Table of content

Diyala Journal of Medicine

مجلة ديالى الطبية

ISSN: 97642219
Publisher: Diyala University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A scientific, medical journal published by medical college , diyala university at 2010
No. of issues per year(2)
No. of papers per issue(15-20)
No. of issue published (3) issue

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Contact info

djm.diyala@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2011 volume:1 issue:1

Article
The Assessment of Modified Alvarado Score in the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis

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Abstract

Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency. The case fatality rate has fallen to less than 0.1% for uncomplicated appendicitis as a result of early diagnosis and intervention. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of the modified Alvarado score in the preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis and to compare the result of our study with others. Methods: A prospective study was carried on including seventy eight patients with presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis in Baquba general hospital for one year period ( first of jan. 2001 through 30 first of Dec. 2001 ) and the data were analyzed using a modified Alvarado score. Result: The presence of high score was found to be an easy stationary aid to early diagnosis of appendicitis. Conclusion: The modified Alvarado score is simple to use easy to apply. Effective particularly in men while diagnosis laparoscopy is advised in woman to minimize the false negative appendectomies. Still its validity has to be assessed in pediatric age group.


Article
Incidence of Anticardiolipin Antibodies Level in Patients with Recurrent Abortion
تقييم مستوى الاجسام المضادة للكارديوليبين (IgG, IgM) لدى المريضات المبتليات بالاسقاط المتكرر

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Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome is a major reproductive complication in women, that is characterized by recurrent abortion, thrombosis and thrombocytopenia in association with antiicardiolipin antibodies . Aims: To estimate the incidence of anticardiolipin (IgM & IgG) antibodies in pregnant women with the history of recurrent spontaneous abortion . Design of study Case and Control : Serological estimation by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was done for the following tests: 1. Estimation of ACL IgM & IgG in (59) pregnant women. 2. Estimation of ACL IgM & IgG in (20) non pregnant women. Methods & Materials: Fifty nine women with recurrent pregnancy loss in first and second trimester were selected and (20) non-pregnant women as control group. Anticardiolipin (IgM & IgG) antibodies were estimated in the sera by the enzyme linked immnnvsorbent assay method (ELISA) Results : The level of positive ACL IgM was 1.95 0.8, negative (0.62 0.3 and control group o.41 0.21, while the level of positive ACL IgG was 2.2 1.05, negative 0.54 0.28 and control 0.39 0.19 pg/mL. The results showed 2 of 59 IgM positive, while 7 of 59 IgG positive. Conclusion: Anticardiolipin antibodies in pregnant women are found to be the important factor for recurrent abortion especially in the first trimester of pregnancy. تمهيد : تعد متلازمة مضادات الدهون المفسفرة من المضاعفات الرئيسة للجهاز التكاثري لدى النساء ، والذي يمتاز بالاسقاطات المتكررة والخثرة الدموية ، فضلاً عن نقص الاقراص الدموي والذي يرتبط بالاجسام المضادة للكارديوليبين (IgG, IgM). الهدف من الدراسة : تهدف الدراسة الى تقدير تواجد الاجسام المضادة للكارديوليبين Anticardiolipin (IgM & IgG) لدى النساء الحوامل اللواتي يعانين من حالات الاسقاط المتكررة . المواد وطرائق العمل : تسع وخمسون امرأة تعاني من حالات الاسقاط المتكرر ، لاسيما في الثلث الاول والثاني من الحمل تم اختيارهن للدراسة ، فضلاً عن عشرين امرأة سليمة كمجموعة سيطرة . تم قياس مستوى الاجسام المضادة (IgM , IgG) في مصول المريضات والسليمات بوساطة طريقة الانزيم المرتبط الممتز المناعية (ELISA) . النتائج : اظهرت الدراسة بأن مستوى الاجسام المضادة (IgM) الموجبة هو 1.95 0.81 والسالبة 0.62 0.31 والسيطرة 0.41 0.21 ، في حين مستوى الاجسام المضادة (IgG) الموجبة 2.2 1.05 والسالبة 0.54 0.28 والسيطرة 0.39 0.19. كما بينت النتائج بأن (2) من أصل (59) كان مستوى الاجسام المضادة (IgM) موجبة في حين (7) من أصل (59) كان مستوى الاجسام المضادة (IgG) موجبة .


Article
Outcome Significance of Perinatal Versus Postnatal Fetal Depression, a Comparative Study

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Background: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy HIE, causing significant mortality and long-term morbidity as a perinatal depression with cord pH <7.00, Apgar score <3 at 5 minutes of age with multiple organ involvement .Another form of depression when newborn’s was born fine then insult seriously within the first seven days of life. Objective: Compare the outcome of perinatal to those with postnatal fetal depression. Materials and Method Retrospective study of infants admitted at birth or within the first 7 days of life to neonatal or pediatric intensive care and followed over 18months in the women's and Hamad teaching hospitals, Doha, Qatar. Results: Forty four cases in the study 22 in each group, mean gestational age 36.8wks for group 1with perinatal HIE compared to 38.8wks for group 2 postnatal HIE(P value 0.04), Apgar score significantly different, all cases in group1 required resuscitation compared to 8 cases in group 2 (P value 0.00). Conclusion: The outcome of cases of postnatal HIE was much better than that of Perinatal HIE. Preterm depressed babies present earlier and more severe than term babies. Abbreviations: NICU neonatal intensive care unit, PICU pediatric intensive care unit, HIE hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, GA gestational age, ND normal delivery, AND assisted normal delivery ,CS caesarian section.

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Article
Long Period Vs Short Period in Situ Drain in Paraumbilical Hernia Repair

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Background:Paraumbilical Hernia is more likely to be incarcerated or strangulated so the repair of such hernia is advisable as early as possible. Objective: To outcome the benefit of the long period that the drain had been kept in situ after Paraumbilical Hernia repair for reducing the complications. Patients and Methods:150 patients were included in this study which had been perform in Diyala province in the period of January 2004 – December 2006 to whom mayo's repair had been performed for their Paraumbilical Hernia and these patient had been divided in to tow groups, group(1) which include 75 patients in whom the drain had been left for 48 hours only, group(2) include 75 patients in whom the drain had been left for 7 days. Results:We found that in the group (1), 30 (40%) patients had develop seroma collections and 16 (21.33%) patients had developed wound infection with this seroma, 10 (13.33%) patients developed hematoma collections and 7 (9.33%) developed wound infection with this hematoma. In group (2) we found that only 7 (9.33%) patients developed seroma collection and 3 (4%) patients developed wound infection with this seroma, 3 (4%) patients developed hematoma collection and 2 (2.66%) patients developed wound infection with this hematoma.


Article
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enterococcal Isolates And its Relevance With Biofilms Formation And Β -Lactamase Production

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Background: Enteroccci are part of the normal intestinal flora of human and animal, but with increasing antimicrobial resistance, enterococci are recognized as serious nosocomial as well as community pathogens. Objectives: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 44 isolates of enterococci recovered from different pathological specimens from in-and out-patients from Diyala province. Materials and methods: The present study was conducted in Baquba General Hospital and Al-Batool Hospital for Maternity and children during the period from 1st. September/2005 to 30th. September /2006. A total of 343 specimens were collected from 213 inpatients and 130 outpatients. 200 (58.3%) were females and 143 (41.7%) were males. The mean age of patients was (32.8 ± 17.2) years. Specimens include, urine, stool, vaginal swabs, throat swabs, burn swabs, blood for culture, middle ear swabs, wound swabs, sputum and cerebrospinal fluid. Specimens were streaked on blood agar, and other differential and selective media. 44 isolates of enterococci (30 E. faecalis, 10 E. faecium, 3 E. gallinarium, and 1 E. avium) were recovered and identified according to standard bacteriological and biochemical criteria. The susceptibility patterns toward 13 antimicrobial agents were done by disc diffusion method. Data were statistically analysed. Results: The results revealed that the highest susceptibility of enterococcal isolates was toward the Nalidixic acid (79.5%), Ciprofloxacin (61.4%), Amoxacillin+clavilanic acid (61.4%), Rifampicillin (36.4%),Trimethoprim (22.7%), Vancomycin (11.4%). However, all isolates were resistant to Cloxacillin, Cefotaxim, Amoxicillin, Tetracycline, and Erythromycin. The susceptibility of non- β -lactamase producing isolates to penicillin were significantly higher than β - lactamase producing isolates (p<0.001). Furthermore, the sensitivity of non-biofilms former isolates were significantly higher than that of biofilms former isolates (p= 0.002). Conclusion: The overall susceptibility rates of enterococcal isolates recovered from nosocomial as well as community acquired infections to available antimicrobials are low.


Article
Seroprevalence of Anti-Rubella IGg Antibody Among Pregnant And Childbearing Women in Diyala Province-Iraq

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Background: In countries where the rate of susceptible women to rubella infection is higher than 10%, preconceptional or prenatal screening is important to reduce the burden of the disease. Objectives: determination of anti-rubella IgG seropositivity and susceptibility rates among pregnant and childbearing women in Baquba-Diyala province. Subjects and methods: A total of 184 women were enrolled in the present study which was conducted in Baquba-Diyala province during the period from April/2007 to September/2008. Ninety eight pregnant women were chosen from those attending the primary health care centers in Baquba. They include 46(46.9%) who had previous abortions with a mean age 27.2 ± 5.3 years, and 52(53.1%) without previous abortion with mean age 23.7± 5.1 years. Additionally, 86 non-pregnant childbearing women were enrolled as a control group. Of those, 39(45.3%) had previous abortion with mean age 33.5 ± 7.8 years, and 47 (54.6%) without previous abortion, the mean age 30.7±7.8 years. Certain demographic factors were collected by personal interview. Anti-rubella IgG specific antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 13 computer assisted program. P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results revealed that the IgG seropositivity among pregnant women without previous abortion, and those with previous abortion was 96.1% and 76% respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.04). The seropositivity among non-pregnant women without previous abortion, and those with previous abortion was 85.1% and 100% respectively, with a statistically insignificant difference (p= 0.11). The overall susceptibility rate for rubella infection was 10.7%. There was insignificant effect of age, educational levels, residency, presence of pregnancy, and history of previous abortion on the seropositivity rate of IgG specific anti- rubella antibody. Conclusion: evaluation of the susceptibility of women in the reproductive age to rubella infection is essential to set a strategy for prevention of congenital rubella syndrome. Keywords: rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, susceptibility rate.


Article
Echocardiographic Predictors of Non Rheumatic Atrial Fibrillation

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Objective: to assess echocardiographic structural&functional changes in non rheumatic AF Patients And Methods: 200 Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group A: Patients with AF,Group B: Patients have one or more of risk factors (hypertension, IHD, DM, HF, old age) without AF,Group C: normal healthy individuals. A full medical history and complete physical examination and the following investigation were arranged: FBS, RBS, ECG, CXR and echocardiograph. Result :The study show there is a significance increase in LAD ,LVEDS ,LVEDD and decrease in fractional shortening in group A &B And group A greater than group B and both groups greater than group C. Conclusion: Subjects with increase LA size, LVEDS, LVEDD and decrease in fractional shortening were at a significance increase risk for development of AF. This study clarifies the role of cardiac structural& functional characteristics’ in relation to susceptibility to AF .so the best method for reducing the adverse complication of AF through prevention of development of AF.

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Article
Antibacterial Activety of Aqueous Ectract of Green Tea on Bacteria Isolated From Children With Impetigo

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Background: Impetigo is a contagious superficial pyogenic infection of the skin , caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes and some times proteus mirabilis , different antibiotics was used for the treatment of impetigo , given topically or systemically . Objectives: The aim of the present work is to estimate the effectiveness of aqueous extract of green tea on different types of bacteria which was isolated from children suffering from impetigo skin infection. Methods: The study was done in the College of Medicine / Diyala University. Forty two samples with positive bacterial cultures, were obtained from the skin lesions of children with impetigo infection, they were tested by doing antibiotic sensitivity test of different antibiotics and the resistant cultures of different types of bacteria , which was isolated from infected patients were tested by 10% aqueous extract of green tea . Results: The study revealed that 10% aqueous extract green tea was effective as antibacterial agents, against antibiotic's resistant strains of Staph .aureus, Strep. Pyogenes and Proteus mirabilis. تمهيد: القوباء هو التهاب الجلد الجرثومي المعدي السطحي تسببه جرلثيم المكورات العنقودية الذهبية أو المكورات المسبحية وفي بعض الأحيان المتقلبات . يعالج بأنواع معينة من المضادات الحيويه بعضها تعطى موضعيا" والأخرى جهازيا 0 الهدف: الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو لددراسة تاثير المستخلص المائي للشاي الأخضر وبتركيز 10% على انواع الجراثيم المعزولة من الاطفال المصابين بالقوباء . الطرق: أخذت 42 عينة جرثومية من المكورات العنقودية الذهبية والمكورات المسبحية والمتقلبات لمرضى القوباء وتم إجراء اختبار الحساسية لسبعة من مضادات الحياة وتم انتقاء العزلات المقاومة لإجراء اختبار الحساسية للمحلول المائي للشاي الأخضر عليها . النتائج : أظهرت الدراسة بان المحلول المائي للشاي الأخضر ذات تأثير كمضاد حيوي على المسببات الجرثومية المختلفة للقوباء والتي تشمل جراثيم المكورات العنقودية والمكورات المسبحية والمتقلبات


Article
Mobile Phone Base Stations Health Effects

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Background: The rapid increase of mobile telephony and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations have raised concerns about possible non specific health symptoms (NSHS) caused by emitted microwaves, electromagnetic field (EMF), radiofrequency (RF) and radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) Aims: To investigate the health effects among the residence proximity to mobile phone base station in Baquba city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study from May 2010 till June 2010 of randomly selected inhabitants living in Baquba urban areas for more than one year near to (8 )selected base stations, (375) subjects (200 women and 175 men) were investigated and completed standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. Result: The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints frequencies, Chi-square with Yates correction were used in relation to the sex, age and distance from mobile base stations, show significant (p <0.05) increase as compared to people living >300 m or not exposed to base stations. In relation of sex; women complained mostly of nausea, headaches, men complain mostly of lowering of libido. In relation to age, in subjects older than 19 years, this study shows the existence of a greater sensibility for some NSHS symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, sleep disturbances, irritability, feeling of discomfort, dizziness, cardiovascular problems when comparisons are made between subjects living up to 300 m vs. subjects of the reference group. In relation to distance, the complaints are experienced in a significantly higher (p <0.05) by the subjects in the distance zones of < 10 m to 300m from base stations. Up to10m the symptoms are headaches, sleep disturbances, irritability, depressive tendencies, feeling of discomfort, loss of appetite, nausea, difficulties in concentration, , visual disturbances, lowering of libido. Significant differences (P < 0.05) are observed up to 100 m from base stations for symptoms such as: headaches sleep disturbances, irritability, depressive tendencies, feeling of discomfort, difficulties in concentration, memory loss and lowering of libido. In the zone 100 m to 200 m from base stations, the symptoms of headaches, sleep disturbances, feelings of discomfort, feeling of discomfort, difficulties in concentration, memory loss are again experienced significantly more often(P<0.05) in comparison with the reference group. Beyond 200 m only the symptom of headaches, fatigue, sleep disturbances is reported at a significantly high frequency (P < 0.05). There was significant increase in the prevalence of sleep disturbance, fatigue, feeling of discomfort among the inhabitants opposite to the station (20.8% versus 10.9%, 23.4% versus 9.8%, 26.0% versus 12.0%) (P < 0.05) respectively. Conclusions: 1. This study shows that inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing non specific health symptoms, the facing position appears to be the worst one for distances from cellular phone base stations < 100 m, so more research concerning the effects of radiofrequency radiation from base stations is indicated. 2. It is advisable that cellular phone base stations should not be sited closer than 300 m to populations, as a precautionary measure, sitting of base stations should be such as to minimize exposure of neighbors. Recommendations: Revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas, regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended.


Article
Age Related Changes of Submandibular Salivary Glands (Ultrasonographic and Structural Study)

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Back ground :- The present study introduced the age changes in the parameters of the submandibular salivary glands (SMSGs) of twenty-four volunteers subjects. Aims: ultrasonographical and structural age changes study of sub mandibular salivary glands in living human and cadavers. Materials and methods: the study considered ; twenty four volunteers and sixteen male cadavers. The cadaver's weighed and grouped according to ages; G (A) 20-25 years, (B) 30-35 years, (C); 45-50 years, and group (D) 60-70 years. The same grouping manner applied to the ultrasonographic study. Cadavers with diseased history of the (SMSGs), or maxillofacial trauma were excluded. Results; The histological findings revealed that there was; a decrease in the number of serous demilunes, but an increase in the diameter of both serous and mucous acini with, proportional increases of the serous acini, and an increase in the diameter of striated ducts during the increase of age. The thickness of the interlobular connective tissue were increased with advancing age, as well as the number of adipose cells. Conclusion; The sonographic, and gross anatomical parameters showed little but no significant changes during the ages considered in this experimentation, so for the weight and dimensions of the glands.

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Article
Prevalence of Hepatitis B & Human Immundifficiency Virus Among β Thalassemic Patients in Diyla

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Background: Hepatitis B and human immundifficiency virus (HIV)infection is a major health problem in multi-transfused patients and in general population world wide .Vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine and routine screening of transfused blood are mandatory measures for prevention. Aim: To identify the prevalence of hepatitis B and human immundifficiency virus infection among thalasemic patients in Diyala and to show some relations to some personal factors. Results: High prevalence of hepatitis B among Thalassemic patients (P value =0.000), Incompletely vaccinated patients are liable for infection even when received screened blood (P value =0.000). There is no patient with positive test for human immunodeficiency virus (P value =0.0000). There is no significant association with splenectomy and number of blood transfusions during last year. Conclusion:High prevalence rate of hepatitis B among Thalassemic patients, in comparison with the rate registered in other countries.


Article
Virulence Factors of Proteus Mirabilis Isolated From PatientsOtitis Media in Baquba And it’s Peripheries

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The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of prostate-specific antigen density ( PSDA ) when serum levels of prostate-specific antigen ( PSA ) are less than 10 ngml in predicting prostate cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 134 patients who underwent trans rectal ultrasound ( TRUS )-guided prostate biopsies according to Cooner's algorithm. Histopathological examination revealed prostate cancer ( PCa ) in 22 ( 16% ) and begin prostatic hypertrophy ( BPH ) in 112 ( 84% ) patients. Five patients ( 23% ) with PCa had PSAD<0.15 of whom 3 had PSA<4 ngml and 2 had PSA between 4 and 10 ngml. In the BPH group, 60 patients ( 54% ) had PSAD below 0.15 whereas 52 patients ( 46% ) had PSAD over 0.15 . with 0.15 as the cutoff level of PSAD, the sensitivity and specificity of PSAD was found as 77 and 54%, respectively. In this patient population, PSA with the cutoff level of 4 ngml has sensitivity and specificity level of 77 and 33% respectively. According to these result, a statistically significant difference was found between PSA and PSAD only in terms of diagnostic specificity ( chi-square, P<0.05 ) . There were 29 patients with negative digital rectal examination ( DRE ) and TRUS and PSA 4-10 ngml who underwent biopsy because of PSAD>0.15 . no cancer was detected in this group of patients, suggesting that biopsy in this subgroup may be unnecessary.


Article
The Impact of prostate – Specific Antigen DensityIn Predicting Prostate Cancer

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Background: In countries where the rate of susceptible women to rubella infection is higher than 10%, preconceptional or prenatal screening is important to reduce the burden of the disease. Objectives: determination of anti-rubella IgG seropositivity and susceptibility rates among pregnant and childbearing women in Baquba-Diyala province. Subjects and methods: A total of 184 women were enrolled in the present study which was conducted in Baquba-Diyala province during the period from April/2007 to September/2008. Ninety eight pregnant women were chosen from those attending the primary health care centers in Baquba. They include 46(46.9%) who had previous abortions with a mean age 27.2 ± 5.3 years, and 52(53.1%) without previous abortion with mean age 23.7± 5.1 years. Additionally, 86 non-pregnant childbearing women were enrolled as a control group. Of those, 39(45.3%) had previous abortion with mean age 33.5 ± 7.8 years, and 47 (54.6%) without previous abortion, the mean age 30.7±7.8 years. Certain demographic factors were collected by personal interview. Anti-rubella IgG specific antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 13 computer assisted program. P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results revealed that the IgG seropositivity among pregnant women without previous abortion, and those with previous abortion was 96.1% and 76% respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.04). The seropositivity among non-pregnant women without previous abortion, and those with previous abortion was 85.1% and 100% respectively, with a statistically insignificant difference (p= 0.11). The overall susceptibility rate for rubella infection was 10.7%. There was insignificant effect of age, educational levels, residency, presence of pregnancy, and history of previous abortion on the seropositivity rate of IgG specific anti- rubella antibody. Conclusion: evaluation of the susceptibility of women in the reproductive age to rubella infection is essential to set a strategy for prevention of congenital rubella syndrome. Keywords: rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, susceptibility rate.

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Article
Performance of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies versus Rheumatoid Factor in diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-ccp) versus Rheumatoid Factor (RF) in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in serum sample of patients with clinical manifestation of arthritis using ELISA technique. One hundred and twenty patients with clinical presentation of rheumatoid arthritis and fifty apparently healthy individuals (25 males and 25 females) were enrolled in this study. The mean age of patients group and control was 36.45years versus 34.72 years .Among patients, males represented (8.3%) compared with (91.7%) of females. In control group males represented (52%) versus (48%) females. There was a statistical significant difference (p>0.05) between patients and control group in RF and anti-ccp values. Eighty five percent of patients gave positive results for anti-ccp compared with (100%) negative results in control group. RF was detected in (41.66 %) of patients sera compared with (58.33 %) which gave negative results. RF ELISA gave negative results in (100%) of control group . Only 10(8, 33%) out of 120 patients gave negative results in RF and anti-ccp ELISA, compared with 42(35%) out of 120 gave positive results in both tests. In 60(50%) out of 120 RA patients RF gave negative results and at the same time gave positive results when retested using anti-ccp ELISA .Only 8(6.66%) out of 120 RA patients gave negative result in anti-ccp ELISA technique and RF was detected in positive value. The sensitivity of anti-ccp ELISA was (85%) versus (41.66%) for RF. The Specificity of anti-ccp ELISA was (55.55%) versus (14.28%) for RF. Positive predictive value for anti-ccp ELISA was 41.17% versus (84%) for RF. Negative predictive value for anti-ccp ELISA was 55.55% versus 14.28 for RF ELISA .False positive value in anti-ccp ELISA was 58.82% versus 16%for RF ELISA. False negative value in anti-ccp ELISA was 44.44% versus 85.71%for RF . This study concludes that anti-ccp ELISA was more sensitive and specific in diagnosis of RA than RF ELISA technique.


Article
Assessment of the Effects of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension uponPregnant Women and Their Pregnancy Outcome in Erbil City

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Objective: To determine the possible role of cockroaches as a transmitter of medically important microorganisms, pathogenic organisms were isolated and identified from external and guts of cockroaches trapped at hospitals and houses. Methods: One hundred and fifty two cockroaches were collected from different parts of hospital and houses around it. They were collected for isolation and identification of bacteria and parasites from external surface and internal digestive tract of cockroaches. Statistical analysis was done by using t- test. Results: This study show that high rates of cockroaches show contamination of medically important bacteria and parasites. The species of the pathogenic agents was determinate and the number and percentages of infected cockroaches was recorded. Conclusion : And for this, cockroaches act as a potential transmitter of medically important pathogenic and may cause of nosocomial infection in both hospitals and houses. Therefore, control of cockroaches will substantially minimize the spread of infectious diseases in our environment.

Table of content: volume:1 issue:1