Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:59 issue:2C

Article
Proximate Composition, Mineral Contents and the effects of Sodium Sulphate Salts on Emulsion Capacity and Stability of Mushroom Species obtained from Nigeria

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Abstract

The proximate composition, mineral contents and the effects of sodium sulphate salts on emulsion capacity (EC) and stability (ES) of mushroom species M1 – Lentinus subnudus Berk, M2 – Chlorophyllum molybditis, M3 – Volvariella esculenta, M4 – Coprinus tramentarius, M5 – Pleurotus ostreatus Jacq, M6 – Termitomyces microcarpus, and M7 – Pleurotus pulmonarius obtained from Nigeria were investigated using standard methods for analyses. The mean of some of the results is: Crude protein: 9.1±0.15 -13.80±0.15%, Crude fibre: 4.15±0.02 – 7.08±0.59%, Na: 177±2.56 – 910±2.56 mg/100 g, P: 480±2.31 – 884±2.43 mg/100 g and Cu: 0.23±0.23 – 0.23±0.23 mg/100 g. In the study, EC and ES were affected by different salt concentrations. In water, the EC results varied from 76.26±20.17 (M2) to 85.70 ± 20.17% (M7) and significantly differed from one another at p > 0.05. The EC of samples in different salt concentrations ranged as follows: 64.48 -86.18, 68.18 - 75.10, 67.18 - 74.51, and 61.48 -75.01% at 2, 4, 6, 8% of the salt concentrations respectively. Salt applications gave lowest ES and EC. These results indicated the interaction between the oil, salt solutions, the mushroom samples, and the blender used to form the emulsions. In stable ES, the interfacial area did not change with time. Consequently, such emulsions have a constant turbidity. In this report, it was observed that coalescence and oiling-off caused an irreversible reduction in the interfacial area. In conclusion, the good emulsifying capacity and stability showed the usefulness of the samples in the food industries and formulations


Article
Effect of the Biological Drug Etanercept on Tumor necrosis factor-α Levels in Psoriatic Patients

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Abstract

Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune mediated disorder.The disease is arising as a result of dysregulated interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system in the context of skin epithelium and connective tissue. The biological drug Etanercept(ETN) approved for use in treated psoriasis. ETN is tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) inhibitor. In this study, 48 psoriatic patients were taken before and after treatment who attended to the Dermatology and Venereology Department in Baghdad Teaching Hospital during the period from December 2016 to September 2017and 50 samples were used as healthy control group. The results showed that most psoriatic patients 52.08 % were within the second and third decades 20-35 year, and the majority of psoriatic patients were males 62.5% and the ratio of male to female is 1.67:1. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the males were more expected psoriasis compare with females. Blood samples were collected and TNF- α was estimated in sera of all subjects by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The TNF- α mean levels in psoriatic patients before treatment was 189.5±26.0 ng/ml, and after treatment was 223.6±41.1 ng/ml compar with the healthy control group 93.5±2.4 ng/ml. The results showed significant differences between the studied groups


Article
Effect of Nano-Zirconium Oxide and Other Applications on Cowpea Seedlings Growth Under T Salt Stress

Authors: Amal Abdul S. Habib --- Alyaa Muhsin Yousif
Pages: 1006-1011
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Abstract

This study was carried out in the botanical garden / department of biology /college of science in Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad. During spring 2017 under controlled environmental conditions in greenhouse to study the role of Nano ZrO2 activity in decrease negative effect of salinity under two levels from NaCl . The treatments included (Salinity levels : natural soil , 3000 ppm and 6000 ppm NaCl) and ( Applications : control , 100 , 300 Zirconium oxide , 5 ppm of liquorice root extract and 10 ppm liquorice root extract and 300 ppm GA3) , The collected data were analyzed statistically using factorial completely randomized design. The results appeared that 300 ppm nano zirconium gave the highest values in all morphological traits (except leaves number) than other treatments. In addition to the highest values in fresh weight, dry weight, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carbohydrate contain. Also 300 ppm nano zrconium oxide reduced the effect of salinity stress (3000 and 6000 ppm NaCl) by giving the highest values in morphological traits and in chemical contains (chlorophyll and carbohydrate) in Cowpea seedling growth


Article
Prevalence of Head Pediculosis Among Refugees In Sulaimani Governorate/ Kurdistan- Iraq

Authors: Fatimah Mohammed Ali --- Abdullah Ahmed Hama
Pages: 1012-1018
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Abstract

The head louse (Pediculus humanus capits) is one of the common obligate ectoparasites blood-sucking, wingless, belonging to the order Phthiraptera, sub-order Anoplura which are specific parasites of a human being with the medical importance worldwide. This study carried out to estimate the prevalence of head pediculosis and its associated factors among refugees in Sulaimani province. Total of 11798 peoples participated in this study including 5056 male and 6742 female from five refuges campus in Sulaimani province, the direct inspection visually followed to detect head lice infestation (pediculosis). The overall prevalence in the current study was 1.12%, the infestation was significantly higher among female (1.78 %) than the male (0.24 %). The age significantly had an effect on the pediculosis; the higher rate of pediculosis was among children (1-5 years) than the other age groups although Pediculosis was significantly higher among low-level educational peoples (preparatory and primary). The family size, hair washing duration, length of hair and type of hair have the direct effect of the head louse infestation, while the significant association between scalp disease (Dandruff) and infestation rate of head lice was not observed. From this study, we conclude the prevalence of head lice has directly related to age, personal hygiene, and hair type, and the refugee's camps in Sulaimani province (Kurdistan-Iraq) need more health care and health awareness.


Article
Evaluation of Case detection rates of Pulmonary Tuberculosis before and after adoption of GeneXpert MTB/RIF

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Abstract

Cities witnessing mass-gathering events, such as Kerbala-Iraq, are peculiar in respect to their needs in controlling tuberculosis. DOTS was implemented in Kerbala almost two decades ago. GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay is adopted in the hope to escalate case detection rates, however, its performance is not evaluated yet. Records of 3254 patients suspected to have pulmonary TB whom they referred to the chest and Respiratory illnesses center of Kerbala governorate were analyzed. The overall trends of TB detection rates showed declining pattern over the year before the adoption of GeneXpert MTB/RIF. In the year of adoption of Xpert MTB/RIF, the detection rates raised, then after declined again. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF has added 17.7% increase in detectionrates. In conclusion: GeneXpertMTP/RIF usage had strengthen case detection rates especially for smear-negative cases


Article
Interactions between the Ecological Dejiala River Properties, Southern Iraq

Authors: Intisar F. Abed --- Muhanned R. Nashaat
Pages: 1026-1040
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Abstract

This study was the first of its kind on the Dejiala River, which is considered one of the main branches of the Tigris River in Wasit Province. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate of some physical and chemical properties of water in the Dejiala River. Monthly sampling stations were conducted for 12 months, which was starting from January to December 2016, during those five stations was chosen which divided along about 58 Km of river; each station was located at a distance of ±10 Km. The results of the study showed a clear correlation between air and water temperature in all stations. Turbidity was recorded a value ranging from 2.36-116 NTU. It was found that the water of the Dejiala was Oligohaline, weak alkaline and well ventilated due high concentrations of dissolved oxygen. The Dejialah River considered as questionable clean water according to BOD5 value. While the total alkalinity values were recorded from 30.5-427 mg/L, so these values were higher than the normal permissible limits for the Iraqi and international water standards, which is 20-200 mg /L CaCO3. It was also found that the water of the Dejiala River was very hard, as well as the it was within the permissible limits of natural water (200 mg/L Ca and 150 mg/L Mg). As for sulphate concentrations it has ranged from 40-150 mg/L, while bicarbonate was recorded values ranged from 120-180 mg/L. On the other hand, the TDS and TSS were recorded values ranged from 0.2-0.61 g/L and 1-171 mg/L, respectively. While nitrates recorded values from 0.787-2.505 mg/L which was below the normal permissible limits (15 mg/L) for the Iraqi water standards. Also, orthophosphates were recorded value from 0.011-0.082 mg/L


Article
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IL1B Gene (rs16944) in a Sample of Rheumatoid Arthritis Iraqi Patients

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Cytokines play a prominent role in etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and one of these cytokines is interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The association between IL1B gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP: rs16944) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a sample of Iraqi patients was investigated. Fifty-one RA patients (21 males and 30 females) were enrolled and their age range was 20 - 63 years (44.9 ± 1.5 years). In addition to patients, 45 apparently healthy control subjects were also enrolled in the study. They matched patients for ethnicity (Iraqis), gender (14 males and 31 females) and age (41.3 ± 1.3 years). Analysis of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in RA patients and controls revealed that the IL1B genotypes were consistent with the equilibrium, and no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the observed and expected genotype frequencies. Inspecting IL1B genotype and allele frequencies in RA patients and controls revealed that there were no significant variations between these frequencies, although a decreased frequency of T allele (67.7 vs. 73.3%) and an increased frequency of C allele (32.3vs. 26.7%) were observed in patients compared to controls. In conclusion, the results are in favor of no association between IL1B gene SNP (rs16944) and RA in Iraqi population


Article
Theoretical Study of Density Distributions and Size Radii of 8B and 17Ne

Authors: Arkan R. Ridha --- Zaid M. Abbas
Pages: 1046-1056
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The proton, neutron and matter density distributions, the corresponding size radii and elastic electron scattering form factors of one-proton8B and two-proton 17Ne halo nuclei are calculated. The theoretical technique used to fulfill calculations is by assuming that both nuclei under study are composed of two main parts; the first is the compact core and the second is the unstable halo part. The single-particle radial wavefunctions of harmonic-oscillator (HO) and Woods-Saxon (WS) potentials are used to study core and halo parts, respectively. And other approach is studied by using HO potential for both core and halo parts, but using two HO size parameters for both supposed parts. The long tail behavior which is the main characteristic of halo nuclei are well produced for both 8B and 17Ne. The calculated size radii are in general in good agreement with the available experimental data. The electron scattering form factors of the C0+C2 and C0 components are also calculated for 8B and 17Ne, respectively and compared with corresponding stable 10B and 20Ne nuclei. For 8B calculations, the core-polarization (CP) effects are taken into account by using Tassie and Bohr-Mottelson models. The contribution from model-space (MS) part C2 component is taken through pwt interaction. The results of the calculated charge form factors are left for the planned electron-radioactive ion beam colliders where the study of skin or halo on the charge form factors are going to be studied. PACS number(s): 21.10.Gv, 21.10.Ky, 21.60.Cs, 25.30.Bf


Article
Elastic electron scattering from 6He and 11Li halo nuclei

Authors: Ahmed N. Abdullah
Pages: 1057-1064
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The binary cluster model (BCM) and the two-frequency shell model (TFSM) have been used to study the ground state matter densities of neutron-rich 6He and 11Li halo nuclei. Calculations show that both models provide a good description on the matter density distribution of above nuclei. The root-mean square (rms) proton, neutron and matter radii of these halo nuclei obtained by TFSM have been successfully obtained. The elastic charge form factors for these halo nuclei are studied through combining the charge density distribution obtained by TFSM with the plane wave Born approximation (PWBA).


Article
Improved Sand characterization of Mafe Field of Niger Delta by integrated well logs information and 3D seismic data

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Abstract

Well log rock physics and seismic facies analysis was carried out with a view to enhancing reservoir sand characterization of Mafe Field of Niger Delta. Lithofacies were identified using suites of well logs and correlated across the block. Rock properties were estimated from wireline logs using empirical methods. Vp-porosity crossplot was used to characterize the delineated sandstone reservoirs by comparing observed clusters and trends with various rock physics models. Seismic attribute analysis was employed to detect lateral changes in lithology across the field. Reservoir A is a relatively clean sand, with low average volume of shale of 0.4, average thickness of 55m, good average porosity of 0.26 and average water saturation of 0.45. Reservoir B is also a relatively clean sand with low average volume of shale of 0.35, average thickness of 85m, high average porosity of 0.27 and average water saturation of 0.54. Reservoir C has an estimated volume of shale of 0.21 average total porosity of 0.23, and an average thickness of 70m with average water saturation of 0.65. Reservoir A conforms to the friable sand model while Vp-porosity crossplot cluster trend for both reservoir B and C show trend and properties imitating the contact cement model. The time slices extracted at different time intervals from the envelope and instantaneous frequency cubes show lateral variation in lithofacies across the delineated sandstones. Instantaneous frequency decreases from southwest to northeast which corresponds to decrease in shalines. Reservoir quality information can be predicted or even derived from the estimated petrophysical properties since these parameters such as porosity and volume of shale are sometimes closely associated with rock properties such as sorting, lithofacies and grain maturity.

Keywords

Niger Delta --- facies --- rock physics


Article
Finite strain of the Tertiary rocks and their relation to tectonic deformation at Al-Tib Anticline in Missan governorate, Southeastern part of Iraq

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This paper presents the finite strain results from seven oriented samples data on Tertiary sandstone of Muqdadiya Formation and (400) samples of pebbles and conglomerate of Bai –Hassan Formation at the southwestern limb of Al-Tib Anticline in the Southeastern part of Iraq. Measurement and analysis of finite strain are carried out including these rocks at fluvio- lacustrine environment. The present study followed Fry method. The computed strain was, in the form of ellipses, within three prepared perpendicular planes in a single sample and Center to Center method was used to determine the strain ratio of the these samples. The strain in the studied area is low, this is mainly due to the sampled rocks underwent brittle deformation during folding. The calculated axial ratios (Rs), (three dimensional orientations of the strain axes) of strained rocks are shown which is equivalent to the log Flinn diagram normally used for plotting strain ellipsoids and according to the stereographic projection method, the long axes of this ellipsoid are sub parallel to measured Al-Tib Anticline axis and the short axes are approximately perpendicular to the axis of Al- Tib Anticline in the study area. This orientation of these axes is related to the movement of the Arabian plate.


Article
The Transition Tectonic Zone Between the Two Parts of the Platform in Iraq: A Review Study

Authors: Ahmed S. Al-Banna --- Kamal K. Ali
Pages: 1086-1092
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The changes of the tectonic boundary locations between the stable and unstable shelf on different version of the tectonic maps of Iraq is discussed. It is found that the location of the boundary varies due to philosophy and the type of the geological parameters. It is used the stratigraphic, geophysical, structural, geochemical, hydrological and others information in delineating the boundary. The deep crustal structures obtained by using gravity data show that the boundary shifted toward the west by about 100 km in southern Iraq. According to the review, and when taking in consideration all the geological and geophysical parameters from the lower crust to the earth surface, it is believed that the boundary is not a line but it is a tectonic crustal zone. This zone represents a transition zone between the main two regions of the platform in Iraq, and it is segmented to many subzones by transverse faults. In addition, it is believed that the data of the parameters of shallow geology confirm the eastern side of the main zone, while the lower crustal structures confirm the western side of the main zone


Article
Generalized Spline Method for Integro-Differential Equations of Fractional Order

Authors: Nabaa N. Hasan --- Doaa A. Hussien
Pages: 1093-1099
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In This paper the generalized spline method and Caputo differential operator are applied to solve linear fractional integro-differential equations of the second kind. Comparison of the applied method with exact solutions reveals that the method is tremendously effective


Article
Properties of ~ Self-Adjoint and ~ Positive Operators in b- Hilbert Space

Authors: Ghafoori Rafeeq Ghafoor --- Zeana Zaki Jamil
Pages: 1100-1104
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In this paper, we will introduce a new concept of operators in b-Hilbert space, which is respected to ~self- adjoint operator and ~positive operator. Moreover we will show some of their properties as well as the relation between them


Article
Robust and Efficient Dynamic Stream Cipher Cryptosystem

Authors: Abdullah Ayad Ghazi --- Faez Hassan Ali
Pages: 1105-1114
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In this paper a new technique based on dynamic stream cipher algorithm is introduced. The mathematical model of dynamic stream cipher algorithm is based on the idea of changing the structure of the combined Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR's) with each change in basic and message keys to get more complicated encryption algorithm, and this is done by use a bank of LFSR's stored in protected file and we select a collection of LFSR's randomly that are used in algorithm to generate the encryption (decryption) key. We implement Basic Efficient Criteria on the suggested Key Generator (KG) to test the output key results. The results of applying BEC prove the robustness and efficiency of the proposed stream cipher cryptosystem


Article
Coefficient Bounds for Certain Subclass of Analytic Functions Defined By Quasi-Subordination

Authors: Abdul Rahman S. Juma --- Mohammed H. Saloomi
Pages: 1115-1121
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In this paper, we define certain subclasses of analytic univalent function associated with quasi-subordination. Some results such as coefficient bounds and Fekete-Szego bounds for the functions belonging to these subclasses are derived.


Article
Proposed Method of Air Traffic Routing in Dynamic Environment Usiing Modifed rrt With Collision Avoid Nace

Authors: Alia Karim Abdul Hassan --- Sheelan Waad Adwaan
Pages: 1122-1128
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In the current Airlines Air Traffic Management (ATM), the Air Traffic Control Operators (ATCO), with the Air Traffic Control systems (ATC), operate air traffic paths with a small number of fixed routes. Problems of fixed routes appear such that even when they reduce the chance for conflict, they also produce flight paths plans that do not reduce flight time or fuel usage. In nowadays Airlines are heavily overloaded and anxious to minimize the aircrafts fuel usage costs, increase airplanes, and optimize the paths or the flight routes in order to find the most optimal suitable flight paths. This paper presents a new path planning method that deal with such problem effectively, the idea was to produce flights routes by allowing the ATCO, or the pilot to select better fuel-efficient routes with reducing flight time. This work has been done by using modified ‘Rapidly Exploring Random Tree’ (RRT) path planning algorithm in dynamic cluttered environment with collision avoidance. The experiment of the developed algorithm simulation experiment shows promising result for future research.

Keywords

Air Traffic --- ATM --- ATOC --- Robot --- Agent --- RRT Algorithm


Article
Photometric investigations of NGC 2577 and NGC 4310 Lenticular Galaxies

Authors: Zahraa Adnan --- Abdullah. K. Ahmed
Pages: 1129-1138
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In this study, two lenticular galaxies (NGC 2577, NGC 4310) have been chosen to study their morphological and photometric properties, by using The IRAF ISOPHOTE ELLIPSE task with griz-Filters. Observations are obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are reach now to the Data Release (DR14). The data reduction of all images (bias and flat field) have been done by SDSS pipeline. The surface photometric investigations were performed like the total magnitude, together with isophotal contour maps, Surface brightness profiles and a bulge/disk decomposition of the images of the galaxies, although the disk position angle, ellipticity and inclination of the galaxies have been done.


Article
The Impact of the Extreme Air Temperatures on the Characteristics of Iraq Weather

Authors: Ehab Sh. Ahmed --- Ahmad S. Hassan
Pages: 1139-1145
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Abstract

Air Temperature is mainly affect the condition of temporal and spatial weather. This influence may be very high on some weather variables such as pressure, humidity and winds, also the Extreme of these variables can be considered as an indicator of the impact and intensity of the pressure systems. The data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) during the summer months (June, July and August) of the period (2006 - 2017) were used to extract the Extreme of Daily Maximum Temperatures (EDMT) for four stations in Iraq (Baghdad, Basra, Khanaqin and AL-Rutba). The results that the number of extreme cases characteristics is nine, one of which is the beginning of the season, and the other was the end of the summer season and this confirms the stretch of the summer about a month May and September. This was done by considering 50°C/323°K as the most extreme values of two stations, and finding other extreme values for each region based on the maximum Temperatures anomalies. However, we must mention the geographical impact of (EDMT) and thus on the changing trajectory of the recipes of pressure pattern


Article
Accurate Three Dimensional Coordinates Measurements Using Differential GPS Real Time Kinematic Mode

Authors: Reyam R. Muhammed1 --- Alaa S. Mahdi
Pages: 1146-1151
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Abstract

The accurate 3-D coordinate's measurements of the global positioning systems are essential in many fields and applications. The GPS has numerous applications such as: Frequency Counters, Geographic Information Systems, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, Car Navigation Systems, Emergency Systems, Aviations, Astronomical Pointing Control, and Atmospheric Sounding using GPS signals, tracking of wild animals, GPS Aid for the Blind, Recorded Position Information, Airborne Gravimetry and other uses. In this paper, the RTK DGPS mode has been used to create precise 3-D coordinates values for four rover stations in Baghdad university camp. The HiPer-II Receiver of global positioning system was used to navigate the coordinate value. The results will be compare with the Google Earth viewer coordinates values, the comparison shows that absolute error was few millimeters between actual and measured coordinate's values.

Keywords

DGPS --- RTK --- GPS

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