Table of content

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research.

مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية

ISSN: 18138497
Publisher: Basrah University
Faculty: Veterinary Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

. Basrah Journal of Veterinary research publishes in Arabic or English Original and distinguished paper ,short communications, Case reports and reviews in the field of veterinary sciences. The journal is published two times a year.

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Contact info

Mobile;07801034925
E.mail;alaasawad1965@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2017 volume:16 issue:2

Article
CHROMIUM INHIBITS IN VITRO VIABILITY AND STEROIDOGENIC IN RAM LEYDIG CELLS

Authors: Mohanad A. Al-Bayati
Pages: 1-25
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Abstract

One of an ecological hazardous agent Chromium; Cr (VI), The present experiment in vitro design to examine the mechanism of Leydig cell functions of Cr (VI) in ram testis, Cr (VI) treated groups demising cell growth behavior of exponential phase was upset of feeding time to Leydig cell in a dose-dependent manner, and induced mitochondria-dependent ATP depletion and subsequently apoptosis. Cr (VI) effect may be attributed, at least in part to DNA fragmentation increase DNA tail number and tail length of COMET as compared with control group. Furthermore, the properties of cell-specific regulation of cell membrane integrity had reduced and determinant cell concentration drop an.d reflected on the testosterone concentration were decreased as concentration-dependent manner, In conclusion, our results display the Cr (VI) is cytotoxic and impairs both viability and steroidogenic functions of Leydig cells in ram testis via actually different pathway direct affecting of viability and indirect on steroidogenic activity, succeeding in testicular performance. However, the definite modes of action of harmfulness are not evidently unknown and must be rechecked and studied in a different aspect

Keywords

Chromium --- Leydig cell --- DNA.


Article
DETECTION OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS CRYSTAL PROTEIN CRY51AA1 INTOXICATION (IN VIVO) USING ZEBRAFISH MODEL

Authors: Ali B.T. Aldeewan
Pages: 26-35
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Bacillus thuringiensis is a ubiquitous a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium, produces various proteins (toxins) during the stationary and vegetative phase of its growth cycle. Some of these proteins belonging to this group showed weak similarities to ß-barrel pore-forming toxic proteins, such as the cytotoxins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens, alpha-toxin of Clostridium septicum. In the present study, the intoxication effects of Cry51Aa1 protein produced by B.thuringiensis F14-1 strain was evaluated in vivo, in order to investigate the ability of activated Cry51Aa1 to make a change in size or functions of zebrafish cardiovascular system and induces toxicity in adult zebrafish. Using in vivo imaging we observed that Cry51Aa1 has no scientific effect on cardiac function and development of zebra fish embryo or have toxic effect on adult in spite of use high concentration, so it is safe to use and a potentially effective agent in breast cancer therapy.


Article
MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN A HUMAN RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL CELL LINE FOLLOWING INFECTION BY Toxoplasma gondii

Authors: Alaa T. A. Al-sandaqchi
Pages: 36-44
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Retinitis is the most important clinical consequences of Toxoplasmosis but the mechanisms used by T. gondii tachyzoites to invade the retina are not yet understood. In the current study, cellular pathogenicity of Toxoplasmosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) was investigated. Following in vitro infection of ARPE-19 with T. gondii tachyzoites, cell viability associated with infection was identified by Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Intracellular development of T. gondii tachyzoites within ARPE-19 was characterized by acridine orange (AO) staining. Morphological changes associated with infection was assessed by electron microscopy (EM). The results obtained showed that ARPE-19 permit the invasion, growth and development of T. gondii tachyzoites and that infection can cause a metabolic burden on the host cells and multiple morphological changes in the relocation of the host cell organelles (mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus) around the parasitphorous vacuole


Article
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IRAQI DROMEDARY CAMEL’S MILK

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Camel milk has proved as the closer to human milk than other livestock milk. This study intended to examine the physicochemical properties of dromedary camel’s milk. Thirty milk samples collected from 2 dromedary camel herds in Badiat Alsamawah/ Al Muthanna governorate/ Iraq. The physical and chemical analysis was done on each milk sample and data were reported and analyzed. The variations were seen in the physical and chemical properties of fresh camel milk. The pH, specific gravity and freezing point were ranged between 6.1 and 6.5 (6.3133± 0.154), 1.0123 - 1.0615 (1.0282±0.0098), and (-) 0.439 – (-)1.361 (-0.6132±0.1928) respectively. The percentages of total fat, SNF (Solid Not Fat), Protein and lactose were ranged between 1.59 - 13.9 (4.1343±2.88), 1.59 - 20.36 (9.428±2.8833), 7.15 – 2.74 (3.576±1.1087) and 11.74 - 4.15 (5.3406±1.6513) respectively. In conclusion, some physical and biochemical values of fresh dromedary milk were determined in this study. Moreover, the effect of food and environment on the milk quality was also approved. The authors recommend another future study that correlates between the nature of food and the quality of camel milk during the different lactation period.


Article
SEOPREVALENCE AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF BABESIA SPECIES IN CATTLE IN BAGHDAD CITY

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Cross-sectional study carried in areas surrounding Baghdad province (Dora , Nahrawan, Tajy and Abu Graib )respectively. During June -December 2016, for detection of cattle Babesiosis. One hundred fifty (150) clinically healthy local cattle breeds of different ages, and from both sex were examined by routine blood smear examination, molecular detection of Babesiosis by Conventional polymerase chain reaction PCR and by ELISA test. Results revealed that the infective species of Babesia during this study were B.bovis and B.bigemina that had detected in 14 cases ( 9.33%) by traditional blood smear examination, compared with 15 cases ( 10% )with Babesia bovis by conventional PCR technique and 100 cases (66.6%)with Babesia bigemina were detected by using ELISA technique .It has been concluded that infection with Babesia.bovis and Babesia bigemina were more prominent and no other species were detected


Article
THE IMPACT ON INDIVIDUALS AND COMMUNITY HEALTH BY KITCHEN INSECTS AS BACTERIAL MECHANICAL VECTORS, TAIF, KSA

Authors: Sherifa Mostafa M. Sabra
Pages: 65-75
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This paper was designed to evaluate the kitchen insects bacterial mechanical vectors (Cockroaches) and its impact on individual and community health in Taif, KSA, the mean incidence of bacterial loads turbidity were (3rd, 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th group); (98.0, 97.2, 96.9, 96.5 and 96.2%) respectively, the mean was 96.96%. The mean incidence of bacterial growth evaluation were (+++ = heavy growth) in all groups, were in (3rd, 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th group); (78.5, 77.2, 76.3, 76.1 and 76.0%) respectively, the mean revealed 76.82%. The mean incidence of bacterial Colony Forming Unit (CFU) / mL evaluation, the mean was (3.3 X 105) / mL, were (3.8, 3.5, 3.3, 3.1 and 2.9 X105) / mL, for (3rd, 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th group) respectively. The mean incidence of bacterial Spp were isolated, which produced 12 bacterial Spp were (E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus Spp and Citrobacter Spp) as (19.1, 16.2, 13.3, 12.2 and 8.3%) respectively, followed by bacteria (Shigella Spp, Staph. Spp, Strept. Spp, Serratia Spp, Bacillus Spp, Salmonella Spp and Campylobacter Spp) were (7.5, 6.4, 4.5, 4.2, 3.8, 2.4 and 2.1%) respectively. The conclusions confirmed the role of Cockroaches as a bacterial mechanical vector, which transferred and dropped of the pathogenic bacteria which caused food contamination, food poising and infectious diseases, that effected on the individuals and community health. So the insect control center (Insecticiders) must be arranged to eradicate the Cockroaches and also the kitchens hygiene must be improved to protect the individuals and community health.


Article
PREGABALIN EFFECTS ON CELLULAR AND HUMORAL COMPONENTS OF BLOOD OF MICE (Mus musculus)

Authors: Wissam Sajid Hashim Al-Uboody
Pages: 76-84
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The oral use of pregabalin was evaluated in this study to reveal its effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters of laboratory mice. The animals of this study were divided into three groups (twelve mice each). The control group was fed on a standard ration. The first treated group (Pregabalin 1) were dosed orally with one ml of distilled water containing Pregabalin (20 mg/ml/mice/ day). The second treated group (Pregabalin 2) were dosed orally with one ml of distilled water containing pregabalin (40mg/ml/mice/ day). The experiment continued for two successive months. The results showed that the use of pregabalin caused a significant declination in R.B.C., HGB, HCT, W.B.C., M.C.V., MCH, and MCHC of both treated groups compared them with control group and the declination was more significant in (pregabalin 2) group compared with (pregabalin 1) group. The RDW-CV, RDW-SD, and PLT increased significantly in both treated groups as compared with those of the control group. However, PCT, PDW and MPV were not affected by the use of pregabalin except the MPV of (Pregabalin 2) group was significantly less than that of (Pregabalin 1) but without a significant difference compared with that of control. The Fe++, and GLU decreased significantly in both treated groups compared with the control and they declined more significantly in (Pregabalin 2) compared with (Pregabalin 1). Both the TP and Ca++ did not affected by the use of pregabalin compared with the control group (P≤0.05)

Keywords

Pregabalin --- electrolytes --- mice.


Article
ACTIVATION OF BACTERIAL CYTOCHROME P450 IN THE INTESTINE OF LARVAL MOSQUITOES AN INDICATION OF ITS ROLE IN THE INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE

Authors: Ali Hassan Daghir Janabi
Pages: 85-91
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Mosquitoes apply very important impact on people life, and their control, day by day, is getting harder and harder. This difficulty comes from different issues such as insecticide resistance. The gut microbiome (GM) in different animals has been discovered to add principle influence on the gastrointestinal tract physiology. For example, GM participates in degradation of some poisonus chemicals into safer molecules that could be handled by the animal host. Eukaryotic cytochrome P450 has been detected to inseret some degradation processes in other animal models such as zebra fish. However, these effects are not yet known in mosquitos. In order to stand on these problems and find if the prokaryotic P450 is involved, this study had been done to find out if the GM has any role in developing such resistance in mosquitos. Larvae were used in this experiment which exposed to benzothiozole (BZT) to trigger the hypothetical role of prokaryotic P450. By using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the result indicates that the bacterial P450 was initiated and might be involved in the BZT exposure handling


Article
DETECTION OF CILIARY ACTIVITY FOLLOWING VACCINATION WITH 3 COMMERITIAL INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VACCINES IN BROILER BIRDS

Authors: Alaa Ismail Saood --- Ali A. S.Al-Mayah
Pages: 92-106
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This study was conducted to investigate whether different types of Infectious Bronchitis Virus vaccines can affect the cilia of tracheal epithelium of broiler birds, in comparison with Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Vaccines. as positive control. Sixty one-day-old broiler birds of both sexes were used in this experiment. The bird were randomly divided in to six groups of ten birds each. Each group was placed in a separated pin.One of these groups,Group 6 was acted as negative control,whereas the other 5groups were vaccinated with ND, AI and 3 type of IB vaccines. Age, dose and route of administration of different type of vaccines were conducted according to the manufactures directions. Group 1 was vaccinated with ND vaccine at seventh & seventeenth day of age , group 2 was vaccinated with AIV vaccine at first & twenty one day of age , these 2 groups were acted as positive control .Group 3,4,5, were vaccinated at first&tenth day of age with different types of IB vaccines . BIVAC1 was used for group 3, IBMA5 was used for vaccination of group 4, whereas IB-H120 vaccine was administrated to group 5 . Four days post vaccination; all groups were observed for clinical signs. All experimental birds were killed and tracheal rings were examined for ciliostasis and Carboniferous Pigment Granules test. The result indicated that group ND vaccineswas 95%, while that of group AI vaccines was 93% whereas the results of these 3 types of vaccines were 21%, 33%, 20% for BIVAC1, IBMA5 &IBH120 respectively, while the control was 100% .


Article
DIAGNOSTIC STUDY AND SOME ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STABLE FLY STOMOXYS CALCITRANS L. 1758 (DIPTERA:MUSCIDAE) IN BASRAH PROVINCE, IRAQ.

Authors: Alaa N. Hatem
Pages: 107-123
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This study was conducted during June 2016 to May 2017, to determine the morphological characteristics of stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans L. ,and studying some ecological aspects. These studies of stable flies are being conducted for the first time in Iraq.The morphological diagnosis of Stomoxys calcitrans: Frontal vitta with black pollinose, yellow around ocellar triangle, parafrontalia golden, parafacialia grayish black. Thorax gray to yellowish pollinose, Pleura yellow; sternites dark brown to black, Legs black, Wing tinged smoky-brown. Abdomen gray to yellowish; dorsum with four brownish pollinose spots, at least 3 abdominal segments with a single median spot basally and pair of spots at apex of each segment. Female identical to male in color and structure except for wider frontal vitta, frontal triangle with golden pollinosity extending almost to frontal ridge, setae on head somewhat stouter than in male, Interocular space wide in females, narrower in males by about half the distance of separation in females. A total of 470 flies were collected in this study. The results showed, some variations of monthly abundance were determined during the study period, four different climatic seasons. In general, stable flies were found to be more abundant in the moderate climates period of the year. April was the highest abundance with 18.7%, while, no presence recorded in January and December. Some observations showed that stable flies were found in the field in different periods of the day, beginning from 06:00 to 18:00 hr.,but these are periods that are considered the peak of its presence of other seasons during the year. Both sexes of S. calcitrans showed the same peak of activity in the day108 nearly. The field observations showed that Stomoxys calcitrans adults attack many economic and domesticated animals in Basrah province.Cattle are the most, followed by buffaloes, dogs, horses, cats, camels, donkeys than sheep, goats and rabbits


Article
EFFECTS OF AGING ON SOME ENZYME BIOCHEMICAL RELATED TO OXIDATION IN SERUM OF LOCAL COWS

Authors: Alhtheal E. D.
Pages: 124-130
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The study was included 90 local cows from Al-Rashidea area which locates in the east of Baghdad city, distributed into three groups, the smallest aged group (30) cows (1.5-2 ) years, middle aged group (30) cows (5.5-7) years and the older aged group (30) cows (11-13) years to study the effect progressing of age on some biochemical Criterias as indicators of oxidative stress. The results revealed that the antioxidant enzymes, Glutathione -S-transferase GST was increased significantly (p<0.05) ) in middle -aged group And lower value in the older aging , it was noticed that arylesterase enzyme gradually decreased significantly with age progress. The non enzymatic antioxidants such as Glutathione GSH revealed with the higher great value in the middle age group and the lower significant value in the aging compared with other groups. on the other hand Malondialdehyde (MDA) and peroxy nitrite(ONOO-) level gradually increased with progressing of age, these events because of an increasing in production of free radicals and oxidative stress accompanied with processing of age due to antioxidants depletion, which consider as a defense line of body against the free radicals effects. It was concluded from this study that with aging processes have harm effects on blood components diagnosed by reducing in antioxidants levels and increasing of Malondialdehyde and peroxy nitrite which consider as an indicators of oxidative stress and this support the theory of free radicals and oxidative stress and their role in aging processes . Study the effect of aging on some biochemical parameters and antioxidant in cow

Keywords

aging --- local cows --- Antioxidants


Article
EVALUATION OF MEMBRANE INTEGRITY OF BULL FROZENTHAWED SPERM USING WATER AND HYPO OSMOTIC SWELLING TEST

Authors: Godratollah Mohammadi, --- Hamed Mahdion
Pages: 131-143
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Assessment of the sperm membrane functional status appears to be a significant marker for the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa. The hypo osmotic swelling test (HOST) is one of the best methods to evaluate sperm membrane integrity. In the current study, we used DW and hypo osmotic solutions of 50 and 100mOsm/l of dextrose/NaCl, NaCl, sucrose and fructose. Based on the results, Among the dextrose/NaCl, NaCl, sucrose, and fructose solutions and DW, Maximum numbers of swollen of bull frozen-thawed spermatozoa were observed with DW and dextrose/NaCl solution at 50 mOsm with average response by 61.20±8.677 and 47.90±10.181 respectively. The HOST response at 3 and 60 min for all of solutions were positively correlated to each other and there was no significant difference between the responses to the HOST at 3 and 60 min after incubation in all of solutions. The significant correlation was observed between motility and dextrose/NaCl at 50 mOsm, sucrose 50 and 100 mOsm, NaCl 50 mOsm and DW. The high relationship was between motility and DW and dextrose/NaCl at 50 mosm. There was no significant correlation between DW and all of hypoosmotic solutions with staining of the spermatozoa by eosin/nigrosin. In conclusion, the water test can be efficiently used for the evaluation of the functional integrity of the plasma membrane of bull frozen-thawed spermatozoa. The hypoosmular solution of dextrose/NaCl at 50 mOsm is a good medium to evaluate bull frozen spermatozoa. The used of HOST and motility are better tests to evaluate bull frozen thawed sperm than eosin-nigrosin. The short HOST procedure (3 min) is suitable method for evaluating of membrane integrity of bull frozen/thawed spermatozoa


Article
INFECTION RATE OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN ANGORA GOATS OF DUHOK PROVINCE-IRAQ

Authors: Nawzat A. Issa
Pages: 144-158
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In this study the seroprevalence of active toxoplasmosis represented by T. gondii IgM in angora goats was detected in Zakho and Semel districts of Duhok provinceIraq for the first time. T. gondii antibodies were detected at the laboratory of college of Veterinary Medicine of Duhok University from April 2009 to May 2010. Ninety two (92) serum samples were collected from clinically healthy adults’ angora goats (54 and 38 were obtained from Semel and Zakho, respectively). Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was applied and the overall infection rate was %13.04. Results show that the infection rate was different between the two regions with a higher rate recorded in Zakho. Female and older animals were affected with higher infection rates than males and younger animals. It can be concluded that toxoplasmosis is an active infection among angora goats of Duhok province, therefore145 for more biosecurity measures and to minimize the zoonotic impact of the disease all animals must be screened periodically.

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Article
DETECTION OF GIARDIA INFECTION IN DOGS OF BASRAH CITY

Authors: Ali Naser --- Israa abdul wadood
Pages: 159-171
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The present study was conducted to determine detect the infection rate of Giardiasis in local canine breeds of Basrah, Iraq. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) fecal samples were collected from dogs of both sexes from March to October 2016. Suspected animals either asymptomatic (56.7%) or symptomatic (43.3%) the suspected dogs show different clinical signs such as diarrhea (6.66%), pasty feces (13.33%), steatorrhea (8.00%), anorexia (10.66%), emaciation (15.55%) and vomiting (0.88%). Diagnosis of Giardia spp was done on basis of microscopic examination which detects Giardia cyst and trophozoite with infection rate (40 %), moreover, it was confirmed by ELISA technique(Giardia-specific antigen) to detect (75.55%) was infected with G. lamblia with a high infection rate comparison with microscopic examination. It had been shown that high infection rate (43.75%) was detected in March than the lowest in July (34.78%). Moreover infection with Giardia was found more common at (1 day to 6 months) of age; furthermore, females show infection rate more males. It has been concluded that giardiasis affected canine of Basrah city lead to substantial effect, therefore animals must be screened periodically.

Keywords

Giardia --- dogs --- Anorexia.


Article
SEROEPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Neospora caninum IN CATTLE IN WASIT PROVINCE

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The main aim of present study was to identify the seroprevalence of N. caninum infections in cattle of some districts in Wasit province using a serological test (indirectELISA), and confirmation of seropositive results by a molecular PCR. In this study, the blood samples and epidemiological required data were collected from 327 animals during a period of September 2015 to May 2016. The overall results were revealed that 27.22% and 12.36% of study’s cattle were positives with indirect ELISA and PCR, respectively. Regarding to the epidemiological risk factors submitted for this study; the prevalence of seropositive rates was reported a statistically variable results. Among district factor, the seropositive results were 36.28%, 27.88%, 17.31% and 26.53% in Al-Azizyah, AlNumaniyah, Al-Kut and Al-Hay districts, respectively. According to age factor, it was 18.58% and 31.78% in  3 years and  3years groups, respectively; while in sex factor, males were reported 24.53% and females 27.74%. Relating to reproductive statement factor, the positive infections were 30.99% and 21.97% in aborted and non-aborted cows, respectively. Whereas in productivity nature factor; it was 38.24% and 19.37% in dairy and beef cattle, respectively.

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Article
PURIFICATION OF METACYCLIC LEISHMANIAL PROMASTIGOTES BY USING PEANUT LECTIN AGGLUTININ TEST .

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Lieshmania metacyclic promastigotes are transmitted during blood meals after development inside the gut of the sandfly vector. The isolation from axenic cultures of procyclic and metacyclic promastigotes by peanut lectin agglutination followed by differential centrifugation is controversial in Leishmania major . The purpose of this study was to isolate both fractions simultaneously from the same population in stationary phase of axenic culture. We have confirmed the increased infection rate of PNA− promastigotes by inoculation in BALB/c mice infection experiments. These data support that metacyclic promastigotes are related with infectivity and the lack of agglutination with PNA is a phenotypic marker for this subpopulation.

Keywords

Lieshmania --- Sandfly --- BALB/c mice


Article
INVESTIGATION OF PHYLOGENIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL AND SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN DIFFERENT ANIMALS IN BASRAH PROVINCE

Authors: Ibrahim H. Madhloom --- Rasha M. Othman
Pages: 193-209
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E.colican be assigned to one of the four main phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D, which can be divided into seven and then into subgroups: A0, A1, B1, B22, B23, D1, and D2, in addition group B1can be divided into subgroups B11 and B12, using multiplex PCR according to the presence/absence or combinationof the three phylogeny genetic markers chuA, yjaA and DNA fragment TspE4.C2.In the currentstudy atotal of 30E. coli isolates were obtained from clinical and subclinical samples from mastitis in cows, sheeps and goats by standard bacteriological methods. Results found that the most isolates of E. coli belong to the phylogeny groups A and B1. Group Aincluded (14 isolates, 46.7%) belonged to subgroup A0 about (6 isolates, 20.0%), and (8 isolates, 26.7%) to A1 subgroup. On the other hand results showed group B1 composed (14 isolates, 46.7%). Group B1 can be also classified into subgroups B11 included (8 isolates, 26.7%) and B12 about (6 isolates, 20.0%). In addition our results showed (1 isolate, 3.3%), assigned to B2 belonged to subgroup B23 and (1 isolate, 3.3%), fitted in D belonged to subgroup D1. No isolates were found to belong to subgroups B22 and D2. Phylogeny pedigree was done according to the data recovered previously. This study explains that the distributions of E. coli isolates in phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) varied depending on the climatic zone and environmental factors such as dietary, climatic conditions and geographic.


Article
CULTIVATION OF INFLUENZA A VIRUS IN PRIMARY CELL CULTURE OF TURKEY EMBRYONIC FIBROBLASTS

Authors: Firas Taha Mansour Al-Mubarak
Pages: 210-222
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Cell cultures in particular the clonally selected Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell lines are widely used to cultivate influenza viruses because of their high susceptibility to infection and their ability to produce high number of viruses. However, these cells have been in culture for decades and are well adapted to the two-dimensional culture environment, and as a result, often differ genetically, physiologically, and phenotypically from their tissue origin. The aim of this study was to extract turkey embryonic fibroblast cells directly from tissue as a new primary cell type and then infect them with H2N3 influenza A virus to determine their susceptibility to infection. This cell type will have normal cell characters and maintain many of the important markers and functions seen in vivo. Results showed that the level of susceptibility to infection was comparable between turkey embryonic fibroblasts and MDCK cell line based on incubating with peroxidase labelled monoclonal IgG antibody to viral nucleoprotein. In addition, progeny virions were clearly visualized on the surface of turkey embryonic fibroblasts by using transmission electron microscope. For further confirmation, progeny virions were also detected in the infected cells following treatment with a fluorescently labelled IgG antibody specific to viral H2 protein by performing immunofluorescent technique. This study confirms that turkey embryonic fibroblast cells are susceptible to infection with influenza viruses and can be considered as a primary cell model to cultivate influenza viruses and to study their effects on cells.

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Article
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES THAT INDUCED IN THE INTERNAL ORGANS OF WHITE RAT AFTER EXPOSURE TO DIAZINON

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A pesticide diazinon is a widely used and easily available in the world so, the general health risks of this compound for environment, human and animals were investigated with emphasis on histopathological effects by oral gavage Sixteen adults laboratory rats from tow sex with diazinon solution for about six weeks. The animals were divided into two groups with (8)animal in each group. The control group was given orally distill water, while the experimental group was given high dose of diazinon 10mg/ml for the first three weeks and up to 20mg/ml for the last three weeks. The most important histopathological changes observed in the internal organs(liver,kidney,heart muscle, lung, stomach and nervous tissue) of the experimental rat include congestion,degeneration, fibrosis, necrosis, vaculation and edema in compared with the control animals .

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histo-pathology --- diazinon --- tissues


Article
DETECTION OF NASAL BOT FLY LARVAE IN SLAUGHTERED SHEEP OF NINEVAH GOVERNORATE – IRAQ

Authors: N.H.AL-Ubeidi --- AB.J.ALani --- E.R.Al-kennany
Pages: 240-247
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This study aimed to defect and calculate infection rate of Oestrus ovis. in sheep from Ninevah governorate, Iraq.The study examines the presence of oestrus ovis. Larvae in heads sheep collected from march to may 2014. Of 133 heads 72 (54.1%) were infested with oestrus ovis. A total of 142 larvae were encountered in the infested sheep. Thirty five (24.6%) of those larvae were identified as L1, 62 (43.7%) were identified as L2 and 45 (31.7%) were identified as L3, the general mean of intensity of larvae was( 2) larvae/ infested head..The older animals were mostly affected as compared to younger animals. there was no significant difference between the number of infected male and female. sheep with black colored head higher infestation than that of sheep with light colored head


Article
EFFICACY OF INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS DISEASE VACCINES AS MEASURED BY VIRAL SHED AFTER VIRULENT CHALLENGE IN BROILER

Authors: Sahar Hamdi Abdulmaged
Pages: 248-258
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Infectious bronchitis threatens the poultry industry throughout the world, The control of IB of the big problems in the world because of the wide variations in serotypes and development in the virulence of strains from time to time, and nature is very contagious, the rapid evolution in the specific tissue tropism and recombinants because of the synchronization of infection with different virus types and the use of live vaccines.found that the IB virus which is isolated from the recent outbreak is the same serotype but the difference genotype compared with the strains of current vaccine. Previous studies have indicated that the broiler vaccination with inactivated vaccines showed significantly less virus shed if challenge with the homologous vaccines (same genotype viruses) as compared with birds that vaccination genetically heterologous vaccines. The current study compared the extent of protection resulting from vaccination with live Commercial vaccines(Volvac® IB Mass MLV, Poulvac® IB Primer (D274), Avipro® IB M48 and mixed vaccine from (Volvac®, Poulvac® and Avipro®)). Vaccinates werechallenged with virulent field isolate (Variant2) strain. Weekly post-vaccination, collected serum for analytical knowledge of the amount of antibodies using hemagglutiation inhibition test against all vaccine antigens used in the experiment after challenge with field virulent (Variant2 isolate), examine the birds daily to monitor the morbidity and mortality rates in selected periods for shedding virus by real time PCRto detect and quantitate the IBV viral copy number from clinical samples.After challenge with (Variant2) birdsvaccinated with mixed vaccine revealed less shedding virus compared to (Volvac®, Poulvac® and Avipro®)- vaccinated birdsboth separately.Genotypic differences between the vaccines and the challenge virus do not reduce the ability of vaccines to protect against the disease, but genotypic similarities reduce the virus shed and limiting its spread. The use of same249 genetically advanced vaccines and expected to provide the best protection against the challenge with virulent field IB strains and limit the spread of poultry farming


Article
EFFECT OF URSOLIC ACID, HYPERINSULINEMIA AND VITAMIN B COMPLEX ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND SKELETAL MUSCLE HISTOLOGY OF ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RABBITS

Authors: Shaymae' H. Shabaa --- Abdul Razzaq N. Khudair
Pages: 259-270
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Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ursolic acid, hyperinsulinemia and vitamin B complex in skeletal muscle, which represented by Gastrocnemius muscle after sciatic nerve crush in diabetes mellitus male rabbits, determine their effects on some biochemical parameters which include insulin, total serum protein (TSP) and skeletal muscle protein percentage and detect their effects on histological structures of the skeletal muscle represented by Gastrocnemius muscle. The results of our study showed that there is a significant increase of insulin in diabetic rabbits and this increase is continued in all treatment groups with a higher level range of (3.56-8.4 µu/ ml); the lowest significant increase is with vitamin B complex treated group. Our study illustrated that Induction of diabetes has no significant effect on skeletal muscle protein percentage but has a significant effect on total serum protein, while all treatment groups caused a significant increase in skeletal muscle protein percentage and total serum protein. Histological sections of the Gastrocnemius muscle represent some changes happened due to sciatic nerve crush injury, such as some distraction in skeletal muscle fibers, splitting and atrophy of others as well as there is an increase in thickness of fibrous tissue separating them. There is a good regeneration of muscle fibers with little splitting phenomena; also there is a clear formation of muscle cell nuclei, which indicate an improvement of muscle after different treatment.


Article
A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE COMMON CARP Cyprinus carpio L. COLLECTED FROM NATURAL WATERS, CULTIVATED AND IMPORTED IN BASRAH GOVERNORATE, IRAQ

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Abstract

The current study investigated the comparison of the biochemical composition of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. which collected from four different sources in Basrah city; Shatt Al-Arab river at Abul- Khasib by using gill nets, earthen ponds at the University of Basrah campus, fish cages at Al-Hartha district and cooled fish imported from the Islamic Republic of Iran. Fifty specimens of each fish source were selected for analysis, half of which was stored with ice for up to ١٠days. The results indicated that higher moisture content 78.2% was in the muscular tissues of Shatt Al-Arab fish. Highest fat content 11.9% was recorded in imported fish, highest protein 18.17% and ash 2.29% were measured in fresh pond fish. Caloric value of the examined fish showed variations between fresh and iced fish where the highest value 165.62 Kcal/ 100 gm was recorded in fresh cage fish


Article
CLINICAL ,HEMATOLOGICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES OF HEMOMYCOPLASMA INFECTION (MYCOPLASMA OVIS) IN SHEEP OF BASRAH GOVERNORATE

Authors: Faraj A.Abed --- Kamal M.Alsaad
Pages: 284-304
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Abstract

Hemomycoplasmosis caused by Mycoplasma ovis was diagnosed in sheep of Basrah Governorate .The study were conducted on (225) sheep reared in different areas of Basrah governorate . Animals are of different ages and of both sexes. Twenty five clinically healthy sheep were considered as controls .Complete clinical examinations were applied to all animals, and fecal samples screened for parasitic loud. Results revealed that infected sheep show signs of anorexia , anemia with pale or icteric mucous membranes of eyes and vagina , rapid and difficult respiration , enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, rough wool coat and hemoglobinuria, Moreover milk production were decreased in lactating ewes . On clinical examinations statistically significant increase were indicated in body temperature ,respiratory and heart rate of diseased sheep then in controls. Diagnosis of Mycoplasma ovis were leant on examination of stained blood smears with Giemsa ,Since the organism appear as small coccoid or rod shape structures and it could be found as an singular or in chains on the cell membranes of infected erythrocytes of diseased animals , Furthermore the diagnosis were confirmed by indirect Elisa test . Results of hematological examinations show significant decrease in the values of total erythrocytes count ,hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume indicating macrocytic normochromic type of anemia, However , the rate of sedimentation of red blood cells indicated significant increase in diseased sheep, Moreover , Leucocytosis due to significant increase in lymphocytes number were also registered in infected sheep then in controls , In addition evaluation of acute phase response show significant decrease in haptoglobin values and fibrinogen time in diseased sheep compared with controls . Significant decrease in total protein were detected, However285 values of total and indirect bilirubin, GGT, AST, ALP, and BUN were significantly increased in diseased sheep compared with controls. It had been concluded that Hemomycoplasmosis ovis were infected sheep of Basrah governorate lead to hemolytic anemia and substantial effect might terminated with highly mortalities , Therefore all suspected sheep in the chancy area must screened for microorganism loud


Article
COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN JUVENILE AND ADULTS OF YELLOWFIN SEABREAM Acanthopagrus latus IN PLASMA BIOCHEMICAL INDICATORS INDUCED BY DIFFERENT SALINITIES

Authors: Layla Mustafa A.A. AlKatrani
Pages: 305-333
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Abstract

Laboratorial experiments were carried out on juvenile and adults of A. latus to estimate and compare the effect of direct transfer from the control salinity of 1.5 psu to the different salinities of 1.5, 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 psu during the periods of 6, 24, 48 and 96hrs for short term effect experiments. Some physiological parameters (PCV, Osmotic pressure, muscles water content, total protein, glucose, sodium Na+, potassium K+ and chloride Cl-) were tested in plasma of the two age stages. Results for all parameters showed a clear ability of adults to Osmoregulate and adapt a wide range of salinities ranged from 1.5 psu to 45 psu and explain why juvenile die at the salinity 45 psu after 48 hrs of transport by showing the insufficiency of juvenile to Osmoregulate and the high exhaustion of body activities in this salinity. The results indicated that the salinity increase caused an increase in plasma PCV, osmotic pressure, (sodium, potassium and chloride ions), total protein and glucose. Also, a decrease in water content of muscles of juvenile and adults. The time of 96 hrs was not enough for juvenile to reach the stable condition at high salinities, while adults showed more constancy at the end time of experiment in all salinities.


Article
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF R- FSH EFFECTS ON FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM, LIVER AND KIDNEYS IN RATTUS NORVEGICUS RATS

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Abstract

The present study aims to evaluate the histopathological changes induced by recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (follitropin alpha) on reproductive organs as well as the liver and kidneys of female rats. The experiment was done on 24 white female rats (Rattus norvegicus) sexually mature weighing 150-200 gram, divided into 4 equal groups of 6 animals: control group which was given distilled water. Single dose group, double dose group and triple dose groups which were injected by 0.5 iu.,1 iu. and 1.5 iu of recombinant FSH respectively. The drug was given subcutaneously during the pro-estrous phase for ten consecutive cycles, then animals from each group were sacrificed to study the histopathological changes. The histopathological examination of the ovaries, uterus, liver, and kidneys revealed variable changes in different organs.The ovarian sections showed many Graafian follicles without ova and many corpus luteal cysts, fibrosis, and thickened granulosa cell layer, and the ovary was surrounded by excessive adipose tissue. The uterus in single and double doses showed dilated cavity, thin endometrium, thin muscular layer and diminished endometrial glands while in triple dose showed atrophy of endometrial lining and glands, hypertrophied muscular layer with slit like endometrial cavity and formation of multiple endometrial cyst. The liver sections showed few changes like dilated central vein, congestion of sinusoids, vacuolation of hepatocytes, with moderate degree of fatty degeneration A few hepatocytes appeared necrotic but without inflammatory response. The kidneys in single and double doses showed unremarkable changes, while in triple dose glomerular congestion, congested vessels, hemorrhage, and degeneration and necrosis of proximal tubules were found.


Article
THE EFFECT OF ZINC AND COPPER DEFICIENCY ON HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANTS LEVELS IN THE SHEEP.

Authors: Hussein Ali Naji.
Pages: 344-355
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the levels of Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentration, as well as the clinical signs that may be occur due to the Zinc and copper deficiency, in addition to the effect the two trace elements levels on the hematological levels, oxidative stress Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant levels glutathione and Catalase (CAT). This study carried out in Basra province, the study conducted on (75) sheep (male and female). About 60 sheep clinically have from zinc and copper deficiency (hypozincemia) and 15 clinically apparently healthy served as a control group. The clinical signs occur due to the tow trace elements deficiency include: loss of appetite, depression, pica, repeatedly bites off the wool of other sheep, loss of the wool, loss of hair around the eyes, ear and nose, alopecia, parakeratosis, stiff in gait and some animals suffering from diarrhea, pale of the mucous membrane, decrease the rumenal contraction, and significant (P<0.05) increase the heart and respiratory rate with normal body temperature. Also the results show significant increase (P<0.05) of MDA concentration, in addition to significant decrease (P<0.05) in glutathione and CAT levels due to significant decrease (P<0.05) in both Zn and Cu concentration levels, this point the Zn and Cu play important role in prevent damage occur due to the oxidative stress via decrease the free radicals, also it has role in antioxidant synthesis.

Keywords

Zinc --- Malondialdehyde --- Sheep

Table of content: volume:16 issue:2