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MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL

مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان

ISSN: 18138500
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

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SCIENTIFIC AND REFERRED DENTAL JOURNAL

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Table of content: 2018 volume:15 issue:1

Article
Effect of Home Bleaching on Surface Roughness of Novel Composite Resins Subjected to One Step Polishing System: An In Vitro Study

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Abstract

The aims of this in vitro study was to evaluate surface roughness (Ra) of four contemporary composite resin materials after applying home bleaching agent. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight composite specimens were made from four groups of different types composite resins (one-submicron hybrid, one microhybrid and two nanohybrid) of 12 specimens each: Group 1: Brilliant EverGlow, group 2: G-ænial from GC, group 3: Evetric and group 4: Ice, SDI. All the samples were polished with one step polishing system OptraPol. Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups (A&B) (n=6). Subgroups A were stored in distilled water as control, while subgroups B were bleached with 20% carbamide peroxide home bleaching agent for 14 day. Surface roughness analysis was then performed for all the samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results were statistically analyzed using One-way ANOVA/LSD test analyzing the differences between the subgroups at p<0.05. Results: Surface roughness of all the groups increased after bleaching; however, LSD test showed significant differences that were only recorded between the subgroups of groups 3 & 4. Conclusion: 20% at-home bleaching treatment significantly affected surface roughness of both nanohybrid composite groups, while, it did not produce a significant surface changes for microhybrid and submicron composite resin


Article
The effect of accelerated artificial aging on color change of three different types of composite (in vitro study)

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The greater demand for esthetic in the modern life with the simplified bonding steps for composite filling increase its universal use but their gradual change in color over time make their replacement very important, the aim of this study is the comparison among different type of composite to see which type is the best color stability in the clinical work . Material and method :30 samples of three different materials have been made ,the first group is 10 samples fabricated from Filtek z250 ,the second group is 10 samples fabricated from Filtek z250xt and the third group is 10 samples fabricated from z350xt .All the samples color parameters were measured before placing in accelerated weathering tester (time 0)then all the samples were placed in the accelerated weathering tester for 150 h and 300h then the color parameters were measured from which the change in color had been measured. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA repeated measure test to see if there were any significant difference among the ΔE of experimental groups Results : the results show that the z250 have the highest color stability as compared with other types of composite used in this study while the z350xt results show the lowest color stability also the result show that there's high significant difference among all groups among different time interval used in the study Conclusion: the change in color above the clinically acceptable threshold (3.3) was seen in all types of composite used in this study and that the z 250xt shows the least change in color.


Article
A Comparative Study to Evaluate Canal Transportation and Centering ability of Simulated Curved Canals Prepared by XP-Shaper,WaveOne Gold and ProTaper NEXT Files

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Aim: The objectives of this study are to compare and evaluate under standardized experimental conditions the centering ability (centering ratio) and canal transportation (outer and inner transportations) of three NiTi instruments ProtaperNext files (Dentsply Maillefer),, XP-endo shaper (XP; FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), Waveone Gold files (PTG; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties), in simulated curved canals of 40° curvature at different levels. Methods: 60 Readymade simulated curved canals made of clear polyester resin (DENTSPLY Maillefer ,Ballaigues,Switzerland) will be used in this study were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 20). In the Waveone Gold and PTN the first preparation in the simulated canals will perform with # 10 K-file to full working length (16mm) while for XP-Shaper canals will perform with # 15 K-file. Prior to their preparation, each simulated canal will fill with a drawing ink using a 27 gauge needle to enhance photographic contrast. Photographs of prepared and unprepared canals will be taken by the aid of stereomicroscope and digital camera at magnification of 40 times. Results: the XP Shaper system that preserved the best rate of shaping among the inner/outer walls over the total length of the simulated curved canals (i.e. values closest to 0) than that of the ProTaper NEXT and WaveOne Gold instruments. Conclusion: The XP-shaper group showed less canal transportation and better centering ability than ProTaper Next and WaveOne Gold groups at all the five measuring levels, The WaveOne Gold group showed less outer canal transportation at the beginning and the apex of the curve, and better centering ability than ProTaper Next group at all the five measuring levels, ProTaper Next group showed less inner transportation at the end of preparation, while WaveOne Gold is better in the middle part (half – way levels & beginning of the curve) & the least centering ability at all the five measuring levels.


Article
Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using different types of bonding materials

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Aim: the shear bond strength testing has been accomplished to lead orthodontists in selection of adhesives and brackets. The current research was conducted to assess the effect of using different types of bonding material on the shear bond strength of plastic brackets. Materials and methods: Thirty upper first premolar teeth were utilized. There were 3 groups: - chemical composite, no mix chemical composite and light cure composite. Samples were then subjected to shear bond test using Instron testing machine. Samples data were then analyzed and compared using ANOVA and LSD tests. Results: The results indicated that the chemical composite presented the greatest value of mean shear bond strength. On the other hand, the light cure gave the least mean shear bond strength. Highly significant differences between two groups (P≤0.01) ;and among all groups(P≤0.01)were obtained. Conclusion: Chemical composites provided a greater shear bond strength than other types of composite (no mix and light cure).


Article
Prevalence of odontogenic infections and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries in Iraqi preschool children: cross sectional study

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Aim: the aim of this study was to report the prevalence of untreated dental caries and their clinical consequences and odontogenic infections in primary teeth of (3-6) year’s old preschool Iraqi children. Materials and Methods: cross sectional study consisted of 238 children (128 male, 110 female) were at preschool age of (3 – 6) years who were selected from three primary health centers at new Baghdad city complaining from dental pain and/or from abscess as present as a localized area of dental sepsis. The clinical consequences of untreated dental caries were measured using pufa index of Monse et al included four components: pulpal involvement (p), ulceration (u), fistula (f), and abscess (a). Results: the total children were divided according to age into three groups: (3-4) years old group (3 years to 4 years and 11 months), (n=56, 23.52%), (5) years old group (5 years to 5 years and 11 months), (n=98, 41.18%) and (6) years old group (6 years to 6 years and 11 months), (n=84, 35.29%). (4660) primary teeth of the total children were examined and (n=1645, 35.30%) were the untreated dental caries. The mean pufa and prevalence for the total children was (1.33±1.63, 77.51%) and the “p” component showed the higher mean value and prevalence (3.22±2.19, 46.63%), and other components including “u” (0.62±0.85, 8.94%), “f” (0.97±0.27, 13.98%) and “a” (0.55±0.50, 7.96%) also showed high results. Prevalence’s differences of the total pufa between the age groups showed a nearly results but significant high pufa prevalence was at (3-4) years old children (78.81%) (p=0.000), “p” component showed the significant high prevalence at (3-4) years old children (49.63%) (p=0.000), “u” component showed the significant high prevalence at (6) years old (9.37%) (p=0.000), “f” component showed significant high prevalence at (5) years old children (15.04%) (p=0.000), and “a” component showed significant high prevalence at (6) years old children (8.56%) (p=0.000). Conclusions: high prevalence of the clinical consequences of the untreated dental caries in Iraqi preschool children required urgent intervention program and the opportunities to offer such preventive measures in the Iraqi health system.


Article
Pattern of Malocclusion in Iraqi Patients Seeking Orthodontic Treatment

Pages: 41-48
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Background: Malocclusion problems and orthodontic treatment demand is increasing over recent years. In most of the patients, malocclusion carry significant psychological stigma to them and may cause many serious dental esthetic and functional problems. Thus, it is mandatory to assess the epidemiological figures on the pattern of malocclusion to plan and determine the resources needed for planning the appropriate orthodontic treatment. This study aimed to assess the pattern and distribution of malocclusion based on Angle’s classification system among Iraqi orthodontic patients. Materials and methods: This study included 474 patients (230 males, 244 females) between the age 13 to 20 years attending the undergraduate Department of Orthodontics at Al-Rafidain University College. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, crowding, spacing, buccally displaced canines, deep bite, open bite, anterior crossbite, and posterior crossbite. A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data and the relationship was studied utilizing “Chi square test (p<0.05) and Fisher’s exact probability test”. Results: The frequency of “Angle class I, II and III malocclusion” of first molars was 89.66%, 8.22%, and 2.1% respectively. However, no significant differences were found between the sexes in the prevalence of different types of malocclusion except for Class III malocclusion. The percentages of other occlusal traits were crowding 72.23%, spacing 9.88%, deep bite 0.6%, open bite 0.6%, buccally displaced canines 6.82%, anterior crossbite 4%, and posterior crossbite was reported in 3.06%. Conclusion: The Angle’s Class I malocclusion with crowding was the most prevalent, followed by Class II malocclusion while the least predominant was Class III malocclusion.


Article
Antifungal Activity of Derum (Juglans Regia L. Bark) Extracts Against Candida Albicans Isolates (In Vitro Study)

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Background: Derum is a one of "chewing sticks" existing in nature, collected from stem bark of walnut tree (Juglan regia L.). In some countries used mainly by women as tools for cleaning teeth and as coloring material for cosmetic purpose. The objective of performed study was aimed at evaluating the antifungal potential of two extracts from Juglans regia (L.) bark (water and water-methanol) against pathogenic Candida albicans strains. Materials and methods: Different concentrations of derum extracts were prepared by (water and water-methanol) methods, swap of saliva were collected from volunteers of patient at dental hospital, from which candida albicans were isolated,purified and diagnosis according to morphological characteristic and biochemical test. In vitro; experiments were prepared to assess the effect of different type and concentrations of derum extracts on growth of candida albicans by agar diffusion methods in comparison with nystatin and amphotericin B. Results: The result showed, candida albicans isolates sensitive to both types of derum extracts, which improved, by inhibition growth of candida albicans and inhibition were increased with the increasing concentrations from 0.5% to 50%. Nystatin inhibition growth of candida albicans bettter than both types of derum extracts (water and alcohol) and amphotericin B; but Candida albicans more sensitive to both types of derum extracts than amphotericin B. Conclusion: Candida albicans were sensitive to different concentrations of (water and water-methanol) extracts of derum.


Article
Antibacterial activity of NBF jel against Streptococcus mutans isolated from orthodontic patients

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Background: Streptococcus mutans is capable of demineralizing enamel by producing an acidic environment. Therefore, control of the bacterial biofilm on teeth is essential for the maintenance of oral health. The NBF jel with propolis ingredient that manufactured by nano-biofusion technology which has an antimicrobial activity as it is confirmed by many previous studies expected to induce more antimicrobial effect than traditional product and lastly overcome the bacterial biofilm and prevent the carries and others oral medical problems. Aim of study : To evaluate the antibacterial action of NBF jel on Strep. mutans isolated from orthodontic appliance. Material and method: Saliva samples were collected from 36 patients wearing appliance for different duration. Strep. mutans was isolated ,purified and diagnosis , then prepared two extracts from NBF jel (aqouse and alcoholic) in different concentration , chlorhexidine 2%(control) were added to isolated bacteria. After incubation for 48 hours; the inhibition zone of antibacterial activity of NBF was measured and colony count of bacteria was counted. Results: The two types of extracts have had antimicrobial activity but the alcoholic extract was induced more action than aqouse one as well as their effect was less than the chlorhexidine 2%(control). The inhibition zone was increased with increasing the concentration of both extracts but the responsiveness was reduced with increased the period of using the appliance. The reduction in colony counts of strep. Conclusion: NBF jel had antimicrobial activity against Strep. mutans isolated from appliance and this activity indirectly correlated with duration of wearing.


Article
Evaluation of water atomized solid-state laser apparatus as a method for debonding ceramic orthodontic brackets (An In vitro study)

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Background and objectives: The contemporary demand for esthetic less visible ceramic bracket is associated with the disadvantage of complicated and difficult debonding procedure at the end of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the water atomized laser system for debonding ceramic brackets. Method: Eighty maxillary premolars were divided into two main groups. In group-1, poly crystalline ceramic brackets (Reflections, Ortho technology, USA) were bonded to buccal enamel surface. In group-2, mono crystalline ceramic brackets (PURE, Ortho Technology USA). Were bonded to buccal enamel surface. For all teeth, the same bracket bonding system was used. Following debonding with both water atomized laser device and manual debonding instrument, teeth and brackets were examined under 10X magnification for assessment of bracket failure (fracture) and of residual adhesive on the enamel surface using a modified adhesive remnant index (ARI). Enamel surfaces were visualized with trans-illumination prior to bonding and after removal of the residual adhesive, so the effect of the debonding forces could be determined. The numbers of the fractured brackets were counted. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the ARI between debonding with water atomized laser and utility-debonding pliers in such away more adhesive remnant was revealed on teeth with laser debonding. Also less enamel damage recorder with laser group debonding compared with conventional debonding procedure, which was statistically significant, additionally more bracket fractures encountered with conventional debonding than debonding with laser apparatus, which was highly significant statistically. Conclusions: Debonding of ceramic orthodontic brackets could be done with water atomized laser apparatus with minimal enamel surface cracks and lesser chance of bracket fractures.


Article
Non-polar micro-coating on acrylic denture material for reducing the incidence of dental biofilm formation

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Aim: Dental plaque formation is a major health risk associated with prolonged worn acrylic dentures. The dental biofilm usually develops when improper cleaning and sterilizing of dentures is achieved. The aim of this study was to improve the acrylic material surface properties for minimizing the incidence of dental plaque formation on acrylic dentures by lowering the surface energy. Method: The acrylic (polymethylmethacryate) surface modification was achieved by applying a non-polar micro-coating on acrylic samples which was the dental baseplate wax. Two experimental groups used in this study, the control and the coated groups with 10 samples each. The surface analysis was conducted using the contact angle's technique. All samples soaked in salivary solution for 5 days. The methylene blue dye material used as an indicative for the dental plaque formation. Results and conclusion: The surface analysis showed a significant decrease in the surface hydrophilicity of the coated group by increasing the water contact angle degree values (P-value<0.05). The microscopic analysis by visual inspection showed a reduced formation of the dental biofilm on the acrylic samples. Within the limitations of this study, the suggested coating material can possibly reduce the incidence of the dental biofilm formation on acrylic dentures.


Article
Biosurfactant as a preventive agent on acrylic resin

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Objective. Current study was aimed to evaluate the activity of biosurfactants and other cleansing solutions of the acrylic resin on growth of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Study design. Heat cure acrylic resin discs were prepared and precoated with four types of liquids: water, biosurfactant, chlorhexidine mouth wash and denture cleanser. The water was used as control. The discs kept in the solutions overnight after that the antimicrobial assay was tested against Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Also reduction of growth and biofilm formation of C. albicans on denture acrylic discs was tested by using biosurfactant. Results. Precoating with biosurfactant caused a greater inhibition in the growth of both types of the microorganisms than chlorhexidine and denture cleanser, with inhibition zone diameter 25mm and 15mm against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans respectively , 96 % of Candida albicans growth reduction on denture acrylic discs. Also biosurfactant showed reduction in biofilm formation of Candida albicans on denture acrylic discs. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that biosurfactant was the best preventive agent for acrylic resin compared with other mouth washer and denture cleanser.


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of CEA in Head and Neck Squamous and Adenosquamous cell carcinoma

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Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is an epithelial malignancy involving many anatomical sites and is the most common cancer capable of metastatic spread. Development of early diagnosis methods and novel therapeutics are important for prevention and mortality reduction. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of CEA in Head and Neck Squamous cell carcinoma and Adenosquamous carcinoma with the progression of malignant disease. Materials and Methods: Sections of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded blocks specimens of (28)Squamous cell carcinoma and (5) Adenosquamous carcinoma were immunostained to assess the expression of CEA in Head and Neck Squamous cell carcinoma cases. Results: CEA expression was sometimes associated with cytoplasmic staining. The intensity of staining was correlated with the grade of differentiation: grade I was poorly positive staining, while grade III was generally deeply positive staining Conclusions: The immunohistochemical expression of CEA is useful, in addition to other diagnostic criteria, for establishing a differential diagnosis in the case of primary and metastatic cancer.


Article
Analyzing the measurements of gonial angle by panoramic radiographs for forensic estimation in Iraqi population

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Aim: this study aimed to measure the size of gonial angle on digital panoramic radiography and correlate these measurements with age, gender, and dentate status and this determination of sex and age is necessary in forensic practice and medicolegal purposes, therefore the usefulness of gonial angle measurements on digital panoramic images as indicators for sex and age in Iraqi population sample. Materials and Methods: this study conducted on 40 Iraqi subjects (21 male and 19 female) aged from (20-80) years. Subjects were divided in to 2 study groups · Dentulous study group ( 20 subjects ) · Edentulous study group ( 20 subjects ) Using digital panoramic image, the gonial angle was measured on both right and left sides for 2 study groups Results: - According to the age: in both dentulous and edentulous study groups, there was significant difference in mean gonial angle (GA) between 2 age groups (younger and older age groups) , the mean GA was significantly higher in the older age group , P value < 0.001 - According to the gender: in dentulous study group there was non-significant difference in mean GA between males and females , P value = 0.76 while in edentulous study group , the mean GA was significantly higher in females , P value = 0.01 - According to the dentate status: the edentulous study group statistically significant higher mean GA compared to dentulous study group, P value < 0.001 Conclusions: gonial angle does show changes with dentition status (edentulism) , therefore dentist role in qualitative and quantitative assessment of mandibular gonial angle by using digital panoramic radiography has become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry.


Article
Evaluation of related factors affecting stability and survival rate of dental implants (meta-analysis of retrospective study)

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Aims: evaluate survival rate of dental implants. Determine correlations between bone density and stability. Determine which intervention to dental implant that increase stability. Materials and methods: Retrospective study of patients receiving implants in dental implant unit in educational hospital of collage of dentistry /Baghdad University during period October 2012- October 2015. Individual data meta-analysis of implants stability using different interventions, which Are bone morphogenetic proteins, immediate dental implant, Ridge splitting, simvastatin drug, Platelet- Rich Plasma, Piezosurgery and control group. Results: survival rate was 98.33%. Implant length and posterior location statistically significant effect on achieving high stability in control group. Posterior location statistically significant increase primary stability. After 2 months of surgery comparing interventions and control group show simvastatin(P<0.001) increase stability and among variables diameter, length and mandibular location statistically significant increase stability. After 3 month simvastatin(P<0.001) and Bone morphogenetic proteins(P=0.005) increase stability and mandibular location, length and diameter increase stability. After 4 months Piezosurgery statistically significant lowering stability (P=0.004), and diameter statistically significant increase stability. Conclusions: High survival rate achieved. No significant effect of variables on failure rate of implants. Simvastatin and Bone morphogenetic proteins reduce healing time and improve stability but Piezosurgery lowering stability compered to control. Posterior location affected primary stability but length and diameter increase secondary stability. Bone density had no effect on primary and secondary stability.


Article
Management of internal derangement of Temporomandibular joint with platelet rich plasma: Pilot study

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Introduction: Temporomandibular joint internal derangements are progressive painful conditions that associated with limitation of mouth opening that caused by disruption within the internal aspects of the TMJ. The aim of this study was to evaluate the management of internal derangement of TMJ regarding pain intensity in temporomandibular joints and muscles of mastication and mouth opening. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in the Department of oral and maxillofacial surgery-college of dentistry Tikrit University. Twenty-one patients, 14 women and 7men with age range between 18-33 years old, were diagnosed with internal derangement of TMJ that were treated by intraarticular PRP. Results: show significant reduction of pain experienced by the patient after 12 weeks(P- < 0.0001). And show significant improvement of maximal interincisal mouth opening (P-<0.000).These finding demonstrating clearly that a significant improvement in both pain , mouth opening and clicking in the TMJ was achieved after the management. Conclusion: PRP injection to TMJ space for treatment of internal derangement are safe, effective, non-invasive method that help to reduce pain, joint noise and increase mouth opening, thus improving the jaw function.


Article
The Effect of Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis on Serum Paraoxonase, Adenosine Deaminase

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Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem and represents a risk factor for periodontitis. This study was carried out to determine the Paraoxonase (PON), adenosine deaminase (ADA), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in diabetic patients with Periodontitis. This study was carried out on nineteen diabetic patients (25–50 years),) with generalized moderate-to-severe periodontitis were selected based on periodontal parameters of gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and radiographic parameters. As well as 19 healthy agematched control participants. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics, ttest, Chi-Square. Results: Obtained results were shown statistically significant increases of activity of ADA, LDH, AST, and ALT, while PON concentration decreased in saliva from diabetic patients with periodontal disease in relation to control group. Conclusion: In patients with advanced periodontitis, the salivary PON, level were significantly lower whereas ADA higher compared to healthy individuals. Thus, assessment of salivary leptin can be done as a non-invasive and simple method to determine the susceptibility of patients to advanced periodontitis.

Table of content: volume:15 issue:1