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Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2017(60) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2018 volume:15 issue:2

Article
Diversity Measurement Indices of Diatom Communities in the Tigris River within Wasit Province, Iraq
قياس دلائل التنوع لمجتمع الدايتومات في نهر دجلة ضمن محافظة واسط، العراق

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Abstract

The study was conducted to measure diatom species diversity in the lotic ecosystem across the Wasit Province for 12 months. The quantitative study of diatoms (phytoplankton) was investigated in the Tigris river. The density of algae was ranged from 60989 cell×103/l to 112780.82 cell×103/l in the five sites. These algae were belonging to 39 genera. The richness index values ranged from 1.53 at site 5 in January 2016 to 6.34 at site 1 and June2015. Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H´) was 2.33 in February 2016 and 3.72 in June 2015 both values at site 3, whereas Evenness index was 0.54 at site 5 in March2016 and 0.98 at site 1 in both August2015 and May2016. The lack of homogeneity of the appearance of species indicates the dominance of a few species with high densities, which is an indicator of the existence of environmental pressure. All studied indices showed that the Tigris River quality is suitable for the living aquatic life or may be slightly affected by the pollutants.


Article
Triterpenoid Saponins Investigation and Pharmacological (Cytotoxic and Antioxidant) Properties of Bacopa monnieri L. Cultivated in Iraq
الاستقصاء عن الصابونيات ثلاثية التربين وخصائصها الدوائية(السمية الخلوية, ومضاد للاكسدة) في نبات الـbacopa monnieri L المزروع في العراق

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Abstract

Bacopa monnieri L. (Scrophulariaceae), synoname is Herpestis monniera that provides bioactive compounds, especially triterpenoid saponins (Bacosides) which exhibits an important biological activities, like hypothyroidism, anticonvulsant, memory enhancing and antistress. Because there are no researches about B. monnieri L. plant that grow in Iraq, and there active compounds especially triterpenoid saponin (TS), and there effects. This study was detected the presence of (TS) in, and examined the cytotoxic and the antioxidant activity of these compounds in vitro. The study was included the extraction and identification of TS from the whole parts of B. monnieri L. by using three methods, and the best yield was analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) to identify bacosides compounds. In vitro, TS was examined the cytotoxic activity against two cancer cell lines, human cervical cancer (Hela), rhabdomyo sarcoma (RD), and rat embryogenic fibroblast (REF) as a normal cell, at concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml at 24, 48, and 72-hr. Free radical 1,1Dyphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) was used for testing the ability of the TS as antioxidant at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μg/ml concentrations. The results revealed that B. monnieri plant had many components of bacosides when detected by HPLC. Cytotoxic study suggested that TS inhibited the growth of cancer cells, and this effect is depending on the extraction of TS concentration. The effect of TS on Hela cell line was more than that for RD, while the highest effect of TS on Hela was at the concentration of 250 μg/ml after 48 hr. The cytotoxic effect has a significant effect at (P≤0.05). The results revealed that TS has high antioxidant influence 99.37% at 100 μg/ml concentrations, followed by 98.20% in 80 μg/ml concentration.


Article
Gene Expression and Polymorphism of Interleukin-4 in a Sample of Iraqi Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
التعبير الجيني وتعدد الاشكال الوراثي للبين ابيضاض-4 في عينة من مرضى التهاب المفاصل الرثوي العراقيين

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Abstract

It was aimed to understand the interleukin-4 (IL-4) role in etio-pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two approaches were adopted. In the first one, a quantitative expression of IL4 gene was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and such findings were correlated with some demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters, which included gender, duration of disease, disease activity score (DAS-28), rheumatoid factors (RFs), C-reactive protein (CRP) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP) antibodies. In the second approach, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of IL4 gene (rs2243250) was inspected by DNA sequencing using specific primers. Fifty-one Iraqi RA patients (22 males and 29 females) were enrolled in the study. They were under therapy, which was a single weekly subcutaneous dose of 25 mg of etanercept (Enbrel) for a period of 3-5 years. The results of gene expression (2-ΔΔCt) revealed an increased expression of IL4 mRNA (Mean ± SEM: 8.247 ± 2.442), especially female patients compared to male patients (11.545 ± 3.928 vs. 3.537 ± 1.530; p = 0.03). The expression was also subjected to variations that were related to clinical and laboratory findings. With respect to IL4 gene SNP, allele and genotype frequencies showed no significant differences between RA patients and controls. In addition, the SNP genotypes had no effect on IL4 gene expression. In conclusion, an up-regulation of IL4 gene expression was observed in RA patients, and it was more pronounced in female than male patients by approximately four folds, while no association between the IL4 SNP alleles or genotypes and RA was observed.


Article
Morphological and Histological Study of the Forebrain (Cerebrum) in a Wild Bird Species (Columba livia domestica) (Gmelin, 1789)
دراسة مظهرية ونسجية للدماغ الامامي(المخ) لنوع من الطيور البرية (حمام الزاجل) (Columba livia domestica) (Gmelin, 1789)

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Abstract

The present study deals with the morphological and histological aspects of the forebrain(Cerebrum) in the Columba livia domestica (Gmelin, 1789) to identify the histoarchitecture of its layers. This bird' has a large head found as perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. The morphological results reveal that for brain (Cerebrum) pear shaped, its outer surface is smooth without folds or deep grooves. Cerebrum is made up of two regions, the Pallium and the Subpallium. The Cerebral cortex includes four layers of hyperpallium (Wulst) , Dorsolateral corticoid area (CDL), Hippocampus, Piriform cortex. The internal cortex of cerebrum consists of Dorsal Ventricle ridge which includes the mesopallium, nidopallium, and archospallium. All these regions includes Pyramidal cells, which have different sizes and densities, as well as many other neurons and Neuralgial. The Subpallium is divided to Striatum which is consisted of nerve fibers of nerve cells and the Palldium, which is the deepest part of the brain with light- color.


Article
Influence of Lead Exposure in the Expression of Calmodulin – Related Genes: A Preliminary Study on Workers Working in Industry of Batteries, In Iraq
تأثير التعرض للرصاص في التعبير الجيني للجينات المتعلقة- بالكالموديولين: دراسة تمهيدية حول العمال العاملين في صناعة البطاريات في العراق

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Abstract

Most pathological effects of lead on the body are due to ability of lead to bind with important cellular molecules of various tissues and organs leading to formation abnormal molecules and thus to emergence of pathological conditions. To evaluation the risk to the health status of Iraqi workers who work in the batteries industry, expression of three types of calmodulin related genes were examined. Blood samples were collected from worker working in Iraqi industry of batteries (located in Al-Waziriya), then RNAs extraction were done thereby gene expression for Calcium/Calmodulin- dependent protein kinase2 (CaMKK2), C-X-C Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 6 (MAP2K6) was done for each sample by using RT-qPCR. The study showed that the expression of CXCR4 gene was significantly decrement in the lead exposed workers meanwhile the MAP2K6 gene insignificantly increment in those workers, but no effect appeared on their CaMKK2 gene expression. Conclusion obtained from this study is that lead has ability to impact on calmodulin related genes in the workers working in the batteries manufacture, but this ability is variable according to the type of gene.


Article
Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization of Cobalt Complexfrom C16H19N3O3S and photodegradation using prepared Nano TiO2catalyst
تحضير وتشخيص معقعد الكوبلت من الليكند C16H19N3O3Sوالتحلل الضوئي باستخدام اوكسيد تيتانيوم الناوني كعامل مساعد

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Abstract

Coblatcomplex has been prepared by reaction between C16H19N3O3S (L) as ligand and metal salt (II). The prepared complex were characterized by infrared spectra, electromic spectra, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductivity measurement and metal analysis by atomic absorption and (C.H.N) analysis. From these studies tetrahedral geometry structure for the complex was suggested. The photodegredation of complex were study using photoreaction cell and preparednanoTiO2 catalyst in different conditions (concentration, temperatures, pH).The results show that the recation is of a first order with activation energy equal to (6.6512 kJ /mol).


Article
Degradation of Dazomet by Thermal Fenton and Photo-Fenton Processes under UV and Sun lights at Different Temperatures
تجزئة الدايزوميت باستخدام تفاعلات الفنتون الحرارية والضوئية تحت الاشعة فوق البنفسجية واشعة الشمس بدرجات حرارية مختلفة

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In this research, the degradation of Dazomet has been studied by using thermal Fenton process and photo-Fenton processes under UV and lights sun. The optimum values of amounts of the Fenton reagents have been determined (0.07g FeSO4 .7H2O, 3.5µl H2O2) at 25 °C and at pH 7 where the degradation percentages of Dazomet were recorded high. It has been found that solar photo Fenton process was more effective in degradation of Dazomet than photo-Fenton under UV-light and thermal Fenton processes, the percentage of degradation of Dazomet by photo-Fenton under sun light are 88% and 100% at 249 nm and 281 nm respectively, while the percentages of degradation for photo-Fenton under UV-light are 87%, 96% and for thermal Fenton are 70% and 66.8% at 249 nm and 281 nm respectively. In this research the effect of temperature on all the reactions has been studied in the range 25°C-45°C, it has been noticed that the reaction rate constant (k) has increased with increasing temperature, and the best percentage degradation of Dazomet was at 45°C in all processes, so, the thermodynamic functions ΔG*, ΔH*, ΔS* have been calculated.


Article
Diamine Derivatives as Photostabilizers for Thermoplasticized Poly(Vinyl Chloride) [I]
مشتقات ثنائي أمين كمثبتات ضوئية للبوليمرات الحرارية ( بولي فينايل كلورايد ) [I]

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Abstract

The photostabilization، of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) ، films has been investigated by using diamine derivatives. The، (PVC) films were، contained 0.5% weight، of diamine derivatives which prepared by the method of casting. The photostabilizations، ،of these compounds were determined by monitoring the carbonyl index value with irradiation time. Also, the effect ،of concentrations of additives (range 0.1-0.5wt) on the rate of photostabilization، process was studied. Therefore we found، that a increased photostabilization rates was increase with increasing، concentrations of compound. Besides, the influence، on film thickness، of photostabilization process was also studied; ،and the results، showed that، the increasing of film thickness increase the rate of photostabilization. Also, the changes in the viscosity، of the averagee molecular weight, the degree، of deterioration (α) and the average number of chain scission (s) were tracked, it was concluded، that the random chain scission is always occurs in PVC film, also Quantum yield، of the chain، scission of، these compounds، was calculated. Several mechanisms، have been، suggested and according to experimental results obtained, these mechanisms are dependent on the structure، of، the additive, Among UV absorper، and radical، scavenger.


Article
Spectrophotometric Determination of Sulphite in Various Water Samples Via Chromium-1,5-Diphenylcarbazide Complex
التقدير الطيفي للكبريتيت في نماذج مائية مختلفة باستخدام معقد الكروم-5,1-ثنائي فنيل كاربازيد

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A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of sulphite SO3-2 is described. The method is based on the rapid reduction of known amount of chromate CrO4-2 in the presence of sulphite in acidic medium of 2N H2SO4. The amount of excess of chromate was measured after it reactions with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide which finally gives a pink-violet, water soluble and stable complex, which exhibit a maximum absorption at 542 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range from 0.004-6.0 µg of sulphite in a final volume of 25 ml with a molar absorbtivity of 4.64×104 l.mol-1.cm-1, Sandal's sensitivity index of 0.001724 μg .cm-2 and relative standard deviation of ±0.55 - ±0.83 depending on the concentration level. The present method has been developed for the determination of sulphite in the presence of thiosulphate. Good recoveries of sulphite from various water samples are achieved using the proposed method.


Article
Disturbance of Arginase Activity and Nitric Oxide Levels in Iraqi Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
اضطراب نشاط ألارجينيز ومستويات أوكسيد النيتريك في المرضى العراقيين بداء السكري النوع الثاني

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Abstract

This study is an attempt to find whether arginine metabolism dysregulation by arginase activity is related to hyperglycemia, followed by changes in nitric oxide (NO) generation in type 2 diabetic patients. This study includes 42 control subjects (Group I), and 92 Iraqi patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The patient group was subdivided into two groups: Group II (54) with T2DM only and Group III (38) with T2DM and dyslipidemia (who were treating with atorvastatin along with diabetes treatment). The samples were obtained to measure arginase activity and NO levels. Serum arginase activity increased significantly in patients(groupII and groupIII) compared to control group. While serum NO level was significantly lower in diabetic patients as compared to control group, three significant correlations appeared in this study between glucose and arginase activity, glucose and NO levels, and between arginase activity and NO levels. The results also show that treatment with atorvastatin affects arginase activity and NO levels. Increasing in levels of arginase activity can be considered as an indicator of diabetic status. Endothelial dysfunctions accompanied with diabetes mellitus reverses correlation between arginase and NO in diabetic.


Article
Effect the Thickness on the Electrical Properties and (I-V) Character of the (CdTe) Thin Films and Find the Efficiency of Solar Cell CdTe/CdS
تاثير السمك على الخواص الكهربائية وخواص (I-V) للاغشية (CdTe) الرقيقة وايجاد الكفاءة للخلية الشمسية (CdS/CdTe)

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Thin films of CdTe were prepared with thickness (500, 1000) nm on the glass substrate by vacuum evaporation technique at room temperature then treated different annealing temperatures (373,473,and 573)K for one hour. Results of the Hall Effect and the electrical conductivity of (I-V) characteristics were measured in darkness and light.at different annealing temperature results show that the thin films have ability to manufacture solar cells, and found that the efficient equal to (2.18%) for structure solar cell (Algrid / CdS / CdTe /glass/ Al) and the efficient equal to (1.12%) for structure solar cell (Algrid / CdS / CdTe /Si/ Al) with thick ness of (1000) nm with CdTe thin films at RT.


Article
Fabricated of Cu Doped ZnO Nanoparticles for Solar Cell Application
تشكيل جسيمات أكسيد الزنك النانويه المطعمه بالنحاس لتطبيقات الخلايا الشمسية

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Copper with different concentrations doped with zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared from a mixture of zinc acetate and copper acetate with sodium hydroxide in aqueous solution. The structure of the prepared samples was done by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-VIS absorption spectrophotometer. Debye-Scherer formula was used to calculate the size of the prepared samples. The band gap of the nanoparticle ZnO was determined by using UV-VIS optical spectroscopy.


Article
The Effect of Gas Flow on Plasma Parameters Induced by Microwave
تأثير معدل تدفق الغاز على معلمات البلازمـا المنتجة بالامواج المايكروية

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In this paper, construction microwaves induced plasma jet(MIPJ) system. This system was used to produce a non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure, at standard frequency of 2.45 GHz and microwave power of 800 W. The working gas Argon (Ar) was supplied to flow through the torch with adjustable flow rate by using flow meter, to diagnose microwave plasma optical emission spectroscopy(OES) was used to measure the important plasma parameters such as electron temperature (Te), residence time (Rt), plasma frequency (ωpe), collisional skin depth (δ), plasma conductivity (σdc), Debye length(λD). Also, the density of the plasma electron is calculated with the use of Stark broadened profiles.


Article
Structural Analysis of Chemical and Green Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles and their Effect on Biofilm Formation
تحليل التركيب لأوكسيد النحاس النانوي المصنع بالطريقة الكيميائية والنباتية وتأثيره على تكوين البايوفلم

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Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) were synthesized by two methods. The first was chemical method by using copper nitrate Cu (NO3)2 and NaOH, while the second was green method by using Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves extract and Cu (NO3)2. These methods easily give a large scale production of CuO nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) reveals single phase monoclinic structure. The average crystalline size of CuO NPs was measured and used by Scherrer equation which found 44.06nm from chemical method, while the average crystalline size was found from green method was 27.2nm. The morphology analysis using atomic force microscopy showed that the grain size for CuO NPs was synthesized by chemical and green methods were 77.70 and 89.24 nm, respectively. The effectiveness of copper oxide nanoparticles on bacteria was measured for both gram positive, negative and fungi, copper oxide minutes showed excellent efficacy on biofilm formation.


Article
Designing and Constructing the Strain Sensor Using Microbend Multimode Fiber
تصميم وبناء متحسس الإجهاد باستخدام خلية الانحناءات الدقيقة للألياف البصرية متعددة الأنماط

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The microbend sensor is designed to experience a light loss when force is applied to the sensor. The periodic microbends cause propagating light to couple into higher order modes, the existing higher order modes become unguided modes. Three models of deform cells are fabricated at (3, 5, 8) mm pitchand tested by using MMF and laser source at 850 nm. The maximum output power of (8, 5, 3)mm model is (3, 2.7, 2.55)nW respectively at applied force 5N and the minimum value is (1.9, 1.65, 1.5)nW respectively at 60N.The strain is calculated at different microbend cells ,and the best sensitivity of this sensor for cell 8mm is equal to 0.6nW/N.


Article
Effects of Non-Thermal Argon Plasma Produced at Atmospheric Pressure on the Optical Properties of CdO Thin Films
دراسة تاثير بلازما الاركون غير الحرارية المنتجة في الضغط الجوي الاعتيادي على الخواص البصرية لاغشية اوكسيد الكادميوم CdO

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In this paper the effect of nonthermal atmospheric argon plasma on the optical properties of the cadmium oxide CdO thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis was studied. The prepared films were exposed to different time intervals (0, 5, 10, 15, 20) min. For every sample, the transmittance, Absorbance, absorption coefficient, energy gap, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant were studied. It is found that the transmittance and the energy gap increased with exposure time, and absorption. Absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant decreased with time of exposure to the argon plasma.


Article
Comparative NO2 Sensing Characteristics of SnO2:WO3 Thin Film Against Bulk and Investigation of Optical Properties of the Thin Film
دراسه مقارنه للخصائص التحسسيه لغاز NO2 لغشاء رقيق و عينه كتليه من مادة SnO2:WO3 و أستقصاء الخواص البصريه للغشاء الرقيق

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A comparative investigation of gas sensing properties of SnO2 doped with WO3 based on thin film and bulk forms was achieved. Thin films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on glass substrates. Bulk sensors in the shape of pellets were prepared by pressing SnO2:WO3 powder. The polycrystalline nature of the obtained films with tetragonal structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The calculated crystalline size was 52.43 nm. Thickness of the prepared films was found 134 nm. The optical characteristics of the thin films were studied by using UV-VIS Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 200 nm to 1100 nm, the energy band gap, extinction coefficient and refractive index of the thin film were 2.5 eV , 0.024 and 2.51, respectively. Hall measurements confirmed that the films are n-type. The NO2 sensing characteristics of the SnO2:WO3 sensors were studied with various temperatures and NO2 gas concentrations. Both thin film and bulk sensors showed maximum sensitivity at temperature of 250 oC. Thin film sensors showed enhanced response in comparison to that of pellets.


Article
Laser Densification of Prepared SiO2 Sol-Gel Thin Films
التكثيف بالليزر لأغشية ثنائي اوكسيد السيليكون الرقيقة المحضرة بطريقة (Sol-Gel)

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SiO2 nanostructure is synthesized by the Sol-Gel method and thin films are prepared using dip coating technique. The effect of laser densification is studied. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) are used to analyze the samples. The results show that the silica nanoparticles are successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method after laser densification. XRD patterns show that cristobalite structure is observed from diode laser (410 nm) rather than diode laser (532 nm). FESEM images showed that the shape of nano silica is spherical and the particles size is in nano range (≤ 100 nm). It is concluded that the spherical nanocrystal structure of silica thin films is successfully densified by Doide laser (410 nm).

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