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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2018 volume:21 issue:2

Article
Kinetics of Degradation of Metribuzin in aqueous solution using Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles

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Abstract

In this work, zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI NPs) were synthesized in (EW-Fe0) ethanol -water mixed system and have been evaluated for degradation in aqueous solution of metribuzin. The batch experiments at varying solution pH showed the degradation efficiency of 93.22%, 83.74% and 70.09% for the pH value 10, 7 and 4 respectively. Application of the varying dosage; (2% Feo w/v, 4% Feo w/v, 6% Feo w/v) reflected an increasing trend as per the recorded degradation efficiency of 54.36 %, 67.28% and 79.38% respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) were used to determine surface morphology and crystallinity of the particles respectively. The batch kinetic tests gave kinetics of a pseudo-first order along with the rate constants, Kobs of 0.2659 h-1, 0.2320 h-1 and 0.2066 h-1 after incubating 6% Feo w/v with 10 ppm, 15 ppm and 20 ppm of Metribuzin respectively. The residual metribuzin was monitored in the solution by using of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV Spectrophotometer. Thus, we present nZVI as an alternative rapid method for the detoxification of metribuzin.


Article
The Consequences of Heavy Metals Resulting from Terrorist Operations in Three Regions of Baghdad, Iraq on Thyroid Function

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Abstract

The heavy metals mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are widely known of being toxicants. exposure to a variety of dangerous toxic effects has been attached in all humans.in this paper the effect of terrorist operation on thyroid gland functions in a sample of Iraqi individual (Al-karradah and Abo-Gharib) comparison with Al-jadria rejoin as (control). the correlation between sera thyroid hormones thyroxine T4, triiodothyronine T3, Thyrotropin TSH and Thyroglobulin-Ab (Tg-Ab) and the levels-of lead, cadmium, also mercury have-been measured. 75 volunteers from three Iraqi areas were included in this study‎. our examination proposes an inverse relationship between Hg presentation and thyroid hormones, a positive ‎correlation between Cd exposure and thyroid hormones‎, but the associations with Pb was negative. there were significant positive correlations between the heavy metals themselves. In this manner, increased heavy metals exposure might be a factor in the etiology of hypothyroidism diseases ‎and thyroid gland function. the result of this study showed that the effect of heavy metals (blood serum Hg, blood serum Pb, blood serum Cd) on thyroid hormones, and the effect of military and terrorist operations on the thyroid gland. In the end we concluded that the heavy elements resulting from the explosions and terrorist operations in the area of (Al-karadah, Abo-Gharib) high compared with the control (Al-jadria), this leads to many diseases on the health of the human body and also the effect of heavy elements on the thyroid gland and its negative effect on thyroid hormones and cause thyroid disease


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Palladium (II) Complexes Containing Mixed Ligands with Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate and Phosphines

Authors: Mousa. S. Hussein
Pages: 18-27
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Abstract

This work includes preparation and characterization of new four mono nuclear complexes of palladium metal ion result from treating palladium chloride with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), tertiary phosphines(dppe, dppp) and 2-phenyl pyridine (Hppy) in different molar ratios. All complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic methods{IR, UV-Vis, 1HNMR} spectroscopy, in addition to elemental analysis (C.H.N) and conductivity measurement. pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate‎ ligand behaves like bidentate in the complexes [Pd(PDTC)(dppe)]Cl and [Pd(PDTC)(ppy)] but it behaves as mono dentate in the complexes [Pd(PDTC)2(dppp)] and [Pd(PDTC)2(dppe)], while tertiary phosphines and 2-phenyl pyridine behave like bidentate ligand.


Article
Effect of Oxidative Stress on Iraqi Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

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Abstract

Oxidative stress is an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, play an important role in the development of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Rheumatoid Arthritis regard as a chronic, autoimmune disease. The aim of the study to assess levels of some oxidative stress biomarker in Rheumatoid Arthritis. This study involves 80 Rheumatoid arthritis patients and 30 healthy subjects as control groups. Analysis on serum samples was Malondialdehyde, Albumin, and total Bilirubin. The obtained data showed significantly increasing (P<0.01) in level of oxidant parameter Malondialdehyde and significantly decrease (P<0.01) in endogenous antioxidant albumin and total bilirubin in comparison with the control group which may be due to increased activity of immune system which involves reactive oxygen species in its action. The reactive oxygen species of originated from the immune system have the crucial role in oxidative stress situation in Rheumatoid arthritis


Article
The Consequences of Terrorist and Military Operations in Three Regions of Baghdad, Iraq on Serotonin and Thyroid Function

Authors: Alaa H. Jawad
Pages: 32-36
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Abstract

In this paper the effect of terrorist and military operations in three regions of Baghdad, Iraq were studied on thyroid gland function and serotonin hormones, in 75 Iraqi individual from (AL-karradah and Abo-Gharib) regions as comparison with Al-jadria (control). The correlation between sera thyroid hormones thyroxine T4, triiodothyronine T3, thyrotropin TSH and serotonin have been indicated‎, the utilization of thyroid hormones as a compelling subordinate treatment for full of feeling issue has been contemplated in the course of recent decades and has been adjusted more than once. Communication of the thyroid and monoamine neurotransmitter frameworks has been recommended as a potential underline component of action. The serotonin framework has been moderately ignored, along these lines; the objective of this article is to audit the writing on the connection between thyroid hormones and the mind serotonin. Our examination proposes a negatively relationship between serotonin and thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH), a positive ‎correlation between serotonin and thyroxine‎, while there were significant positive correlations between serotonin and triiodothyronine. In conclusion, there is powerful confirmation, that the thyroid economy has a balancing sway in the brain serotonin system, thus considerable further investigation will be necessary to understand the role of serotonin in the pathogenesis and high levels in the some regions in Iraq such as AL-karradah and Abo-Gharib.

Keywords

Serotonin --- thyroid hormones --- T3 --- T4 --- TSH --- pollution --- Baghdad area.


Article
Study The Adsorption of Thymol Blue Dye on Plant Allium Sativum

Authors: Zahraa A. Mahmood
Pages: 37-44
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Abstract

The adsorption of thymol blue anionic color by allium sativum store was right off the bat considered in a cluster framework at different color fixations. The adsorption was considered as an element of adsorbent measurements, contact time, pH, temperature and ionic quality under group adsorption strategy. The balance information fit with Freundlich and Tekmin equations of adsorption and the straight relapse factors R2 was utilized to clarify the best fitting isotherm demonstrate. Diverse thermodynamic factors, similar to ΔGo vitality, ΔHo and ΔSo of the on-going adsorption operation have additionally been assessed. The thermodynamic examinations of the color adsorption on allium sativum store demonstrated that the framework was endothermic in nature. Group adsorption models in light of the presumption of the pseudo first request and pseudo-second request component were connected to inspect the energy of the adsorption. The outcomes demonstrated that dynamic information were taken after more intently the pseudo-second request display than the pseudo-first request


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New 1,2-Dihydropyridine-3-Carbonitrile Compounds with Study of Expected Biological Activity

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Abstract

New 1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile derivative compounds (3,4) were synthesized by cyclization of ketones (compound (1) and compound (2)) with appropriate aldehydes (4-N, N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and 4-chloro-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbaldehyde) in presence of ethyl cyano acetate and ammonium acetate. The new synthesized compounds have been characterized using Melting point, FT-IR spectroscopy and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrum. The evaluation of biological activity of some synthesized compounds (1-4) with different concentration 10 mg mL−1, 1 mg mL−1 and 0.1 mg mL−1, against two types of bacteria on gram positive bacterial Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenus and gram nagetive bacterial Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumniae.


Article
New Aminocoumain as Corrosion Inhibitor

Authors: Yasameen K. Al-Majedy
Pages: 51-56
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Abstract

New green organic molecules as corrosion inhibitor namely, 2-amino-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-3-cyano-4, 5-dihydropyrano (3,2-c) coumarin (AND) was synthesized starting from 4-hydroxycoumarin, malonitraile and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and tested on mild steel (MS) in 1 M HCl media by a weight loss method and identification of the surface technique employee scanning/electron/microscope (SEM) studies. The AND as an inhibitor compound have been elucidate spectroscopically (FT-IR ,1HNMR and 13CNMR) The weight loss investigation demonstrated that inhibition performances have been improved via concentration raising of inhibitor. To support our results scanning electron microscopy was employed to clarify the surface of the MS with and without AND in 1.0 M HCl media. The inhibition performance rate was 96% at the maximum utilized concentration of AND

Keywords


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Hetrocyclic Compounds Derived from ethyl-4-aminobenzoate

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Abstract

New series of Schiff Bases were synthesized by many steps starting from treatment of ethyl-4-aminobenzoate with hydrazine hydrate to yield 4-aminobenzohydrazide (1) which was reacted with ethyl acetoacetate in ethanol to form pyrazole derivative (2) and this reacted with salicylaldehyde to yield azo compound (3). The azo compound condensation with appropriate amines (ethyl-4-aminobenzoate and 3-nitroaniline) to give new Schiff bases (4,5). The synthesized compounds were characterized by melting points, FTIR and 1HNMR.


Article
Synthesis and Spectroscopic, Studies of Some New Piperidin-4-one Derivatives

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Abstract

The homologous series of 2,6-bis(4-Subtituetphenyl)-3-methylpiperidin-4-one compounds were synthesized using Mannich condensation. Then Five series have been synthesized by reaction of different reagents of semicarbazide. With 2,6-bis(4-Subtituetphenyl)-3-methylpiperidin-4-one to sythesize target compounds 2a-2f, 2a-2f, 3a-3f, 4a-4f, 5a-5f and 6a-6f. The chemical structures of the molecules were characterised by FT-IR, 1D NMR and CHN elements analysis.

Keywords

Piperidin-4-one --- Spectroscopic --- studies --- FT-IR --- 1H NMR --- 13C NMR.


Article
Preparation and Application of Tetracycline Hydrochloride Liquid membrane Electrodes.

Authors: Amina M. Abass
Pages: 73-80
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Abstract

Two liquid membrane electrodes for (TCH) were prepared by using ion pair which included phosphomolybdic acid (PMA)-(TCH) with plasticizers: Di-n-butyl phthalate(DBPH), and di-octylphenylphosphonate (DOPH). Tetracycline electrodes were gave a Nernstain response equal to 56. 51 and 50. 66 mV/decade for membranes depended on DBPH and DOPH as a plastisizers, respectively. Linear ranges were around 6. 8×10-6- 1. 0×10-1 and 1. 0×10-5-1. 0×10-1 M, respectively. Detection limit were equal to 4. 0×10-6, 5. 0×10-6 M, respectively. PH range were also studied at three different concentration of tetracycline solutions. As well as were studied lifetime, selectivity, potentiometric methods such as direct, standard addition , multiple standard addition and titration methods were applied to determination tetracycline in pharmaceutical preparation


Article
Produce an Analytical Map for the Distribution of Air Pollution by Toxic Gases in Baghdad City by Geographic Information System

Authors: Wassan A. Hassan
Pages: 81-87
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Abstract

Iraq suffers from pollution of the air with many gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ozone and others. Baghdad governorate was used as an example to measure the amount of air pollution and distribution in the areas of Baghdad and used data for three measurement stations in Baghdad is the station Jadiriya, Andulos and Alwaziriya, which are available only and for three gases are carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and ozone and 2011 and 2012 and for all months. The study used three methods of mathematical induction (IDW, Kriging and Spline), one of the methods of mathematical induction in GIS programs. Analytical maps of the distribution and distribution of gases were obtained in Baghdad and it became clear that the IDW method is the most accurate of the three methods.


Article
Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Exploding Aluminum Wire Plasma in Distilled Water

Authors: Hassan Hashim
Pages: 88-91
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Abstract

This work aims to study the exploding aluminum wire plasma parameters by using optical emission spectroscopy method. The emission spectra of the aluminum discharge plasma have been recorded and analyzed. The plasma electron temperature (Te) was calculated by Boltzmann plot, and the electron density (ne), by Stark broadening for aluminum wire of diameter 0.3 mm and different current 75,100, and 160A in distilled water. The aluminum line 656.279 nm was used to calculate the electron density by Stark broadening. It was found that the electron density (ne) increase from 28×1016cm-3 to 60×1016 cm-3 with increasing current from 75 to 160 A, while the electron temperatures increase from 0.986 to 1.614 eV for the same conditions. The optical emission spectrum (OES) emitted from the plasma have a peak located at 653 nm corresponding to Hα line for hydrogen atoms, and others peaks belong to Aluminum (AlI and AlII lines), and Oxygen (OI and OII lines). The relationship between the plasma electron temperature, emission line intensity and number density were studied.


Article
Approximating the Lateral Distribution Function of Cherenkov Radiation as a Function of the Particle Type for Tunka-133 Array

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Abstract

The main interest of the present work is in analysing the lateral distribution function (LDF) of Cherenkov radiation from particles that produced in Extensive Air Showers (EAS). The simulation of LDF of Cherenkov radiation is fullfiled by utilizing the CORSIKA programe at 3∙1015 eV of the primary energy around the knee region for many primaries for vertical showers for Tunka-133 array conditions. Depending on the numerical simulation results of Cherenkov light LDF, sets of parameterized polynomial functions are resetted for several particles as a function of primary particle type. The comparison between the approximated LDF of Cherenkov radiotion with the LDF which has been simulated using CORSIKA program for Tunka-133 array is verified for several primary particles for vertical EAS cascade.


Article
An Application of Solid State Fermentation and Elicitation with Some Microbial Cells for the Enhancement of Prodigiosin Production by Serratia marcescens

Authors: Khalid J.K. Luti --- Reem W. Yonis --- Samer T. Mahmoud
Pages: 98-105
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Abstract

The present study provides an evidence for the successful utilization of interspecies interactions to enhance antibiotic production in solid state fermentation that previously established in liquid cultures. Ground corn, wheat bran, rice husk and soya bean ground were examined in order to choose the substrate that support the prodigiosin production from Serratia marcescens. Results revealed that maximum production of prodigiosin was obtained in wheat bran medium, starting from early hours of incubation and reaching its maximum of product yield 47.5 mg.gds-1 (mg per gram of dry substrate) after 48 h of incubation. An enhancement by 2.3-fold in prodigiosin production was obtained as a result of introducing, separately, live and dead prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial cells as elicitors to S. marcescens medium. The highest prodigiosin production (240mg.gds-1) was obtained when S. marcescens was cultured in wheat bran medium supplemented with sunflower oil (0.5ml.g-1 substrate) and live cells of Bacillus subtilis (0.4ml.g-1 substrate) as elicitor.


Article
(Olea europaea L.) Pomace and Their IngredientsTota Phenolic Contents and Antioxident Activities of Olive

Authors: Munther Hamza Rathi --- Russl Hassan
Pages: 106-111
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Abstract

In this study, the determination of total phenolic and antioxidant activity of the wastes of Olea europaea L. wastes was determined obtained from the process of pressing and extraction of oil from the fruits of O. europaea L. which are peels, seeds and pomace (peels and seeds). Five solvents where used in the extraction process to identify the best method for the extraction. The results of the present study showed that the type of solvent in the extraction process and the selected part of the waste have important role in determining of phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activity of the pomace, peels and seeds. Hydroethanolic extracts (50% water) was the best in phenolic compounds extraction comparison with other solvents (water at room temperature, boiling distilled water and hydrochloric acid diluted with distilled water by (1% and 5%). In contrast, extracts from the pomace, peels and seeds using 5% hydrochloric acid had higher antioxidant activity through their ability to inhibit the activity of the synthetic free radical DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-pcriylhydrazal) when compared with other solvents. The extracts of peels showed significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) amounts of the phenolic compounds and the antiradical activity against DPPH than those prepared from the pomace and seeds.


Article
Study the Antibacterial Activity of Bacteriocin Produced from the Locally Isolated Cronobacter sakazakii

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Abstract

Cronobacter sakazakii was isolated from food samples and identified using morphological, biochemical tests and VITEK-2 system to produce bacteriocin by induction with mitomycin-C. C.sakazakii isolates were screened for their ability for bacteriocin production. Result showed that all these isolates were bacteriocin producers, but the most efficient isolate was MA7. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin against some pathogenic bacteria was tested using well diffusion method. Bacteriocin was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange using (DEAE)-Cellulose. After purification steps, three peaks were obtained. quantitative screening of bacteriocin involving the estimation of protein concentration and estimation of antibacterial activity showed that the large first peak was 1.6 mg/ml, 640 U/ml.


Article
An Ecological Assessment for Water Quality of Some Water Bodies in Koysenjaq-Erbil, Iraq.

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Abstract

Water `assessment and algal composition study was conducted near Koysenjaq district for nine sites including (4) springs and (5) streams. Monthly water samples collected from April-2013 to March-2014 and 15 physico-chemicals parameters and algal content were analyzed. Generally, pH of water tend to be in alkaline side of neutrality. Mean values of electrical conductivity ranged between 272-441µs.cm-1 in January and July respectively. Total hardness extended from hard to very hard water. Cation arranged in order as follows: Ca> Mg>Na>K. Higher mean value of ammonium recorded in site 6 was 14.8 µg N.NH3.l-1, and minimum value of nitrite was 0.68µg N.NO2.l-1 in site 6. Mean values of phosphate ranged between (0.82-4.5µg P-PO4.l-1). Highest value of dissolved oxygen were observed in sites 7, 8 and 9, while the minimum value of biochemical oxygen demand recorded in site 2 was 0.7mg.l-1. A total 73 species of algal species were identified of which belong to Bacillariophyceae (25 species), Cyanophyceae (23 species), Chlorophyceae (16 species), Euglenophyceae (4 species), Charophyceae and Xanthophyceae (2 species for each one) and 1 species belong to Rhodophyceae. Multivariate statistical techniques results revealed that water quality of the monitored water bodies were influenced by many pollution sources including the geological formation of the area, agricultural activities and effluent of domestic sewage water.


Article
Chemical and Biological Treatment of Plastic Wastes by Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soils in Baghdad, Iraq

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Due to the rapid increasing of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) used in industries, there are large of wastes quantities inter the stream per year which make a serious problem to water environment. In this work, the chemical treatment involve plastic bottles pieces mixed with MgO nano-catalyst, the result was white powder of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) which was used in this study. This work aims to isolate and screen bacterial isolates that able to degrade PET powder. Thirty eight bacterial isolates have been isolated from different waste disposal sites in Baghdad city. These isolates were screened on minimal salt media (MSM) plates according to clear zone method and the change in indicator color by using PET powder as the sole source of carbon and energy. According to morphological, biochemical characteristic, and analysis by Vitek 2 the most active isolates were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii.


Article
Reducing Data Sparsity in Recommender Systems

Authors: Nadia F. Al-Bakri --- Soukaena Hassan Hashim
Pages: 138-147
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Recommender systems are used to find user's interested things among a huge amount of digital information. Collaborative filtering is used to generate recommendations. However, the data sparsity problem leads to generate unreasonable recommendations for those users who provide no ratings. From this point, this paper presents a modest approach to enhance prediction in movielens dataset with high sparsity by applying collaborative filtering methods. The proposal consists of three consequence phases: preprocessing phase, similarity phase, prediction phase. The experimental results obtained conducting similarity measures against movielens user rating datasets show that the result of prediction is enhanced about 10% to15% with the non-sparse rating matrix.

Table of content: volume:21 issue:2