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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2018 volume:21 issue:1

Article
Sirtuin1, Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Newly Diagnosed Iraqi Diabetic Patients

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Abstract

In Mammals Sirtuins (SIRTs) are members of the silent information regulator two family Sirtuin1 regulate a variety of cellular functions. It shows anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects against cellular damage.SIRT1 conserves the cells by the mitochondrial biogenesis organizing, cellular energy and oxido reduction state. Vascular tissues are protected by SIRT1 too. In diabetic patients mutation in exon1 of SIRT1 (L107P) in insulin-generating cells conducted in over production of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α. Assessment of SIRT1 protein levels in newly diagnosed Iraqi diabetic in regards to family history Age, gender, and duration of disease, and its correlation with biochemical parameter in the same group. Measurement of iNOS, TNF-α. This study involved totally 40 volunteers. This group were subdivided (20) volunteers as newly diagnosis (DMT1) duration disease ˂1 year, group1 was subdivided to 10 male and 10 female: (10 with family history and 10 without family history) and group two healthy volunteers. Group1 All DMT1 were under insulin treatment. Healthy Volunteers (20) included in this study as control groups. None Healthy Volunteers were alcoholic, smoke, or having a history of (CVD) cardiovascular disease, thyroid disease, and hormonal abnormalities problems were exempted from this study. In the present study SIRT1, TNF-alpha, iNOS were measured by enzyme linked immune absorbent assay (ELISA). Biochemical parameters fasting glucose, body mass index (BMI), urea, creatinine and lipid profile that were measured by spectrophotometer technique in patients and healthy volunteers groups. The Statistical Analysis System- SAS (2012) program was used to effect of difference factors in study parameters. Least significant difference –LSD test (ANOVA) was used to significant compare between means. Estimate of correlation coefficient between difference parameters in this study. The results showed that a highly significant increase in levels of FBG, Urea, creatinine and lipid profile except HDL was decrease levels, BMI was decrease in newly diagnosis DMT1 with healthy volunteers groups. A significant decrease in SIRT1 protein, and a highly significant increase in TNF-alpha and iNOS in newly diagnosis DMT1 with healthy volunteers groups. A highly negative significantly correlation coefficient between SIRT1 and F.G., TG., VLDL,TG/HDL, A.I. and negative significantly correlation duration, urea, creatinine,T.CH., LDL. And non-significant correlation with age, BMI, HDL, CH/HDL and LDL/HDL.. Effect of gender were insignificant of SIRT1. Effect of family history in patients. SIRT1 were all insignificant in patients with family history as with non-family history group. SIRT1 could decreases in the sera of DMT1 patients with family history, the decreased SIRT1 level reflect a mutation in SIRT1 gene, the decreases in SIRT1 on increases the incident of DMT1 complication

Keywords

SIRT1 --- DMT1 --- iNOS --- alfa-TN --- lipid profile --- body mass index.


Article
Spectrophotometeric Determination of Ponceau 4R in the Several Beverages Using Mixed Micelles after Cloud Point Extraction

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Abstract

Ponceau 4R(E124) is azo dye that is mostly used in some of food products such as soft drinks, beverages, jelly and ham. A simple and sensitive procedure is established for the determination of ponceau 4R using cloud point extraction (CPE). In order to get the optimum conditions for ponceau 4R extraction, various analytical factors such as pH media, nonionic surfactant TX-114 or Brij-56, cationic surfactant CPC and equilibration temperature was investigated. The linearity of calibration graph was above the range of 0.05-1.7 µg ml-1. The LOD and LOQ using TX-114 were based to be 0.025, 0.075 µg ml-1 whereas for Brij-56 were found as 0.062, 0.187 µg ml-1 respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully employed for ponceau 4R detection in several beverages samples


Article
Effect of Some Aluminum Salts - Amine Ionic Liquids on Several Serum Human Parameters and Bacterial Growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus
1, Hadi M. A. Abood1 and Nadira S. Mohamed2

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Abstract

The advantages of pharmaceutics and biological activity of some ionic liquids (ILs) on human serum (HS) and bacterial growth were studied. The effect of aluminum nitrate-acetamide (AN-Ac) and aluminum ammonium sulfate-urea (ammonium alum-urea) ionic liquids were studied on two types of bacterial species gram negative (K.pneumoniae) and gram positive (Staph.aureus). The results showed that the key factors of inhibition are the type, structures, kind of anion and cation of ILs, water miscibility and concentration of ILs and the type of microorganism in both solid and liquid media. Inhibition of bacteria growth was observed to be decreased with decreasing the quantities of (AN-Ac) and (ammonium alum-urea) ILs. The inhibition zone (The Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Test), beside the optical density were measured at 600 nm for bacterial broth incubated at 37 ºC for 24hrs with different concentrations of ionic liquids of (2, 5, 10, 20)% (v/v). Subsequently, the results of optical densities were calculated as colony forming units (CFUs). The concentration of ILs was calculated practically until it reached the optimal concentration of 2% (v/v). This concentration caused no variation on serum parameters likes sugar, lipid profile, protein, liver functions, kidney functions, and electrolytes, obtained by using Automatic biochemistry analyzers technique.


Article
Estimation of some Elements and Acids for the Different Grape Juice

Authors: Dalia M. Jamil
Pages: 23-26
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Abstract

This study included estimating the heavy elements of some types of grape juice of different origin and determining their proportions in juices and comparing them with the quality control of Iraq and observing whether it is suitable for human use or not. Calcium salts are observed as 137 ppm in C juice and 9.5 ppm of magnesium in juice B, for heavy metals the highest percentage of lead 0.19ppm recorded in juice A, 1.7 ppm of copper in B juice 3.5 ppm Iron in juice A, 0.8 ppm of zinc in B juice and A, 0.06 ppm of aluminum in B, 0.015 ppm of cobalt in juice A and B, 0.06 ppm of nickel in B juice, Sodium was 168.1 ppm in C juice, but the acids were found to have the highest rates were 3.1 ppm of malic acid in B, 156.7 ppm of acid in Juice of ascorbic B, 238.5 ppm of acid found in lemon juice 130ppm in juice B


Article
Theoretical Approach to Study the Nature and Structure of Organotin (IV) Derivatives

Authors: Fatma M. Abdul-Hameed
Pages: 27-34
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Abstract

A theoretical study of semi-empirical calculation of PM3 level was used to characterize three Tin complexes (R2SnL2) [where (R): (Phenyl), (butyl) and (methyl) and L: (N-tolyl -m-methoxybenzo hydroxamic acid) ]. The comparison of the three complexes that have different (R) had been done on the basis of calculated energies and physical properties of the molecular model systems, such as heat of formation, HOMO-LUMO gap, binding energy, dipole moment, surface area. This present study revealed a clear picture and useful information about the nature of complex stability of the three Tin complexes R2SnL2


Article
Evaluation of Estridiol and Some Antioxidant in Breast Cancer Iraqi Women

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Abstract

Cancer is the second reason of deaths worldwide while breast cancer is the more spread cancer in women, comprising 29 % from all cancers that they are affected Samples were obtained from patients undergoing surgery in center from breast cancer in oncology teaching hospital Al-Eluia hospital for woman care All blood samples were taken of the patients (110 women) and divided into four groups benign, malignant, radiotherapy and control group In order to measurement estrogen levels which are influenced by the menstrual cycle, the main groups were furthermore divided into sub-groups, premenopausal and postmenopausal women The mean value ± SE of Body Mass Index (BMI) for control, benign, malignant and radiotherapy breast cancer were showed a non-significant change in the comparison of groups according to the Duncan test Estrogen were increased before therapy but decreased following therapy The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)were elevated in patients after radiotherapy The mean value ± SE of vitamin E were decreased in studied groups Present study aims to study the effects of serum estrogen, vitamin E and antioxidant status in breast cancer patients

Keywords

Estrogen --- Vitamin E --- MDA --- BMI --- Breast cancer


Article
Photochemical Study of Hydrated Ammonium Aluminum Sulfate-Urea Ionic Liquid by FT-IR Spectroscopy

Authors: Evon Akram
Pages: 41-45
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Abstract

The stability of ionic liquid which makes it interest to study the photochemistry of hydrated ammonium aluminum sulfate NH4Al SO4)2.12H2O-urea CO NH2)2 sample to show photo degradation rate by FTIR spectra effect with different times which indicated a few influence irradiation the ionic liquid with increase time that indication stability of ionic liquids green chemistry).


Article
A Comparative Study of the Effect of Using RO Water on Zinc and Copper Level and its Effect on the Level of Hemoglobin in Pregnant Women

Authors: Riyadh Hussein Wally
Pages: 46-51
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Abstract

This study was conducted in the department of pathological analysis in Al-Kut technical institute of Iraq, were the total dissolved solid (TDS) and the level of zinc and copper trace elements measured for tap water and reverse osmosis RO water in several areas of Al-Kut city. Two groups of healthy pregnant women attending maternity health centers in Al-Kut city were selected for this study during the week 24-28 of gestation, aged between 20-40 years. The first group consisted of 55 pregnant women using tap water as drinking source and the second group also included 55 pregnant women using RO water as drinking source. The blood samples were collected from both groups and hemoglobin, zinc and copper levels were measured in both groups. The study showed a highly decreased in the level of TDS(15 + 5), zinc (1 + 0. 1) and copper (1 + 0. 2) of RO water in comparison with tap water were TDS(680 + 32), zinc (5.4 + 2.1) and copper (8.7 + 3.1) also study show significance decrease in hemoglobin(10.8 + 1.1), zinc(7.8 + 1.8) and copper (9.1 + 2.1) levels in pregnant woman who drinking RO water in comparison with woman drinking tap water were the level of hemoglobin(11.3 + 1.3), zinc(9.4 + 2.6) and copper(10.9 + 3.6).


Article
Determination of the Radiation Hazard Indices and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk in Iraqi Bentonite

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Abstract

The activity concentrations for 232Th, 238U, 40K, and 137Cs were measured in bentonite samples using high purity germanium detector. These samples were collected from the main distribution markets in Baghdad, the capital of Iraq. The mean activity concentrations for 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs were found to be 6.10, 5.89, 162 and 1.8 Bq/kg respectively. The results of specific activities were less than the recommended global values by (UNSCEAR, 2000). The radiation hazard indices in therapeutic bentonite have been also measured. The total air absorbed dose rate, the annual effective dose, the radium equivalent activity, the external hazard index and the excess lifetime cancer risk have a mean value of 13.2 nGy/h, 0.0000162 Sv, 27 Bq/kg, 0.073, and 0.000053 respectively. Low radiation hazard indices were recorded. These low levels indicated that the mud is safe, and suitable to be used in therapy, also the dealer with this mud are not exposed to any radiation hazards.


Article
Structural Characterization of NiO/Cr2O3Composites and Hydrothermal Synthesis, Properties Gas Sensing

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Abstract

Pure Cr2O3 and NiO/Cr2O3 nanocomposite were luckily synthesized by simple hydrothermal technique. X-ray films diffraction (XRD), Filed Emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), were used to research the crystalline structures, surface morphologies and nanostructures, and element components and their valences of the as-synthesized samples. Moreover, gas sensors based on the synthesized pure Cr2O3 and NiO/ Cr2O3 composites were fabricated and their sensing behavior, to NH3.Gas sensing experiments reference that the NiO/ Cr2O3 composites showed much higher gas response and lower working temperature than those of pure Cr2O3. These results assure that the as-synthesized NiO/ Cr2O3 composites a favorable NH3 sensing material


Article
Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Fiber Optic Sensor: Theoretical Simulation and Experimental Realization

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Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based fiber optic sensor with two types of plasmonic metals (gold and silver) are theoretically studied and implemented experimentally. Performance characteristics like sensitivity, signal to noise ratio, the figure of merit, and resolution are evaluated for both simulated and fabricated sensor. The results of theoretical and experimental studies and also between the sensor with the gold layer and that with silver have been compared. Sensitivity is larger for the sensor with the gold layer while the signal to noise ratio and figure of merit are larger for the sensor with the silver layer for both the experimental and theoretical studies. The resolution is slightly larger for the sensor with the gold layer and there is some difference between the resolution of the simulated and that of the fabricated sensor


Article
Zingiber Officinale Water Extract Effect on Sperm of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice: an In Vitro Examination of Sperm DNA Fragmentation, Fertilization and Embryonic Development Outcomes

Authors: Zena M. Hussein
Pages: 71-78
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the common threats to modern global health. There are several factors increasingly encourage the occurrence of this disease for example obesity, population growth and ageing. The DM may affect male fertility at different level of functionality, by affecting on endocrine hormones that regulate spermatogenesis or affecting on spermatogenesis itself, impairing penile erection and ejaculation, reducing testosterone, increasing percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation. In fact, high level of sperm DNA fragmentation may lower natural conception, intrauterine insemination (IUI), and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of water extract of Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) roots in alloxan-induced diabetic mice on improving sperm quality and fertilization rate and early embryonic development outcomes. Male mice have subjugated for alloxan injection to induce diabetes mellitus. Diabetic males were treated with Z. officinale extract for 35 days at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight bw. Data showed a significant enhancement in sperm parameters (count, motility and abnormal morphology), reduction of sperm DNA fragmentation rates, IVF outcomes and early embryonic development rates. In conclusion, the study suggests that Z. officinale possess a potential therapeutic effect to improve diabetic male with fertility problems


Article
Molecular Screening of Adhesion Proteins Genes in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Different Clinical Infections in Baghdad City and Identification of Their Relationship with Some Virulence Factors

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Abstract

The first step to achieve Staphylococcus aureus infections is the adhesion process that is mediated by proteins belong to the microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs). The distribution of these proteins is different among S. aureus isolates. In Iraq, there are no previous studies have been done in regard of distribution of these important virulence factors. Therefore, this study was designed to use PCR for screening of MSCRAMMs genes among local S. aureus isolates and determination of some virulence factors. S. aureus isolates (32) were collected from different hospitals in Baghdad and were diagnosed by conventional methods (cultural methods, colony morphology, Gram stain and biochemical tests). API Staph. System was used to confirm the diagnosis. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion method for ten antibiotics. The ability to produce some virulence factors by bacterial isolated was detected [hemolysis activity, Deoxy ribonuclease (DNase) production and biofilm production]. The diagnosis of bacterial isolates was super-confirmed using PCR to detect the nuc gene. Uniplex and multiplex PCR were used to detect the MSCRAMMs genes (Uniplex PCR was used to detect fnbA and cna genes (each alone). multiplex PCR were used to detect bbp and ebp genes in one run and clfA, clfB, fib and fnbB genes in other run. All isolates were diagnosed as S. aureus (were negative to oxidase. Positive to catalase, slide and tube coagulase and Ferment mannitol). All isolates were recorded as S. aureus by API Staph system. A high prevalence of MRSA strains (78 %) was detected, vancomycin and imipenem were the most affected with percentage (97 %) and (94 %) respectively; results of susceptibility to other antibiotics was variant. Beta hemolysis was detected in (65.6 %) of isolates, 34.4% of isolates did not give any zone (gamma hemolysis), while no alpha hemolysis have been detected. On the other hand, all isolates (100%) produced DNase enzyme. The results of biofilm production assay shown that 40.6% of strains gave a weak positive results. The results shown that all isolates (100%) that were diagnosed as S. aureus by traditional methods harbored the nuc gene. The distribution percentage of bbp, ebp, clfA, clfB, cna, fib, fnbA and fnbB were 21.9%, 90.6%, 100%, 81.3%, 93.8%, 96.9%, 100% and 25% respectively. The distribution of adhesive genes are variant among S. aureus isolates and the infection sources. The bbp is the most specific infection associated gene with osteomyelitis.


Article
Effect of NaCl and Sorbitol on the Production of Some Alkaloids of Fenugreek Cotyledons Derived Callus

Authors: Emad H. Jassim --- Saeb A. Hassan
Pages: 90-97
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Abstract

Alkaloids often had pharmacological effects. The aim at this study is to increase some alkaloids in fenugreek. Callus induction occurred on cotyledon segments 5 mm long. Murshige and Skoog medium (MS) supplied with 1 mg.lˉ¹ of 2, 4 – D and 0.4 mg.lˉ¹ of kinetin was prepared. The best medium maintained callus was using MS medium supplied with 0.5 mg.lˉ¹ 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg.lˉ¹ kinetin. Callus formation was allowed to take place for a period of thirty days in the dark at 25°C±2. Calli were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Methanol callus extract showed high concentrations of some alkaloids compared to the methanol extract of cotyledons. For increasing, the concentration of secondary metabolites, NaCl was added at concentrations 0, 1, 1.5 or 2 g.lˉ¹, sorbitol at concentrations 0, 7, 8 or 9 g.lˉ¹. NaCl at 2 g.lˉ¹ led to significant increase in trigonelline reaching 1354.72 µg per 100 mg fresh weight of callus. NaCl at 1g.lˉ¹ increased choline and carpaine reached 400.82, 483.92 µg.mlˉ¹ per 100 mg respectively. Treatment with 9 g.lˉ¹ sorbitol increased trigonelline and carpaine reached 1666.41, 742.67 µg per 100 mg respectively, while treatment 8 g.lˉ¹ sorbitol significantly increased in choline recorded 588.87 µg per 100 mg.

Keywords

fenugreek --- alkaloids --- NaCl --- sorbitol


Article
Bacteriological Study for Detection The Role of Fructan Produced from Pseudomonas putida as Enhancer for Lactobacillus acidophilus Growth

Authors: Alaa Raheem Kazim
Pages: 98-103
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Fructan is a kind of biopolymer produced from plants, fungi, yeast and bacteria. It is classified as prebiotics food and enhanced the growth of probiotics bacterial strains which improves the health of the individual. This article aimed to study the production and extraction of fructan from Pseudomonas putida isolated from food samples and study the effect of fructan on the viable cell number of Lactobacillus acidophilus. The results showed that Pseudomonas putida have the ability to produce fructan when cultured on production medium (YPS), fructan exhibited as white powder when extracted from YPS and the amount of fructan was 3.6 mg/100 ml, also the results showed that fructan can increase the viable cell number of Lactobacillus acidophilus when added to MRS. FTIR analysis of fructan produced from Pseudomonas putida revealed that the functional groups found in chemical structure of fructan, which it was (C-O, C-H, O-H and C=O).


Article
Short Tandem Repeat Typing Using Endogenous DNA Isolated from Human Fingernail

Authors: Miriam Jasim Shehab
Pages: 104-110
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Genomic DNA was isolated from variable biological sources. Nails contain genomic DNA but there is limitation in isolating of genetic material from this tissue due to the special composition and structure of this tissue in which DNA embedded in keratinized cells. This study aimed to investigate the capability of using DNA that isolated from fingernails in forensic analysis. Thirty fingernails clipping were collected from three groups (10 fingernail samples for children, 10 fingernail samples for adolescent and 10 fingernail samples for adult) in addition to thirty buccal swabs collected from the same volunteers as reference samples. Both fingernail clipping and buccal swabs were subjected to DNA extraction using phenol/chloroform extraction. All samples were typed for fifteen autosomal STR loci along with amelogenin, using the Applied Biosystems AmpFiSTR® Identifiler™ kit. Our finding showed that input of 5 mg nail material (1 to 2 of fingernail clippings) gives a variable yield of DNA concentration also there was no significant difference in The mean of concentration for samples that isolated from whole fingernail and those isolated from fingernail after cut into small pieces for children groups while there were significant difference for adult and adolescent groups (0.107702, 0.07544 and 0.000192 respectively). Also the allele’s percentage of STR profiles for three age groups was fluctuated among (100, 33.3, 53.3, 66.6, 73.3, 86.6, and 93.3%).


Article
Antibacterial Activity of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts of Agaricus bisporus Against Food Borne Bacterial Pathogens

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Two extracts of 50 mg.ml-1 Agaricus bisporus alcoholic and aqueous were used in order to study their effect against two pathogenic bacteria. Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from chicken and minced meat samples respectively, then identified according to biochemical tests. Antibacterial activity of Agaricus bisporus extracts (alcoholic and aqueous) was studied by agar well diffusion method. The results exhibited that aqueous mushroom extract has no effect against the two tested bacteria, while alcoholic extract of mushroom affect against the two tested bacteria and the effect against S. aureus was more than that against Salmonella typhi and the zone of inhibition was 15 mm and 9 mm respectively. The ethanol alcohol 96% and water were used as control. From this study, mushroom extracts especially ethanolic or alcoholic could be used to control the transmission of pathogenic bacteria from food


Article
Detection of luxS Gene in Serratia marcescens and rpoS Gene in Enterobacter cloacae Isolates Using PCR Reaction

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luxS and rpoS genes were involved in the regulation of some biological processes, which interfere with virulence of Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae bacterial species sequentially. luxS have an important activity in Quorum Sensing (QS) processes, but rpoS interfere with tolerance and resistance processes toward stress conditions correlating with its virulence. The study aimed to detect rpoS presence in E. cloacae and luxS gene presence in S. marcescens separately isolated from 16 leukaemia patients (4 of S. marcescens and 12 of E. cloacae), who characterised with bacteraemia by using primers designed for this purpose by using PCR technique. The results showed that all of the bacterial isolates of S. marcescens contain luxS gene, while no one of E. cloacae isolates show positive results for rpoS gene. The study concluded that S. marcescens has high virulence as a result of luxS presence, which controls Quorum sensing and prodigiosin formation and affecting host immunity. Moreover, the negative results of rpoS gene can be explained according to two possibilities: the gene can be found in the isolates with a copy differ from the registered sequences of the rpoS gene, or the gene did not present in those isolates with presence of alternatives offset its activities


Article
Numerical Solution for Fractional Order Space-Time Burger's Equation Using Legendre Wavelet - Chebyshev Wavelet Spectral Collocation Method

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In this article, a Legendre wavelet- Chebyshev wavelet spectral collocation method is proposed for solving fractional order space-time Burger's equation with the Legendre wavelet and Chebyshev wavelet operational matrices of fractional derivatives. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. The proposed method is based on Legendre wavelet-Chebyshev wavelet for space and time variables respectively. This method will reduc the problem under consideration to the solution of nonlinear algebraic equations. In order to confirm the efficiency of the proposed method, two numerical examples are implemented and comparing the numerical solution with the exact one, as well as, of other methods in given literatures, we demonstrate the high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.


Article
Computational Method based Laplace Adomian Decomposition for Solving Delay Differential Equations of Fractional Order

Authors: Zaid A. Mohammed
Pages: 128-133
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In this paper we present a computational method for solving delay differential equations of fractional order by employing the Laplace Adomian decomposition method. This method is combined from the Laplace transforms and the Adomian decomposition method taking into account the Caputo derivative as a motivation to describe the fractional derivative. The method is a modification of the Adomian decomposition method and is tested on two examples in order to illustrate the pertinent feature of this method the results shows that the proposed method is an effective and powerful tool for solving delay differential equations of fractional order. A comparison with the exact solution and with the existing methods such as Adomian decomposition method and homotopy analysis method is made

Table of content: volume:21 issue:1