line, all 3-sets are projectively equivalent. In this research, the inequivalent k-sets in PG(1,25) have been computed and each k-set classified to its (k-1)-sets where k=5,…,13. Also, the PG(1,25) has been splitting into two distinct 13-sets, equivalent and inequivalent.

Keywords

Projective line --- k-set


Article
Comparison between Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Methods for parameters and the Reliability function of Perks Distribution
مقارنة طريقة بيز مع الامكان الاعظم لمعلمات ودالة المعولية لتوزيع باركس

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In this paper, we have derived Bayesian estimation for the parameters and reliability function of Perks distribution based on two different loss functions, Lindley’s approximation has been used to obtain those values. It is assumed that the parameter behaves as a random variable have a Gumbell Type  prior with non-informative is used. And after the derivation of mathematical formulas of those estimations, the simulation method was used for comparison depending on mean square error (MSE) values and integrated mean absolute percentage error (IMAPE) values respectively. Among of conclusion that have been reached, it is observed that, the LE-NR estimate introduced the best perform for estimating the parameter λ.


Article
Essential-Small M-Projective Modules
M-مقاسات جوهرية صغيرة اسقاطية من النمط

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In this paper, we introduce the concept of e-small M-Projective modules as a generalization of M-Projective modules.


Article
Improved High order Euler Method for Numerical Solution of Initial value Time- Lag Differential Equations
طريقة اويلر المطورة ذات الرتبة العليا للتعامل العددي لمسائل القيم الابتدائية للمعادلات التفاضلية التباطؤية

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The goal of this paper is to expose a new numerical method for solving initial value time-lag of delay differential equations by employing a high order improving formula of Euler method known as third order Euler method. Stability condition is discussed in detail for the proposed technique. Finally some examples are illustrated to verify the validity, efficiency and accuracy of the method.


Article
Influence of heat transfer on Magneto hydrodynamics oscillatory flow for Williamson fluid through a porous medium
تأثير انتقال الحرارة على الهايدروديناميكا الممغنطة لتدفق متذبذب لمائع ويليامسون خلال قناة مسامية

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In this paper, we have examined the influence of heat- transfer on the magnetohydrodynamics oscillatory flow of Williamson fluid during porous medium for two types of geometries "Poiseuille flow and Couette flow". We use perturbation technique in terms of the Weissenberg number to obtain explicit forms for velocity profiles. The results that obtained are illustrated by graphs


Article
Fully Small Dual Stable Modules
المقاسات الصغيرة رديفة الأستقرارية التامة

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New types of modules named Fully Small Dual Stable Modules and Principally Small Dual Stable are studied and investigated. Both concepts are generalizations of Fully Dual Stable Modules and Principally Dual Stable Modules respectively. Our new concepts coincide when the module is Small Quasi-Projective, and by considering other kind of conditions. Characterizations and relations of these concepts and the concept of Small Duo Modules are investigated, where every fully small dual stable R-module M is small duo and the same for principally small dual stable.


Article
NS-Primary Submodules
NS المقاسات الجزئية من النمط –

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Let R be a commutative ring with identity and let Mbe a unitary R-module. We shall say that a proper submodule N of M is nearly S-primary (for short NS-primary), if wheneverf∈S=End(M), x∈M, with f(x)∈N implies that either x∈N+J(M) or there exists a positive integer n, such that f^n (M)⊆N+J(M), where J(M) is the Jacobson radical of M. In this paper we give some new results of NS-primary submodule. Moreover some characterizations of these classes of submodules are obtained


Article
Heartbeat Amplification and ECG Drawing from Video (Black and White or Colored Videos)

Authors: Ahmed A. Shkara --- Yossra Hussain
Pages: 408-419
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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. The main idea is how to detect activity of the heart from skin that appears in video without using electrodes. This paper, proposes an algorithm that works on analyzing video frames to detect heartbeats from tiny changes that happen in a skin color luminance (brightness) and then using them to amplifying heartbeat and drawing ECG. The results show that the heartbeat was detected and amplified and ECG was drawing from any part of the human body in different situations and from different video.


Article
Heartbeat Amplification and ECG Drawing from Video (Black and White or Colored Videos)
تضخيم نبضات القلب ورسم تخطيط القلب (ECG) من الفيديو ( فيديوهات اسود وابيض أو ملون )

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Abstract

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. The main idea is how to detect activity of the heart from skin that appears in video without using electrodes. This paper, proposes an algorithm that works on analyzing video frames to detect heartbeats from tiny changes that happen in a skin color luminance (brightness) and then using them to amplifying heartbeat and drawing ECG. The results show that the heartbeat was detected and amplified and ECG was drawing from any part of the human body in different situations and from different video.


Article
Efficient Method to Segment Objects from Images Based on Enhanced Connected Component Labeling algorithm
طريقة كفوءة لتقسيم الكائنات من الصور اعتماداُ على تحسين خوارزمية المكونات المتصلة

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This paper include the problem of segmenting an image into regions represent (objects), segment this object by define boundary between two regions using a connected component labeling. Then develop an efficient segmentation algorithm based on this method, to apply the algorithm to image segmentation using different kinds of images, this algorithm consist four steps at the first step convert the image gray level the are applied on the image, these images then in the second step convert to binary image, edge detection using Canny edge detection in third Are applie the final step is images. Best segmentation rates are (90%) obtained when using the developed algorithm compared with (77%) which are obtained using (ccl) before enhancement.

Keywords

Segment --- ccl --- Blob detection --- Enhancement


Article
Improving Detection Rate of the Network Intrusion Detection System Based on Wrapper Feature Selection Approach
تحسين معدل الكشف لنظام كشف التسلل للشبكة بالاعتماد على نهج الالتفاف لاختيار الميزة

Authors: Rana F. Najeeb --- Ban N. Dhannoon
Pages: 426-433
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Abstract

Regarding the security of computer systems, the intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are essential components for the detection of attacks at the early stage. They monitor and analyze network traffics, looking for abnormal behaviors or attack signatures to detect intrusions in real time. A major drawback of the IDS is their inability to provide adequate sensitivity and accuracy, coupled with their failure in processing enormous data. The issue of classification time is greatly reduced with the IDS through feature selection. In this paper, a new feature selection algorithm based on Firefly Algorithm (FA) is proposed. In addition, the naïve bayesian classifier is used to discriminate attack behaviour from normal behaviour in the network traffic. The FA selects the discriminating features from NSL-KDD dataset. The performance of the IDS in the detection of attacks was enhanced by the proposed model and compare with other models.

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Article
Image Encryption Using DNA Encoding and RC4 Algorithm

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Nowadays, the rapid development of multi-media technology and digital images transmission by the Internet leads the digital images to be exposed to several attacks in the transmission process. Therefore, protection of digital images become increasingly important. To this end, an image encryption method that adopts Rivest Cipher (RC4) and Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) encoding to increase the secrecy and randomness of the image without affecting its quality is proposed. The Means Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Coefficient Correlation (CC) and histogram analysis are used as an evaluation metrics to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results indicate that the proposed method is secure against statistical attacks and provides a good security without affecting the quality of the image.


Article
Determination the Quantity of Extreme Rainfall and calculation of the Climatology Mean for Baghdad City

Authors: Ahmad S. Hassan --- Khawla N Zeki --- Nada S. Salih
Pages: 447-455
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Recently heavy rainfall that occurs in last decade for Baghdad city is part of climate changes effect on Iraq in general and Baghdad in particular. Rain is considered the main part in the water cycle as it enters mainly within the water system and water balance; therefore present study put of a special criterion to determine the amount of rainfall and analyzed in order to quantify the amount and the diagnosis of heavy rain. The availability of data by Iraqi Metrological Organization and Seismology (IMOS) for time period (1985/1986-2014/2015) held achieve the research objective .There are many statistical methods figure out the difference to determine the amount of rain, Climatology mean (C M) is one of them specialized to separate the amount of normal rainfall from heavy rain. The climatology mean of rain for this study has been 15.2mm. Whereas in the rainy season exceeded this limit, in this case considered extreme season, while less than limit called normal rain. The results shown during 30 rainy seasons, have been 12 seasons exceed climatology mean, four of highest extremes rain have been happened in November. The highest extreme rain has been in 2014, with seasonal mean of 34.7mm. The monthly anomaly climatology mean (ACM) has been equal approximate 20mm, November 2014 was equal this value , When calculating the total amount of rainfall for the city of Baghdad during the 30 rainy season found that lightest mount fall 676 mm in January followed by the lowest rate month of November 596 mm, while the lowest amounts of rain fell in October and September, which did not exceed 130 mm.

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