Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2009 volume:50 issue:4

Article
VIDAS TEST OF IgG AVIDITY FOR DETECTION OF ACUTE TOXOPLASMOSIS IN THE EARLY PREGNANCY
اختبار VIDAS لالفة IgG في تشخيص داء المقوسات الكوندية الحاد في الحمل المبكر

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Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic, but can have severe consequences if it occurs in immunodeficient subject or fetuses. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is often based on maternal serological testing for IgM and IgG anti- Toxoplasma antibodies. Persistence of IgM for long periods, posses’ problems in distinguishing acute from chronic infection. The evaluation of specific IgG avidity enables more accurate dating, since avidity rises progressively during the course of infection. Seventy six women in the first 16 weeks of pregnancy were screened for VIDAS IgM, IgG antibodies and VIDAS toxo-IgG avidity. Low avidity antibodies were demonstrated in 2 (33.3%) of 6 sera positive with IgM assay and 4 (12.12%) of sera positive with IgG assay. Low avidity also detected in 2 (3.27%) of 61 sera negative with IgM. The low avidity suggesting a recent infection, while high avidity in 3 (50%) of the 6 positive IgM and 24 (72.72%) of 33 positive IgG indicating that the infection acquired in the distant past. These findings highlight the value of VIDAS IgG avidity when used in combination with the VIDAS IgM and IgG assay to provide a confirmatory evidence of an acute infection with a single serum specimen for pregnant women.

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Article
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME BARBITURIC ACID DERIVATIVES VIA SCHIFF΄ S BASES
تخليق ودراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لبعض احماض الباربيتيورك عن طريق قواعد شف

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Abstract

The present work includes the synthesis of different Schiff bases by the reaction of aniline with benzaldehyde and its derivatives. These Schiff bases reacted with phenoxy acid chloride to yield acetanilide derivatives. The synthesis of barbituric acid derivatives has been performed by the reaction of phenoxyacetanilide derivatives with guanidine carbonate and diethyl malonate (DEM) derivatives. Elemental analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to characterize the prepared compounds.
The antibacterial activity of the products were studied in vitro using disc diffusion method against two pathogenic strains of bacteria (Pseudomonas aeuroginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and showed high activity against both types

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Article
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF N-SUBSTITUTED MALEISOIMIDES HOMOPOLYMERS AND COPOLYMERS WITH SOME VINYLIC MONOMERS
تحضير و تشخيص عدد من البوليمرات الذاتية لمركبات N- معوض مالي ايسوايمايدات و بوليمراتها المشتركة مع بعض المونوميرات الفاينيلية

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Abstract

Four N-substituted maleisoimides were prepared via dehydration of the corresponding maleamic acids using - dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as dehydrating agent. The prepared maleisoimides were introduced in free radical copolymerization with three selected vinylic monomers including acrylonitrile, methylmethacrylate and methylacrylate producing new copolymers having different physical properties. Moreover three maleisoimide homopolymers were prepared via free radical polymerization of N-substituted maleamic acids followed by their dehydration with ethyl chloroformate/Et3N.
The new homopolymers and copolymers are of great importance since it contain isoimide ring in their repeating units which rearrange gradually with time and use to the more stable structure of the corresponding imides having thermosetting properties.

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Article
EFFECT OF LEAVES DEFOLIATION AND DATE OF DEFOLIATION ON GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER PLANT (Helianthus annuus L.) IN GYPSYFEROUS SOIL
تأثير خف الأوراق وموعده في نمو نبات زهرة الشمس في تربة جبسية

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Abstract

The objective of the work was to study the effect of several leaves defoliation : non defoliation (control D1, defoliation of lower 25%D2, upper 25%D3, lower 50% D4, upper50% D5 of plant leaves, defoliation of 25D6, 40D7, and 50%D8 of plant leaves along the stem, and defoliation of all plant leaves. That took place at two stages of plant growth: vegetative growth to head (R1), and the period from heads opening to flowering (R4-R5), on growth of sunflower plant var.Euroflor in gypsyferous soil. The experiment was designed according to RCBD with three replications. Agricultural practices were made according to recommendations. Results indicated that defoliation of the lower 50% of plant leaves reduced leaf content of chl. a and total chl. by 58.7 and 40.4%, respectively as a mean of seasons. Defoliation of all plant leaves reduced stem length and its diameter by 27 and 47.6%, respectively as a mean of seasons. Non defoliation was superior in the dry weight of root and plant by 142 and 69.6%, respectively compared with defoliation of all plant leaves.When defoliation of all plant leaves, leaf area index,leaf area duration and relative growth rate were reduced by 98.7,7723 and 55.8,respectively. While crop growth rate increased by 120% after (72-86) days from planting as a mean of seasons.Defoliation of the leaves during (R4-R5) caused reduction in the content of chl. a,b and total chl. by 19.8, 10.2 and 12%,respectively. On the other hand, defoliation of the leaves during (R1) caused reduction in stem length and its diameter by 5.3 and 6.9%, respectively, and leaf area duration by 15.5% after (72-86) day from planting as a mean of seasons. We found significant interaction between defoliation and stages of plant growth in most studied characters. In conclusion, defoliation the lower 25% of plant leaves caused negative effect on root growth ,defoliation of lower 25% or 25 and 40% along the stem caused small effect on plant growth , whereas defoliation the lower and upper 50% of plant leaves have the highest effect on sunflower growth.

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Article
REMOVAL OF NICKEL IONS BY Scenedesmus quadricauda FROM CONTAMINATED WATER UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
ازالة ايونات النيكل من المياه الملوثة من قبل طحلب Scenedesmus quadricaudaتحت ظروف مختبرية

Authors: ITHAR KAMIL Al-Mayaly
Pages: 458-461
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Abstract

The algal species Secenedesmus quadricauda was used to remove nickel ions from contaminated water (under laboratory conditions). It was exposed to different concentrations of nickel (2, 4, 6 and 8) ppm in order to measure it capacity to remove and tolerate this metal.
The results showed that the alga was able to remove this metal with percentages of 98, 53.5, 55.33 and 43% for the concentrations 2, 4, 6 and 8 ppm, respectively, in the eighth days of the experiment period, while this ability was decreased in the fourteen days of the experiment period to: 80, 43.25, 36.83 and 26.62 % for the concentrations 2, 4, 6, and 8, ppm respectively, as a result of death for some algal cells. So, it was concluded that this alga can tolerate nickel till 6 ppm, because it can remove more than 50 % from its concentration till the eighth day of the experiment period (8 days represents the life cycle of the studied alga according to some related references and most of the studies which used the same alga). This means that the algal cells of this species can tolerate and live till the end of the life cycle with the 6ppm of nickel (this concentration-6ppm- usually exceed the acceptable values of nickel in water -0.05ppm- according to Iraqi rivers protection system.No.251967).

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Article
THE EFFECT OF RIFAMPICIN DRUG ON LIVER ENZYMES (ALT AND AST) IN RABBITS
تاثير عقار الريفامبسين على مستوى انزيمات الكبد ( ALT و(AST في الارانب

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Abstract

The aim of this study was intend to study the effect of rifampicin drug on the level of liver enzymes in rabbits. Eight rabbits were used in this experiment and they were divided into two groups. The first group (control group) was administrated with 15 mg /ml/day normal saline for 35 days, while the second group (treated group) was administrated with 15 mg/ml/day for 35 days of rifampicin capsule (300 mg/kg). This study examined the influences of rifampicin drug on the concentration of Aspartate aminotransferase (ALT), Alanine aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubine and alkaline phosphates in rabbit sera. The results showed that there were a significant increase (p<0.05) in ALT concentration in rifampicin treated group compared with control group, and there were no significant differences in ALT and total bilirubine but there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in alkaline phosphates concentration. It was concluded that rifampicin produced a liver dysfunction .

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Article
SEASONAL VARIATION AND ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION IN SEDIMENTS FROM SELECTED STATIONS IN TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVERS, CENTRAL IRAQ
التغيرات الفصلية وتقييم تلوث المعادن الثقيلة في رواسب محطات مختارة من نهري دجلة والفرات، العراق

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Abstract

In this study, four sampling stations were selected from two locates on the Tigris river (Baghdad region) and others on the Euphrates river (Al-Anbar Governorate) in order to determine concentrations, seasonal variation and pollution intensity assessment of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn and Cd) in the two rivers sediments. Distribution of studied metals showed that stations in the Tigris river generally had higher concentrations than stations in Euphrates river. Manganese was found at high concentrations in all studied stations and ranged between 200 - 500 ppm, while Cd was found at the lowest concentrations and ranged between not detected to 1.8 ppm during study period. Based on index of geoaccumulation (I-geo) for studied heavy metals indicates that the surface sediments in the studied stations are unpolluted by Ni and Mn, while unpolluted to slightly polluted by Pb and Cd except the Cd at south of Baghdad station (moderately polluted). The I-geo for Cu indicate the sediments were unpolluted to slightly polluted in the Tigris stations, and unpolluted in the Euphrates stations. The calculated enrichment factor (EF) indicate that all stations can be classified as minimal enrichment for Ni, moderate enrichment for Cu and significant enrichment for the elements Pb and Cd.

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Article
STUDY OF OPTIMUM CONDITION FOR ALKALINE PROTEASE PRODUCTION FROM LOCAL ISOLATE OF Aspergillus niger
دراسة الظروف المثلى لانتاج انزيم البروتيز القاعدي من العزلة المحلية للعفن Aspergillus niger

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Abstract

Extracellular alkaline protease production by Aspergillus niger was studied with the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources availability in batch culture condition .A. niger showed better protease production in the presence of organic nitrogen sources compare to inorganic nitrogen sources in the medium, which consist of 1% glucose as carbon source, 1.5% casein hydrolysate as nitrogen source and 1% Nacl at initial pH=10 on rotary shaker incubator 140 rpm at 40 ºC for 5 days.

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Article
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON KINETIC PROPERTIES OF FREE AND IMMOBILIZED ASPARAGINASE FROM LOCAL ISOLATE OF Pseudomonase aeruginosa
دراسة مقارنة للصفات الحركية للاسباراجينيز(L-asparaginase) الحر والمقيد من العزلة المحلية Pseudomonase aeruginosa

Authors: غازي منعم عزيز
Pages: 482-490
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Abstract

Extracellular alkaline protease production by Aspergillus niger was studied with the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources availability in batch culture condition .A. niger showed better protease production in the presence of organic nitrogen sources compare to inorganic nitrogen sources in the medium, which consist of 1% glucose as carbon source, 1.5% casein hydrolysate as nitrogen source and 1% Nacl at initial pH=10 on rotary shaker incubator 140 rpm at 40 ºC for 5 days.

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Article
MUTANT PREVENTION CONCENTRATION OF LEVOFLOXACIN ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH CEFTAZIDIME AGAINST LEVOFLOXACIN AND CEFTAZIDIME SENSITIVE AND RESISTANT ISOLATES OF Pseudomonas aeruginosa
التركيز المانع للطفرات (MPC) لليفوفلوكساسين لوحده مره,واخرى بعد دمجه مع السيفتازديم ضد عزلات الـ Pseudomonas aeruginosa الحساسه والمقاومه لكلا المضادين

Authors: Maisem S. Abdulkareem --- Mohammed R. Abdullah
Pages: 491-495
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Abstract

The study includes 23 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wound infections .The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to each of Levofloxacin and Ceftazidime for these isolates were determined. The results showed 11(47.8%) isolates sensitive to both antibiotics, 5(21.7%) isolates resistant to each one of the antibiotics and 7(30.5%) isolates appeared resistance to one of them and sensitive to the other. Mutant Prevention Concentration (MPC) to both Levofloxacin and Ceftazidime alone and in combination were determined to the 5 sensitive and 5 resistant isolates to both antibiotics. Mutant Selection Window (MSW) was calculated according to the data of MPC and MIC to both levofloxacin and Ceftazidime alone and in combination to the same isolates which their MPC were determined (10 isolates). The decrease in the value of MSW by 1-2 times were noted when both antibiotics together (in combination) were used in comparison with its value when Levofloxacin was used alone (before combination) to the sensitive isolates (5 isolates), and this indicates a synergistic action whereas, no synergistic action appeared in the resistant isolates (5 isolates) according to the MSW values, this emphasizes that the combination between levofloxacin and ceftazidime against resistant isolates is useless

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Article
HUMAN CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS CAUSED BY ELECTROMAGNITIC FIELD
تأثير الأشعة الكهرومغناطيسية على التغيرات الكروموسومية في الأنسان

Authors: RAFID ABDUL-WAHID
Pages: 496-502
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Forty five volunteers aged between 25 and 65 years ,were exposed for at least 10 years to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) induced by transmission power lines in their residential area and 15 male of similar age unexposed, away from the transmission power lines as a control group were used in this study. The electromagnetic fields (with range of 50 to 60 Hertz) were beside the homes of the volunteers. This study carried out in three different region of Baghdad and included Al –Bladyat, Hay Al-Adel and Al-Dorra region, The groups of this study were divided into three sub- groups according to the distance away from the towers of transmission power lines, (1) range: from 1 to 25 meter (2) from 25 to 50 meter (3) from 50 to 75 meter. The results showed that there were structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities in the lymphocytes of the exposure volunteers and the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (chromosome lose, dicentric chromosome, ring chromosome, and chromatid breaks) were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher than in the exposed volunteers in compare with the control group. And these aberrations increased with short distance from the transmission power lines .in all cites of this study .Additionally that we can get the high value of electromagnetic field with shorter distance from the towers of the transition power lines and this may lead to induced directly damage DNA strand and significant increase of chromosomal aberrations

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Article
A COMPUTER EXPERIMENT TO STUDY THE CHARGING PROCESS FOR DUST GRAINS IN THE PLASMA
تجــربة حاســـــــــوبية لدراســــــة عمـليــة شــــحن الحـبيبات الغـبارية في البـلازما

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Dust grain in plasma is charged up by collecting electrons and ions from the plasma, this charging process has been studied for laboratory dusty plasma. The Orbital Motion Limited theory predicts the electron and ion currents toward the grain, the discrete charging model uses these current values and converts it to probabilities for collecting individual electrons and ions, this model assumed that discrete charges will be collected at random intervals in a random sequence. A program with FORTRAN programming language has been built to translate the discrete model to simulate the charging process. Then, the value of the charge number and their fluctuations as a function of time, charging time and mean equilibrium charge number on the grain surface have been predicted. It has been concluded that the grains were charged with negative and the charging process, in general, was affected by grain size, electron temperature, and the background plasma type.

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Article
STUDY OF FERRIMAGNETIC MIXED SPIN-3/2 AND SPIN-5/2 SYSTEM USING ISING MODEL
دراسة نظام فيري مغناطيسي خليط من نوعين من المواد(برم3/2 وبرم5/2)باستخدام نموذج أيزنك

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The mixed spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system with different anisotropies has been investigated using the mean field approximation (MFA). The phase diagram of the system has also been discussed in the anisotropy dependence of transition temperature. It is found that a reentrant ferrimagnetic phenomenon in the ordered system depends strongly on the anisotropy of the mixture

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Article
DIGITAL PROCESSING OF LANDSAT IMAGES TO DETECT IRON AND KAOLIN DEPOSITS IN SELECTED SITES IN THE WESTERN DESERT OF IRAQ
المعالجة الرقميه لمرئيات لاندسات لتعيين ترسبات الحديد والأطيانفي مواقع مختاره من الصحراء الغربية / العراق

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The study is carried out for selected areas in the Western Desert of Iraq that are characterized by the occurrence of iron and kaolin mineral deposits .The study aims to create active and suitable images to detect the mineral deposits depending on the digital image processing for satellite images using ERDAS-9 and ARC GIS 9.1 software. The study deals with ETM+ images to create image-fusion that were processed to identify the spectral response of each of Iron and kaolin in the selected areas. As well as available data of geological field survey were used to prepare the information layers associated with the attribute tables of the wells and quarries. The results show good agreement between remote sensing technique and the field work survey; a quantitative approach was established to estimate the occurrences of iron deposits in terms of spectral responses that are obtained from image processing. Iron deposits appear in yellowish green signatures on RGB (Red, Green, Blue) 4, 7, 2 while Kaolin deposits appear in reddish magenta on RGB 4, 7, 5. Image fusion of HPF (High Pass Filter) and WT (Wavelet Transform) are assigned as the most suitable algorithms used in the study. Image-ratio of 5/1 and 3/1 are active and suitable to detect the light tone of iron mineral deposits, while the high spectral response of kaolin deposits is detected on the image of 5/7.

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Article
STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN THE SOIL OF BASRA CITY- SOUTH OF IRAQ
دراسة توزيع بعض العناصر الثقيلة في تربة مدينة البصرة- جنوب العراق

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The Objective of the present work is to estimate the concentration levels of some heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni and Pb) in the soil of Basra city- south of Iraq and indicating to the probable pollution resources with these heavy metals. To achieve this aim (35) soil samples were collected from all over Basra city as well as comparing the concentrations of the heavy metals in soil of Basra city with their concentrations in soils taken from (6) rural regions (Diayla, Haditha, Sinjar, Kirkuk- Musol road, Basra-Kut road, south of Emmara city) which are far away from the sources of pollution. Soil samples includes( industrial, commercial, residential and agricultural) areas (one sample for each area) with a depth(5-15) cm. preparation of samples after collecting for measuring by atomic absorption spectrophotometer(AAS) was conducted. After getting the results, comparing with the international limits for heavy metals in soil was done. Then contour maps were made that revealed the distribution of studied heavy metals in the Basra city. From the results we can found that most of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd) increasing to the west of Basra city because of its closeness from the petroleum establishments like oil refinery of Al-Sha’eiba because the industrial waste of these industries contains high concentration of some heavy metals. There is also increasing in the concentration of some studied metals soil in the middle of Basra city especially Al-Jazzaer area which consider as a commercial area suffering from high traffic motion for automobiles and vehicles, like(Pb) as a by-product released from combustion of fuel due to the addition of (tetraethyl lead) to fuel as antiknocking agent. Then its cause an increasing of (Pb) in the atmosphere then precipitate on the soil, whereas decreasing of studied heavy metals was found to the east of Basra city which is consider as an agricultural area and have well vegetarian cover and far away from the industries establishments.

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Article
OSCILLATION OF LINEAR NEUTRAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THIRD ORDER
تذبذب حلول المعادلات التفاضلية المحايدة من الرتبة الثالثة

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In this paper sufficient conditions for oscillation of bounded and all solutions of linear third order neutral delay differential equation are studied. Examples are inserted to illustrate the obtained results

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Article
SEARCH EFFECT CHANGE THE OBJECTIVE FUNCTION COEFFICIENTS TO THE OPTIMAL SOLUTION WITH PRACTICAL APPLICATION (USE THE PARAMETRIC PROGRAMMING
بحث تاثير تغير معاملات دالة الهدف على الحل الامثل مع تطبيق عملي (باستخدام البرمجة المعلمية)

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The parametric programming considered as type of sensitivity analysis. This paper is concern on the study the effect of the variations objective function coefficients on the optimal solution. Of the parameter value (-5 ≤ θ ≤ 50) is taken the result, of the objective function equal zero and the decision variables are non basic, when the parameter (θ = -5).The objective function have value maximum when the parameter (θ= 50) and the decision variables are become basic. Whenever the parameter value increase, the objective function value increase too.

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Article
ENHANCED ENERGY BACKPROPAGATION ALGORITHM
خوارزمية توليد الطاقةَ العكسي المحسنة

Authors: Ahmad Hashim Hussein Aal-Yhia
Pages: 553-560
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The energy backpropagation algorithm (EBP) used the net, which contains two nodes of input layer, hidden layer and output layer. In this paper, we will use a net, which contains three nodes and four nodes of input layer, hidden layer and output layer. This study will compares among times of the learning, times of the identification and times of the converging by using the three nets (2, 3 and 4 nodes) in the Energy back propagation Algorithm. The results of experiments show the nets which contain three nodes and four nodes have better performance for time of the learning than the net which contains two nodes, while the net which contains two nodes has better performance for the time of identification and the time of converging than the nets which contain three nodes and four nodes

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Article
WRITING A LINUX VIRUS WITH LKM
لينكس فايروس كنموذج نواة قابل للتحميل

Authors: Nada A.Z. Abdullah
Pages: 561-566
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Virus is a program which is able to replicate with little or no user intervention, and the replicated program(s) are able to replicate further. Writing a good virus is challenging, the best viruses are written in C language, and building as executable file from C source code to plant virus code into another executable. The result either prohibitively large, or very dependent on the completeness of the target installation. Real viruses approach the problem from the other end. They are aggressively optimized for code size and do only what's absolutely necessary. However, this has some limitations and the solution to these limitations is complicated and makes the virus more likely to fail. This paper presents a design and implementation of a virus running on Linux operating system as Loadable kernel module (LKM) to overcome the limitations of developing the virus as C program. This virus can infect Linux modules in addition to executable files.

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