Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:59 issue:2B

Article
The association of IL-10 (-592A/C) gene polymorphism with progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Basrah Province-Iraq

Authors: Saja Majid Hamid --- Wafaa Sadoon Shani
Pages: 819-826
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Abstract

The study was aimed to investigate the association between IL-10 (-592A/C) gene polymorphism with the progression of type 2 diabeteis mellitus in Basrah Province. This study included (100) subjects (30) person as a control group and (70) patients with T2DM. The patients were distributed as two groups according to Their gender and duration of the disease: group for short duration (≤ 5 years) and group for long duration( >5 years). Lipid profile and glucose concentrations were measured by COBAS analyzer while IL-10 (-592A/C) gene polymorphism was genotyped by using (RFLP-PCR) technique. CC genotype frequency showed a significant decrease while CA genotype revealed significant increase ( p≤0.05) in T2DM compared with controls .No significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies between both groups. Gender and duration of diabetes didn’t show any significant differences. There is significant association between CA genotype with the risk of T2DM (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.035-2.173). We concluded that IL-10 (-592A/C) gene polymorphism contribute in development of T2DM.

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Article
Use Citrus aurantium plant as bio-indicator of air pollution in Baghdad city

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Abstract

The current study was conducted to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on different biochemical parameters in Citrus aurantium plant and calculation the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI). Five sites were selected to collect plant leaves, four of them within the city of Baghdad, namely Al-Jadriya, Al-Andlous, Al-Doura and close to the private generators to represent the urban areas and Abu Ghraib site to represent the rural area. Seasonal samples were collected for the period from October 2016 to June 2017. Eleven biochemical parameters total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, leaf extract pH, relative water content, total nitrogen, total protein content, total sugar content, proline, electrical conductivity, cadmium and lead. The results of Citrus plant showed high chlorophyll concentration and ascorbic acid content in private generator site reached to (10.620 mg/g and 0.403 mg/g) respectively. While relative water content recorded high concentration (57.563 %) at Al-Jadriya site. pH recorded high value (6.358) at Al-Doura site. In addition, values of APTI of the Citrus plant were calculated to determine the sensitivity of the plant to air pollution. Highest value of APTI (6.23) was recorded at Al-Jadriya site, while lowest value of APTI (5.03) was recorded at Al-Andlous site. The results of present study revealed that Citrus aurantium is sensitive to air pollution and can be used as bio-indicator under pollution stress.


Article
Study the protective effect of Matricaria chamomilla flower extract against the toxicity of Entamoeba histolytica induces liver and renal dysfunctions in adult albino male rats

Authors: Abeer A. Ali1 --- Shahad Abbas Alattar
Pages: 832-838
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Abstract

The present study was designed to show the potential role of Matricaria chamomilla flower extract against toxicity of Entamoeba histolytica . The study used 20 adult albino male rats that divide randomly to four groups (each group consist 5 rats); control group received ad libidium, group of rats administrated with 1X103 cyct/ml suspension for seven days, group of rats administrated with 1X103 cyct/ml suspension and treated with 50mg/kg extract for month, group of rats administrated with 1X103 cyct/ml suspension and treated with 100mg/kg extract for month. The results show high significant increased (P < 0.05) in levels of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine and uric acid in rats administrated with 1X103 cyct/ml suspension. Oxidative stress factor in this group show significant increased (P < 0.05) in levels of MDA (malonedialdehyied) and significant decreased (P < 0.05) in levels of glutathione (GSH) and catalase compared with control group. While, after used M. chamomilla flower extract with Entamoeba histolytica , the results showed non significant changes (P < 0.05) in liver and kidneys function parameters. Also, MDA, GSH and catalase showed non significant changes (P < 0.05) compared with control group. It was concluded that flower extract has been potential role against toxicity of Entamoeba histolytica in adult male albino rats.

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Article
Structural and Optical Properties for Zn Doped CdO Thin Films Prepared by Pulse Laser deposition

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Abstract

In this work, the effect of Zn dopant on structural and optical properties of cadmium oxides, CdO, thin film were studied prepared by pulse laser deposition on glass substrate then annealed at 250 ᵒC in air. All films were examined by X-ray diffraction and UV- visible spectrometer. The XRD analysis shows appearance of new phase identical with hexagonal ZnO additional with cubic phase at high Zn content, which effected on the optical properties. The optical energy gap increase from 2.45 eV to 2.70 eV with increasing Zn content from 0 to 40 %.


Article
Theoretical Study of Nuclear Density Distributions and Elastic Electron Scattering Form Factors of Some Proton Halo Nuclei (17Ne and 8B)

Authors: Ghaith N. Flaiyh --- Esraa F. Saeed
Pages: 847-855
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Abstract

Theoretical investigation of proton halo-nucleus (8B and 17Ne) has revealed that the valence protons are to be in pure (1p1/2)1 orbit for 8B and (1d3/2)2 orbit for 17Ne. The nuclear matter density distributions, the elastic electron scattering form factors and (proton, charge, neutron and matter) root-mean square (rms) are studied for our tested nuclei, through an effective two-body density operator for point nucleon system folded with two-body full correlation operator's functions. The full correlation (FC's ) takes account of the effect for the strong short range repulsion (SRC's) and the strong tensor force (TC's) in the nucleon-nucleon forces. The effective two-body density operator is produced and used to derive an explicit form for ground state two-body nucleon density distributions (2BNDD's) applicable for proton – rich halo nuclei and Fortran 95 programs are utilized to obtain theoretical values of our calculation. The effect of the TC's and SRC's on the ground state also calculated. 2BNDD's obtained within the two- frequency shell model (TFSM) approach, the elastic charge scattering form factors F(q)'s of proton halo nuclei are studied through Plane Wave Born Approximation (PWBA) .


Article
Alternative Approach to Extract the Bulk Etching Rate of PADC Nuclear Detector

Authors: Saeed H. Saeed Al-Nia'emi
Pages: 856-864
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Abstract

The paper aims to propose the maximum track length (Lmax) measurement as an alternative approach to evaluate and extract the bulk etch rate (Vb) of the nuclear detector PADC CR-39, and compare it with the results obtained by the removal layer thickness measurement of the etched detector. The alternative Lmax-method mainly relies on the measuring the length of the etched tracks, their maximum values and saturation times from the obtained track profile images. The detectors were irradiated with different energies of alpha particles emitted from the 241Am source and then etched in a 6.5 N NaOH solution at 701oC for different successive time intervals. In order to calculate Vb, the maximum length of the tracks and their saturation times were determined corresponding to the energies of the alpha particles used. A direct proportion between the maximum length of the tracks and the energy of the alpha particle was observed. However, the value of Vb is found to be 1.3440.0202 m h-1 obtained using the Lmax-method, and it was consistent with that computed by the method based on the measurement of the thickness difference of the etched detector which was 1.3540.065 m h-1.


Article
Climatic Water Balance in AL-Amaid Area/ Muthana Governorate/ Southwest Iraq

Authors: Yas K. Hussain --- Moutaz A. Al-Dabbas
Pages: 865-874
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Abstract

Ground water is a vital source for agricultural sector and rural communities. The global climate change is expected to change the hydrometeorological processes parameters. The climate considered as part of the southern Iraqi desert general climate with long, extremely hot, and dry summer and short wet period with little rain. So it is vital to investigate the groundwater quality for irrigation purposes. The meteorological data of Samawa meteorological station for the period 1980-2015 was used to evaluate the climatic conditions for Muthana Governorate. It was found that the averages of annual rainfall was 105.7mm and the everages of evaporation is 3182 mm, while the mean monthly relative humidity % , mean temperature, wind speed and sunshine were 40.9 %, 25.3 Co, 5.2m/sec and 9 h/day respectively. The results show that the mean evapotranspiration is 1717 mm, while the correct evapotranspiration is 1520 mm and the climate of the study area is classified as dry. And water deficit equals to (72%) of the total rainfall amount, and water surplus formed (28%) of the total rainfall amount.


Article
3D Geological Model For Khasib, Tanuma, and Sa'di formations of Halfaya Oil Field in Missan Governorate-Southern Iraq

Authors: Arjwan Hamid Fayadh --- Mad'hat E. Nasser
Pages: 875-885
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Abstract

A geological model is a spatial representation of the distribution of sediments and rocks in the subsurface. Where this study on Halfaya oil field; it is located in Missan governorate, 35 km southeast of the city of Amara. It is one of the main fields in Iraq because it is production high oil. This model contains the structure, and petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation) in three directions. To build 3D geological models of petroleum reservoirs. Khasib, Tanuma, and Sa’di formations in Halfaya oil field have been divided into many layers depending on petrophysical properties and facies


Article
Pollution Assessment of Surface and Drainage Water by Heavy Elements in Al Ahrar District, Wasit Governorate, Iraq

Authors: Ayser Al-Shamma --- Reyam A. Hassan
Pages: 886-891
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Abstract

The study area lies in Wasit governorate south west Kut city, where Al Ahdeb oil field is located to the south of Al Ahrar district. The present study deals with assessment of heavy metals pollution in water by collecting eleven water samples (five samples from drainage and six samples from surface water) in 5th of December 2016. The water samples analysis of heavy elements in the study area shown that water is polluted with high concentration of (Pb, Cd) elements, while the concentration of (Cu, Fe, Zn) in water samples are within the permissible limits of both World Health Organization, and Iraqi standards and there are no hazard effects from these elements. The study detected some diseases that injured the people living in the vicinity of the oil field complex such as scabies, vitiligo, eczema and contact dermatitis, as a result of increasing of (Pb) ion in water samples.


Article
Quantitative Interpretation of Gravity and Magnetic Anomalies in West of Tikrit City and Surroundings, Iraq

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Abstract

A quantitative interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies in west of Tikrit city and surroundings, has been completed utilizing Grav2dc and Mag2dc (2D, 2.5D) forward techniques. The modeling has been carried out along four profiles, two NW-SE profiles along the distinct gravity residual anomalies and two NE-SW profiles along the magnetic residual anomalies. The most geologic plausible model that matches the data was picked. The model along the gravity profile (A-A') reveal faulting of the basement, whereas along the profiles B-B', C-C' and D-D' did not present faulting. The models comprise of two rock units, the first is the sedimentary cover and the second unit is the basement rock. According to the results of modeling, thickness of the sedimentary cover and basement depth values are in good agreement with the results of previous studies. The upper part of sedimentary cover exhibited different density and susceptibility contrasts. These contrasts may be interpreted in term of lithological lateral variation.


Article
On Essential (Complement) Submodules with Respect to an Arbitrary Submodule

Authors: E. A. Al-Dhaheri --- B. H. Al-Bahrani
Pages: 904-908
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Abstract

In this paper we Proved other properties of essential and complement submodules to an arbitrary submodule of an R-module M .We prove that for a family {Mα}α ∊ʌ of modules . If Tα and Nα are submodules of Mα with N α +T α ≤T α-e M α ,∀ α, then ⨁α∊ʌ (Nα +Tα)≤⨁ α ∊ʌ Tα –e ⨁α ∊ʌ Mα. Also we show that for submodules T, A, B and C of a module M such that T ≤ A ≤ C. If B is T- c for A in M and C is T- c for B in M , then C is maximal T- essential extension of A in M


Article
Properties of fuzzy absolute value on R and Properties Finite Dimensional Fuzzy Normed Space

Authors: Jehad R. Kider --- Ahmed H. Ali
Pages: 909-916
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Abstract

The first aim in this paper is to introduce the definition of fuzzy absolute value on the vector space of all real numbers R then basic properties of this space are investigated. The second aim is to prove some properties that finite dimensional fuzzy normed space have


Article
Generalized-hollow 〖lifting〗_gmodules

Authors: Noor M. Mosa --- Wasan Khalid
Pages: 917-921
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Abstract

Let R be any ring with identity, and let M be a unitary left R-module. A submodule K of M is called generalized coessential submodule of N in M , if ( N)/K⊆〖Rad〗_g (M/K) . A module M is called generalized hollow-〖lifting 〗_g module, if every submodule N of M with M/N is a G-hollow module, has a generalized coessential submodule of N in M that is a direct summand of M. In this paper, we study some properties of this type of modules


Article
Hide Secret Messages in Raster Images for Transmission to Satellites using a 2-D Wavelet Packet

Authors: Maisa'a Abid Ali Khodher
Pages: 922-933
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Abstract

The hiding of information has become of great importance in recent times. With dissemination through the internet, and communication through satellites, information needs to be secure. Therefore, a new algorithm is proposed that enables secret messages to be embedded inside satellite images, wherein images of any size or format can be hidden, using a system’s image compression techniques. This operation is executed in three main steps: first phase – the original image is converted into a raster image; second phase– steganography, in which a binary secret message is hidden inside a raster image, using a 4×4 array as the secret key; and third phase– compression of the stego-image raster in L2 and L3 using a 2-D wavelet packet. The outcome is a highly efficient algorithm, which can rapidly conceal information inside transmitted satellite images, thus guarding against revealing information to potential cyber-attackers.


Article
A Modified Similarity Measure for Improving Accuracy of User-Based Collaborative Filtering

Authors: Nadia F. AL-Bakri --- Soukaena H. Hashim
Pages: 934-945
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Abstract

Production sites suffer from idle in marketing of their products because of the lack in the efficient systems that analyze and track the evaluation of customers to products; therefore some products remain untargeted despite their good quality. This research aims to build a modest model intended to take two aspects into considerations. The first aspect is diagnosing dependable users on the site depending on the number of products evaluated and the user's positive impact on rating. The second aspect is diagnosing products with low weights (unknown) to be generated and recommended to users depending on logarithm equation and the number of co-rated users. Collaborative filtering is one of the most knowledge discovery techniques used positively in recommendation system. Similarity measures are the core operations in collaborative filtering; however, there is a certain deviance through using traditional similarity measures, which decreases the recommendation accuracy. Thus, the proposed model consists of a combination of measures: constraint Pearson correlation, jaccard distance measure and inverse user frequency (IUF). The experimental results implemented on movielens data set using MATLAB show a comparison between the results of the proposed model and some of the traditional similarity measures. The outcome results of the comparison show that the proposed model can be used as a parameter in the prediction process to achieve accurate prediction results during recommendation process


Article
Propose retina identification system based on the combination of SURF detector and BRISK descriptor

Authors: Matheel E. Abdulmunem --- Zainab H. Fatoohi
Pages: 946-955
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In this paper the design of hybrid retina matching algorithm that is used in identification systems is considered. Retina based recognition is apparent as the most secure method for identification of an identity utilized to differentiate persons. The characteristics of Speeded up Robust Feature (SURF) and Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Key-Points (BRISK) algorithm have been used in order to produce a fast matching algorithm than the classical ones, those characteristics are important for real-time applications which usually need quick processing of a growing quantity of data. The algorithm is divided into three stages: retinal image processing and segmentation, extracting the local features from the retinal images using SURF and BRISK descriptors and finally matching those features using KNN matcher. The algorithm was trained with structured analysis of retina (STARE) database giving accuracy that reach 100%.


Article
Wavelet Energy and Shape Features for Plants Recognition

Authors: Israa Mohammed Hassoon
Pages: 956-962
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This work presents plants recognition system with rotation invariant based on plant leaf. Wavelet energy features are extracted for sub-images (blocks) beside three of leaf shape features: [area, perimeter, circularity ratio]. (8) species of leaves are used in different size and color, (15) samples for each leaf are used. Leaves images are rotated at angles: 90˚, 180˚, 270˚(counterclockwise,clockwise). Euclidean distance is used, the recognition rate was 98.2% with/without rotation.


Article
User Authentication via Mouse Dynamics

Authors: Osama A. Salman --- Sarab M. Hameed
Pages: 963-968
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Nowadays, the development of internet communication and the significant increase of using computer lead in turn to increasing unauthorized access. The behavioral biometric namely mouse dynamics is one means of achieving biometric authentication to safeguard against unauthorized access. In this paper, user authentication models via mouse dynamics to distinguish users into genuine and imposter are proposed. The performance of the proposed models is evaluated using a public dataset consists of 48 users as an evaluation data, where the Accuracy (Acc), False Reject Rate (FRR), and False Accept Rate (FAR) as an evaluation metrics. The results of the proposed models outperform related model considered in the literature


Article
Analytical Study of climate changes effect on wind speed in Al- Nasiriya, Iraq

Authors: Ahmed B. Khamees --- Sura T. Nassir --- Khalid S. Heni
Pages: 980-985
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The ambient temperature is the major parameter that influences wind speed. When temperature rises, air will be extended and wind will flow with different speeds in all directions, increasing of temperature means that wind speed will be increased and vice versa. The relative humidity and atmospheric pressure affected with temperature, too. Climate changes making significant effects on the atmospheric temperature. In this project, the data of thirty four years (1981 – 2004) has been analyzed to get an idea about the changes occurred in the meteorological parameters in Al-Nasiriya city, which was chosen because it has a distinctive wind speed.

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