Table of content

Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science

مجلة علوم المستنصرية

ISSN: 1814635X
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

An Iraqi scientific Journal has been issued by College of Science since 1977. Our Journal publishes the academic researches in pure and applied sciences seasonally with 4 issues minimally.

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Contact info

mustscjo@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq
mustjsci@yahoo.com
009647711184399

Table of content: 2017 volume:28 issue:2

Article
Estimation of Dual Polarization Weather Radar Variables

Authors: Dalia A. Mahmood
Pages: 1-6
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Abstract

Dual polarization weather radar has now become a widely used as instrument in meteorological offices around the world because of its capability in distinguishing different precipitation type and in improving the accuracy of quantitative precipitation estimation. The aim of this work is to estimate the polarimetry radar variables for radars of different frequency bands and study their behavior with rainfall rates. Calculations of polarimetry radar variables were made on the basis of several assumptions. The results showed that factors at horizontal and vertical polarization, ZH,V, ranges between 20 dBz respectively, and more than 55 dBz for light rain and extreme heavy rain respectively, and radar reflectivity factor at horizontal ZH is greater than radar reflectivity factor at vertical ZV for all rainfall rates. The differential reflectivity, ZDR, also increases with increasing rainfall rates since it is the difference between ZH and Zv. Calculations of specific differential attenuation indicated that X band radars are seriously attenuated by rain and C band radars are less affected by rain. The specific differential attenuation, S band radars is very small. In addition to this feature, the results showed that the differential phase shift between return signals of horizontal and vertical polarizations for S band radars is much less than those for C and X band radars, and also, the results showed that the copolarization correlation coefficient for S band the radars is much higher than those of C and X bands. In order to investigate the accuracy of the calculated polarimetric weather radar variables performed in this research, real radar measurements were used for this purpose. Results indicated that the range of values for calculated polarimetric radar variables are very consistent with range of values for measured variables


Article
Lead Level in Pregnant Women Suffering from Pre- Eclampsia in Baghdad City- Iraq

Authors: Assala G. H. Al-Shammery
Pages: 7-10
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Abstract

This study was conducted on the number of pregnant women suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia who live in different areas in Baghdad city. These areas were suffering from air pollution by different pollutants in high rates and it was chosen from among these pollutants lead metal which is a high percentage of air pollution where it was observed by measuring the level of lead in blood serum which taken from pregnant women by 40 pregnant women suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia and 20 pregnant women don't suffering from any abnormal symptoms during pregnancy period and classified as control group , so we found marked a significant rise in lead level in comparison with control group reaching ratio of lead in blood of pregnant women which suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia 38.44 mg/dl ± 3.0 mg/dl in comparison with control group which 14.56 mg/d l± 2.50 mg/dl,this increase may refer to the amount of lead which found in the air and in excess of the normal limit which exposed pregnant women like all people through the overcrowding of roads and use fuel non-environmentally friendly through breathing which effect on pregnant women health, it has been shown on symptoms of preeclampsia from measuring systolic and diastolic blood pressure and measuring of urea in blood, T-test was used at possibility of(0.001)to see the difference between infected samples and control group, therefore this study suggested that a lead is one of the causes of preeclampsia because live in polluted and unhealthy environment.

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Article
External Morphological Study of the Sympetrum fonscolombei (Selys, 1840) (Odonata: Anisoptera: Libellulidae) in Baghdad

Authors: Asmaa H. Al-Hashmi
Pages: 11-15
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Abstract

The specimens were collected from different region in Baghdad ⁄ Iraq, by using air net during April 2016. In this study, a morphological characters of Sympetrum fonscolombei (Selys, 1840) is include three region of body (head, thorax and abdomen); in addition, male and female genitalia. Such characters were supported by Figured.

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Article
Comparative Study for the Accuracy of Helicobacter pylori Diagnostic Methods Associated with Some Inflammatory Factors

Authors: Eman N. Naji
Pages: 16-28
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Abstract

This Study was intended to diagnose H. pyiori the major causative pathogen in gastro duodenal irritation and ulceration. Differert techniques were used invasive tests (histopathological examination, rapid urea CLO test and culture) , while noninvasive tests includes (serological tests and stool antigen) in addition to determination of some immune response factors (IgM , IgG , IgA) as well as (IL – 8 and IFN – y) in Ptients Sera. According to the results of invasive diagnostic method 30/113 (26.69%) patients were considered to be infected and 83/113(73.31%) patients were considered as noninfeted was contrasted with noninvasive diagnostic method 25/113 (22.14%) patients were considered to be infected and 88/133(77.83%) patients were considered as noninfeted. In order to get the overall percentage of the infected people included in this study, we merge the results of the two methods ,so we found out that the total infected patients with H. pylori diagnosed by invasive and noninvasive methods were 42 /113 (37.2%) while the noninfected 71/113 (62.8) disseminated as 27/68(39.71%) infected male ,which was privileged than the infected female when it was 15/45(33.33%). The high prevalence of H. pylori infection in the age group ranging between (46-60) in male and female. Histology (invasive teq.) and ECO rapid test (noninvasive teq.) were considered as the ‘‘best techniques ’’ for H. pylori detection, in the outlook of its high specificity, sensitivity and because it detected the major number of H. pylori-positive patients along with the other techniques used in this work. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for histology were 100,100,100 and 94.5% , respectively, while for the ECO rapid test they were 96, 93, 91.5, and 97.14%. Culture (invasive teq.) and IgG anti H. pylori (noninvasive teq.) coming secondly in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection because they detected a little fewer number of infected patients than the first two teq. as noted above. The sensitivity, specificity, (PPV) (NPV) for Culture were 80%, 97% ,96.96% and87.5% and for IgG anti H. pylori were 85%, 91%,92.8% and 97.8%. Finally the smallest patient number was obtained from the rest of all the six teq. were used in the present work obtained from the urea CLO test and stool antigen, invasive and noninvasive teq. respectively. The present research found out that there were a relationship between the results of rapid anti H. pylori ECO test, antibody titer in ELFA, immunoglobulin (IgG and IgA) and (IFN-γ) , (IL-8) concentration. Also, all these data were related to the results of the histological changes and the results of the urea CLO test of patients when compared with the noninfected members. These results showed highly significant differences among patient groups in comparison with noninfected group at (P. Value < 0.001). On the other hand, there were no relationship between IgM concentration with any of the other results of diagnostic methods were used may such results considered a first step for determining the susceptibility of infection and to confirame the diagnosis by use one more test in each time especialy Histology (invasive teq.) and ECO rapid test (noninvasive teq.) correlated with estimation of (IgG and IgA) and (IFN-γ), (IL-8) concentration

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Article
A Comparison of efficiency of (AMP) and its derivative (AMPAA) against some pathogenic bacteria

Authors: Suzan S. Hussain
Pages: 29-34
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Abstract

Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, AMP), is a well known a biologically active phenolic component and essential oil from Eugenia caryophyllata, which widely used of Eugenol as an antiseptic and analgesic in dental care, so it is active against oral bacteria associated with dental caries and periodontal disease as well as previous studies have shown the effect of Eugenol antifungal; anticarcinogenic; anti-allergic; anti-mutagenic activity; antioxidant and insecticidal properties, therefore it can be used in preparation of various food as a flavouring agent and cosmetic. This study aimed to synthesize derivative new medical material 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetic acid (AMPAA) from eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) (AMP) and investigate the antimicrobial activities of both AMP and derivative component (AMPAA), The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and sensitivity against six pathogenic bacterial isolates: Streptococcus. pyogens; Enterococcus. faecalis; Escherichia. coli ; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Bacillus. subtilis and Proteus. mirabilis with study compare the efficiency for both AMP and AMPAA on the same bacterial isolate obtained from Iraqi hospitals. In this present study synthesize new medical material (AMPAA) from AMP by reacting sodium eugenate with sodium chloroacetic acid and prepare soluble water from eugenol and its derivative AMPAAto scanning the antimicrobial efficacy against some pathogenic bacteria isolatesby two common methods; well diffusion and broth dilution methods. Results of the present study show all bacterial isolates were sensitive to both AMP and AMPAA in low concentration except K. pneumoniae, also 10.0 and 5.0 μg/mL of AMP and AMPAA as MBC for bacterial isolates except K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis that’s meaning the new derivative compound AMPAA has more efficacy on six bacterial isolate than eugenol (AMP). By using Well diffusion method all bacterial isolates were sensitive to both (AMP and AMPAA) in low concentration, but K. pneumoniae was killed in same concentration, so all isolates have been killed at concentrations between (10 - 50 μg/mL) of new derivative compound (AMPAA), at the same concentration of AMP were killed for K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis) ,as well as all isolates have varying degrees of sensitivity towards both (AMP and AMPAA), whereas all isolates where more sensitive to AMPAA than AMP. In conclusion, all bacterial isolate were sensitive to both AMP and AMPAA in low concentration except K. pneumoniae, also 10.0 and 5.0 μg/mL of AMP and AMPAA respectively conceder as MBC for bacterial isolate except K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis, that killed in these concentration, so at the same concentration of AMP and AMPAA bacterial isolates were sensitivity by well diffusion method, whilst its killed by broth method, that’s consulate broth method was best than diffusion method.

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Article
Harvesting of Chlorella sp. by Co-cultivation with Some Filamentous Fungi

Authors: Rana H. Hameed Al-Shammari
Pages: 35-42
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Abstract

Algae are play a major role as straight producers of biofuels, so expansion of a new. harvestingtechnology is important to achieve economic feasibility of biofuel production from algae.. Fungal pelletization-assisted.. Microalgal harvesting has Emerged as new research area for decreasing the harvesting cost and energy inputs in the algae-to-biofuel method. The present study tried to optimize process circumstances as (substrate inputs, process time and pH). Through choice of a robust fungal strain. Four fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus, Trichoderma sp., Mucor sp. and Rhizopus sp.) were screened for their pelletizing efficiency in fresh/supplemented chu-10 with selected media nutrient (glucose, nitrogen and phosphorous). Results showed that Aspergillus terreus was the most efficient strain for pelletizing in the nutrient supplemented chu-10 with its neutral pH (7) and acidic pH (5). Stimulatingly, A. terreus was capable to harvest nearly 100 % of the Clorella sp. cells (1×106 spore/ml at optical density (OD) approximately 2.5 initial working algal concentration) within only 24 h. at supplementation of (10 g/l glucose, 2.5 mg/l aNH4NO3 and 0.5 mg/l mK2HPO4) also performed well at lower glucose level (5 g/l) can also results in similar harvesting but its need relatively higher incubation time. The procedure kinetics in term of harvesting index (H. I) as well as the variation of residual glucose and pH with time was also studied. The mechanism of harvesting process was studied through microscopic, examination. A. terreus strain investigated in this study could emerge as an efficient, sustainable and economically viable tool in microalgae harvesting for biofuel production and time conservation.

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Article
Micronucleus Frequency in Buccal Cells of Males Exposed to Air Pollution in Kufa City

Authors: Farha A. Ali Shafi
Pages: 43-47
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The aim of the present study is to explore micronuclei recurrence, as a biomarker of genomic damage in buccal cells of individuals living in polluted areas located near to the cement factory in Kufa city. Twenty four apparently healthy males residing in Kufa are enrolled in the present study, their ages between 18-30 years, as control group 24 males with same age are enrolled living in the center of Najaf city a far from cement factory. A sample of the exposed and control groups of buccal mucosa cells was collected during Spring months in 2016. The mean count of cell with micronuclei in buccal cells of the exposed group and control were (22.33 ± 0.97; 11.583 ± 0.85) respectively, the mean count of the binucleated cells of the exposed and control groups were (7.208 ± 0.71, 10.041 ± 0.84) respectively, a significant difference was detected in the observed frequencies of micronuclei and binnucleated cells in the buccal mucosa cells between the exposed and control group. The results indicated that exposure to air pollutants related to cement production induce cytotoxic as well as genotoxic damage in buccal mucosa cells

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Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetic Study of Monomeric Complexes of Cyclohexane-1, 2- bis (Thiosemicarbazone) with Cobalt (II), Nickel (II) and Copper (II)

Authors: Al-Ameen Bariz Omar Ali
Pages: 48-54
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Cyclohexane-1,2-bis(thiosemicarbazone) (CHTSC) was synthesized via the condensation reaction of cyclohexane-1,2-dione and thiosemicarbazide. Series of metal complexes of the prepared ligand, of general formula [M(CHTSC)(NO3)2], were reported. The prepared coordination complexes were characterized and their structures elucidated using different techniques. These showed that all complexes are octahedral geometries. The kinetics of the formation of these complexes have been investigated using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. These studies revealed that the reactions are completed on the second’s timescale with 1st-order dependence (either on the concentration of metal salt or on the concentration of CHTSC)


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Silver (I) N- Heterocyclic Carbene Complex Derived from Imidazol-2- ylidene salt

Authors: Mohammed Mujbel Hasson
Pages: 55-63
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A new N, N'-imidazolium salt 1-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-3- (4,6-dimorpholino -1,3,5-traizine-2- yl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride) as a precursor of N - heterocyclic carbene ligand was prepared via the reaction of 1 - (2, 6 - diisopropyl phenyl - 1H - imidazole) with 1, 3, 5 - triazine derivative bearing morpholine substituent (2, 6 -dimorpholine - 6- chloro-1, 3, 5-triaziazine). Linear coordinated Ag (І) NHC complex was synthesised via deprotonation of the imidazolium salt and reaction with Ag2O in darkness at room temperature by in situ method. The complex was synthesised for using as transfer agent to prepare another transition metals complexes by transmetallation method in the future. The imidazolium salt and their silver complex have been characterized by 1 H and 13C NMR spectroscopy as well as mass spectrometry


Article
Theoretical Study and Biological Activity of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II),Pd(II),Pt(IV) and Cd(II) Complexes with2- Thioxoimidazolidin-4-one Derivative

Authors: Sallal A. H. Abdullah1
Pages: 64-72
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The workcontains a theoretical treatment of the preparedligand(3-{[(Z)-(4-nitrophenyl) methyli - dene]amino}-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one)[L] and their metal complexes[S1-S6]in the gas phase. Hyperchem-8 program has been used to determined structural geometries of ligand and their metal complexes. The electrostatic potential(Ep)of the ligand was calculated,furthermore binding energy( ΔEb),the heat of formation(ΔHf),vibration spectra and bond length for the ligand and their metal co -mplexes were calculated by PM3methods at 298K°. The theoretically calculateddata were agreed with those found experimentally. The antibacterial activity for free ligand and its metal complexes(S1-S6)were studied against two selected micro-organisms [(Staphylococcusaureus) as gram positive]and [(Escherichiacoli)as gram negative]. The minimal inhibitory concentrations( MIC)have been also studied to determine the low concentration for inhibition. The antibiotics (Amoxcillin and Ampicillin) have been chosen to compare their activity with those of the new compounds. Furthermore the antif -ungal activity against two microorganisms (Candidaalbicans) and (Aspergillusflavus) were studied for all compounds. The results showed great activity of the complexes relative to that of free ligand.

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Article
Synthesis of Novel 3-Acetyl N-methyl-2- Quinolone Derivatives with Expected Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Ghazwan Ali Salman
Pages: 73-79
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A series of new 3-Acetyl N-Methyl-2-quinolones oxadiazoles derivatives were synthesized by reaction of 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-1-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one 3 with ethylbromoacetate to produce compounds 4. The hydrazinolysis of compound 4 with hydrazine hydrate afforded hydrazide compounds 5. New Schiff bases 6 were obtained by condensation of compound 5 with different aryl aldehydes. The last step involves refluxing compound 6 with acetic anhydrides to give the corresponding 3-acetyl-N-methylquinolin-2-one oxadiazoles 7. All the synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The synthesized compounds have been evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among sixteen synthesized novel compounds, in which five compounds (7a, 7b, 7c, 7e, 7g) exhibited promising Antimicrobial activity as compared to Trimethoprim (100μg/ml).

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Article
Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial Evaluation for mixed-ligand Complexes of Nickle (II), Manganese(II), Copper( II),Cobalt(II) and Mercury(II) with Tetradentate Schiff base and 1,10-phenanthroline

Authors: Rehab K. Al-Shemary
Pages: 80-85
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An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, Schiff base ligand (L) was prepared by the reaction of 4-aminantipyrine with o-phenylenediamine, the prepared ligand characterized by Micro elemental Analysis, FT. IR, UV-Vis, and 1H,13C-NMR spectroscopy.complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) with Schiff base and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) have been investigated in aqueous ethanol with (1:1:1) (M:L:Phen). The prepared complexes were characterized using flame atomic absorption, (C. H. N) Analysis, FT. IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods as well as magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. From the obtained data the octahedral structure was suggested for all complexes. The biological screening effects of the investigated compounds were tested against the bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus), (Escherichia coli), (Bacillus) and (Pseudomonas) by the good diffusion method.

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Article
Affect the Cross Linking Degree and Polymer Composition on the Mechanical Properties of Poly (vinyl alcohol)/ Pullulan Films

Authors: Shemaa Abdul Satar Soud
Pages: 86-92
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In this study Cross-linked PVA/Pullulan film was prepared. Cross-linking reaction done by addition of gluteraldehyde at different reaction time (10,30and 60) min. Chemical interaction, mechanical, thermal properties, water solubility and film morphology was studied for cross-linked PVA/Pullulan, PVA and Pullulan only. Thus FTIR investigated formation of hydrogen bonding between pullulan and PVA with (GA). Tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation (%) at break for PVA/Pullulan film was improved with addition of (GA) as the reaction time proceed equivalent with increasing PVA content

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Article
Development of Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction method combined with UV spectrophotometry for the Determination of Malathion Pesticide

Authors: Wijdan Shakir Khayoon
Pages: 93-99
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A simple and novel method was developed by combination of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with UV spectrophotometry for the preconcentartion and determination of trace amount of malathion. The presented method is based on using a small volume of ethylenechloride as the extraction solvent was dissolved in ethanol as the dispersive solvent, then the binary solution was rapidly injected by a syringe into the water sample containing malathion. The important parameters, such the type and volume of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, the effect of extraction time and rate, the effect of salt addition and reaction conditions were studied. At the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 2-100 ng mL-1 of malathion with a limit of detection of 0.8 ng L-1. In addition, the enrichment factor was 30. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of malathion pesticide in water samples.

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Article
Preparation and Characterization of TiO2 Nanostructure by TiCl4 Hydrolysis with Additive NaOH

Authors: Rashed Taleb Rasheed
Pages: 100-107
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Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures were synthesized via the hydrolysis of TiCl4 in alcohol / water solution/with sodium hydroxide solution in the ice-bath (0-5 ◦C). The particles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), spectroscopy of Ultra Violet-Visible (UV / Visible) and infrared (FT-IR), atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were used in order to gain information about the material, morphology, size and the shape of the particles.


Article
Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

Authors: Douaa Younis Abbaas
Pages: 108-123
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There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression) and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used). The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks) based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quality parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio) and PSNR (Image Quality). The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

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Article
Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) in Cloud Environment based on Hidden Naïve Bayes Multiclass Classifier

Authors: Hafza A. Mahmood
Pages: 124-132
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Cloud Environment is next generation internet based computing system that supplies customizable services to the end user to work or access to the various cloud applications. In order to provide security and decrease the damage of information system, network and computer system it is important to provide intrusion detection system (IDS. Now Cloud environment are under threads from network intrusions, as one of most prevalent and offensive means Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that cause dangerous impact on cloud computing systems. This paper propose Hidden naïve Bayes (HNB) Classifier to handle DoS attacks which is a data mining (DM) model used to relaxes the conditional independence assumption of Naïve Bayes classifier (NB), proposed system used HNB Classifier supported with discretization and feature selection where select the best feature enhance the performance of the system and reduce consuming time. To evaluate the performance of proposal system, KDD 99 CUP and NSL KDD Datasets has been used. The experimental results show that the HNB classifier improves the performance of NIDS in terms of accuracy and detecting DoS attacks, where the accuracy of detect DoS is 100% in three test KDD cup 99 dataset by used only 12 feature that selected by use gain ratio while in NSL KDD Dataset the accuracy of detect DoS attack is 90 % in three Experimental NSL KDD dataset by select 10 feature only.

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Article
Best Approximate of Vector Space Model by Using SVD

Authors: Raghad M. Hadi
Pages: 133-139
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A quick growth of internet technology makes it easy to assemble a huge volume of data as text document; e. g., journals, blogs, network pages, articles, email letters. In text mining application, increasing text space of datasets represent excessive task which makes it hard to pre-processing documents in efficient way to prepare it for text mining application like document clustering. The proposed system focuses on pre-processing document and reduction document space technique to prepare it for clustering technique. The mutual method for text mining problematic is vector space model (VSM), each term represent a features. Thus the proposed system create vector-space model by using pre-processing method to reduce of trivial data from dataset. While the hug dimensionality of VSM is resolved by using low-rank SVD. Experiment results show that the proposed system give better document representation results about 10% from previous approach to prepare it for document clustering.

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Article
Best Approximate of Vector Space Model by Using SVD

Authors: Raghad M. Hadi
Pages: 133-139
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Abstract

A quick growth of internet technology makes it easy to assemble a huge volume of data as text document; e. g., journals, blogs, network pages, articles, email letters. In text mining application, increasing text space of datasets represent excessive task which makes it hard to pre-processing documents in efficient way to prepare it for text mining application like document clustering. The proposed system focuses on pre-processing document and reduction document space technique to prepare it for clustering technique. The mutual method for text mining problematic is vector space model (VSM), each term represent a features. Thus the proposed system create vector-space model by using pre-processing method to reduce of trivial data from dataset. While the hug dimensionality of VSM is resolved by using low-rank SVD. Experiment results show that the proposed system give better document representation results about 10% from previous approach to prepare it for document clustering.

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Article
Best Approximate of Vector Space Model by Using SVD

Authors: Raghad M. Hadi
Pages: 133-139
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Abstract

A quick growth of internet technology makes it easy to assemble a huge volume of data as text document; e. g., journals, blogs, network pages, articles, email letters. In text mining application, increasing text space of datasets represent excessive task which makes it hard to pre-processing documents in efficient way to prepare it for text mining application like document clustering. The proposed system focuses on pre-processing document and reduction document space technique to prepare it for clustering technique. The mutual method for text mining problematic is vector space model (VSM), each term represent a features. Thus the proposed system create vector-space model by using pre-processing method to reduce of trivial data from dataset. While the hug dimensionality of VSM is resolved by using low-rank SVD. Experiment results show that the proposed system give better document representation results about 10% from previous approach to prepare it for document clustering.

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Article
Comparison of Bayes Estimators for Parameter and Reliability Function for Inverse Rayleigh Distribution by Using Generalized Square Error Loss Function

Authors: Huda A. Rasheed
Pages: 152-158
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In the current study, we have been derived some Basyian estimators for the parameter and reliability function of the inverse Rayleigh distribution under Generalized squared error loss function. In order to get the best understanding of the behavior of Bayesian analysis, we consider noninformative prior for the scale parameter using Jefferys prior Information as well as informative prior density represented by Gamma distribution. Monte-Carlo simulation have been employed to compare the behavior of different estimates for the scale parameter and reliability function of inverse Rayleigh distribution based on mean squared errors and Integrated mean squared errors, respectively. In the current study, we observed that more occurrence of Bayesian estimate using Generalized squared error loss function using Gamma prior is better than other estimates for all cases.

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Article
Modification of Iraqi Asphalt 40/50 Properties Using Saw Dust (SD) and Natural Rubber Latex

Authors: Rusul M. Darwesh1
Pages: 163-168
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The aim of this research is to enhance the fundamental properties for asphalt binder as those specifications relate to performance of asphalt mixtures. In this paper studied the effect of add (2, 4 %) SD in different sizes and (3, 5 and 7%) Natural rubber latex to the straight asphalt 40/50 produced from Al-Dura refinery at 160

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Article
Structural, Optical, and Morphological Properties of the Cadmium Oxide Thin Film

Authors: Taif S. Almaadhede
Pages: 169-173
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Cadmium oxide nanoparticles CdO NPS has been prepared by laser ablation in ethanol at 600 pulses and 600 mJ as laser energy. The structural, optical, and morphological properties of the cadmium oxide CdO thin film deposited on a glass substrate have been studied. X-ray diffractometer (XRD 6000, Shimadzu, X-ray, diffractometer) with Cukα radiation at a wavelength of (

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Table of content: volume:28 issue:2