Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073 25203339
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

AIMS AND SCOPE

The Journal of Engineering is an open access, monthly, refereed, peer-reviewed journal. It focuses on the different disciplines of engineering.

Its scope is to cover almost all the aspects of engineering and technology and their related topics. The Journal of Engineering tries to emphasize on publishing high-quality papers with an acceptable, professional and considerable background.

The submitted papers undergo plagiarism, a double-blind peer review by professionals in the paper specific specialty. This process is accomplished according to the Journal criteria of evaluation, where the manuscript, contents, and organization of the paper are to be checked. The papers will be available online for the readers.

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Contact info

Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:+964 7714076860
Email: info@jcoeng.edu.iq
https://www.jcoeng.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:24 issue:9

Article
Exergy Analysis of a Domestic Refrigerator
تحليل الإكسيرجي لثلاجة منزلية

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Abstract

An energy and exergy thermodynamic analysis using EES program was done for a domestic refrigerator working with R-134a using vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The analysis deals with the system component, i.e. compressor, condenser, evaporator and the expansion device. The analysis depends on the entropy generation minimization approach to improve the refrigerator performance by exploring the optimum design points. These design points were derived from three different theories governing the entropy generation minimization using exergy analyzing method. These theories were first applied to find the optimum balance between the hot inner condenser area and the cold inner evaporator area of the refrigerator and between its hot and cold thermal conductances. Nine types of condensers were used according to its internal surface area and thermal conductance, in order to reach the minimum entropy generation in the refrigerator. The results showed that the compressor has the lowest exergy efficiency of 25%. The expansion device was the second component after the compressor with exergy efficiency of 92%, followed by the condenser with an efficiency of 93%. The evaporator was found to have an exergy efficiency of 98 %. The experimental tests were repeated for the nine condensers sizes with three different ambient temperatures 25℃, 30℃ and 35℃. The exergy analysis showed that the design of the refrigerator mainly depends on thermal conductance calcuAn energy and exergy thermodynamic analysis using EES program was done for a domestic refrigerator working with R-134a using vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The analysis deals with the system component, i.e. compressor, condenser, evaporator and the expansion device. The analysis depends on the entropy generation minimization approach to improve the refrigerator performance by exploring the optimum design points. These design points were derived from three different theories governing the entropy generation minimization using exergy analyzing method. These theories were first applied to find the optimum balance between the hot inner condenser area and the cold inner evaporator area of the refrigerator and between its hot and cold thermal conductances. Nine types of condensers were used according to its internal surface area and thermal conductance, in order to reach the minimum entropy generation in the refrigerator. The results showed that the compressor has the lowest exergy efficiency of 25%. The expansion device was the second component after the compressor with exergy efficiency of 92%, followed by the condenser with an efficiency of 93%. The evaporator was found to have an exergy efficiency of 98 %. The experimental tests were repeated for the nine condensers sizes with three different ambient temperatures 25℃, 30℃ and 35℃. The exergy analysis showed that the design of the refrigerator mainly depends on thermal conductance calculations rather than the surface inner area estimation.lations rather than the surface inner area estimation.


Article
Zeta Potential, Effective Membrane Charge and Donnan Potential for TiO2 NF Ceramic Membrane
جهد زيتا وشحنة الغشاء الفعالة وجهد دونان لغشاء الترشيح السيراميكي النانوي

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Abstract

Nanofiltration (NF) ceramic membrane have found increasing applications particularly in wastewater and water treatment. In order to estimate and optimize the performance of NF membranes, the membrane should be characterized correctly in terms of their basic parameters such as effective pore radius (rp) and equivalent effective thickness as well as effective surface charge (σ^s), the effective charge density (X^m) and Donnan potential (ψ_D). The impact of electrokinetic (zeta) potential on the membrane surface charge density, effective membrane charge density and Donnan potential at two different concentrations of the reference solutions 0.001, 0.01 M sodium chloride at various pH values from 3 to 9, and effective pore radius (rp) for nominal 0.9 nm ceramic TiO2 NF membrane were evaluated. Experiments were conducted at cross flow (1.0 m/s) using Microelectrophoresis technique for measuring membrane zeta potential, effective pore radius, and Donnan steric pore model (DSPM). The TiO2 membrane isoelectric point (net membrane charge equals zero) was found at pH of 3.7, 3.5 for 0.001 and 0.01 M NaCl respectively. The results showed that the NF membrane zeta potential changes its sign from positive to negative after the isoelectric point. The evaluated effective pore radius was found to be equal to 0.56 nm by using (DSPM) and the membrane equivalent effective thickness equals to (2×10-6 m).


Article
Desalting of RO Waste and Drainage Water by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation
تحلية مياه نفايات من منظومة التناضح العكسي ومياه مبزل بتقنية التقطير بالاغشية بالاتصال المباشر

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Abstract

Direct contact membrane distillation is an effective method for production of fresh water from saline water. In this study two samples were used as feed solutions; the first one was RO waste from Al-Hilla Coca-Cola Factory (TDS= 2382 mg/l) and the other was Haji Ali drainage water (TDS= 4127 mg/l). Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hydrophobic membrane supported with polypropylene (PP) was used as flat sheet form with plate and frame cell. Results proved that membrane distillation is an effective technique to produce fresh water with high quality from brine with low salinity content. With membrane area of 8x8 cm2, the volume of treated water decreased from 34.97 ml at first half hour to 33.02 ml after 180 min of an experiment for first feed type and from 36.92 ml to 33.84 ml for the second feed type due to the fouling accumulated on the membrane surface. The temperature on both sides of the membrane surface and TDS of permeate was measured every 30 min of experiment time, also some tests were made on feed and permeate ions. Time of experiment was 180 min with the same operating conditions.


Article
Mass Transfer Study for Bio-Synergy in Dairy Wastewater Treatment Plant
دراسة انتقال الكتلة للتآزر الحيوي في وحدة معالجة مخلفات اللألبان المائية

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Abstract

The present study addresses the behavior of gases in cultivation media as an essential factor to develop the relationship between the microorganisms that are present in the same environment. This relationship was explained via mass transfer of those gases to be a reasonable driving force in changing biological trends. Stripping and dissolution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in water and dairy wastewater were investigated in this study. Bubble column bioreactor under thermal control system was constructed and used for these processes. The experimental results showed that the removal of gases from the culture media requires more time than the dissolution. For example, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for the removal of oxygen is 1.67 min-1 while the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for dissolution the same gas is 3.18 min-1. The same thing occurred with carbon dioxide, where the data showed that the volumetric mass transfer coefficient of the dissolution of CO2 is 0.66 min-1 while the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for removal process is 0.374 min-1. However, the two processes (dissolution and removal) with CO2 take more time than that with O2. Therefore, the production of gases due to metabolic processes in bacteria or microalgae remains in culture’s media for a certain period even if that media is sparged by air. Thus, this will give enough time for both microorganisms to consume those gases.


Article
Babylon Governorate Municipal Solid Waste Generation Rate
معدل تولد النفايات الصلبة البلدية في محافظة بابل

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Abstract

Municipal solid waste generation in Babylon Governorate is often affected by changes in lifestyles, population growth, social and cultural habits and improved economic conditions. This effect will make it difficult to plan and draw up future plans for solid waste management. In this study, municipal solid waste was divided into residential and commercial solid wastes. Residential solid wastes were represented by household wastes, while commercial solid wastes included commercial, institutional and municipal services wastes. For residential solid wastes, the relational stratified random sampling was implemented, that is the total population should be divided into clusters (socio-income level), a random sample was taken in each level in its proportion to the total population. According to the obtained results of the primary survey of 5% standard error and 99% confidence interval, held in Babylon Governorate, the best sample size was 44. Samples were taken as a daily collection for 10 days, this process was repeated for four different periods to cover the change in the waste generation between summer and winter season. The study showed that Babylon Governorate has an average residential solid wastes generation rate of 0.587 kg per capita per day. If the quantities of commercial solid waste were to be added; solid waste generation rate reaches 0.802 kg per capita per day as a 36.6 % increase. The research adopts the value of 0.802 kg/capita. day as a waste generation rate for Babylon Governorate.


Article
Accuracy Assessment of Various Resolutions Digital Cameras For Close Range Photogrammetry Applications
تقييم دقة الكاميرات الرقمية ذات الدقة التمييزية المختلفة المستخدمة في تطبيقات المسح التصويري القريب

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Abstract

Due to the great evolution in digital commercial cameras, several studies have addressed the using of such cameras in different civil and close-range applications such as 3D models generation. However, previous studies have not discussed a precise relationship between a camera resolution and the accuracy of the models generated based on images of this camera. Therefore the current study aims to evaluate the accuracy of the derived 3D buildings models captured by different resolution cameras. The digital photogrammetric methods were devoted to derive 3D models using the data of various resolution cameras and analyze their accuracies. This investigation involves selecting three different resolution cameras (low, medium and high) and evaluating their calibration accuracies. Assessing the accuracy of the three selected cameras in capturing indoor and outdoor objects; and analyzing the accuracy and the quality of the produced models. The study revealed that:1) It is recommended to use the photos of a high-resolution camera for producing precise 3D models of objects in the outdoor environment especially when the camera/object distance is more than 40 m because the accuracy of the produced models can be precise (RMSE ±10.36mm) with excellent quality; 2) The Low-resolution camera can be utilised to produce adequate 3D models of object in the indoor environment (RMSE ±6.32mm) especially when the camera/object distance is less than 40 m.


Article
Monitoring Land Cover Change Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques: a Case Study of Al-Dalmaj Marsh, Iraq
رصد تغير الغطاء الأرضي باستخدام الاستشعار عن بعد وتقنيات نظم المعلومات الجغرافية: دراسة حالة هور الدلماج - العراق

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Al-Dalmaj marsh and the near surrounding area is a very promising area for energy resources, tourism, agricultural and industrial activities. Over the past century, the Al-Dalmaje marsh and near surroundings area endrous from a number of changes. The current study highlights the spatial and temporal changes detection in land cover for Al-Dalmaj marsh and near surroundings area using different analyses methods the supervised maximum likelihood classification method, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Geographic Information Systems(GIS), and Remote Sensing (RS). Techniques spectral indices were used in this study to determine the change of wetlands and drylands area and of other land classes, through analyses Landsat images for different three years (1990, 2003, 2016). The results indicated that there was an annual increase in vegetation was from 1990 with 980.68 km2, and 1420.35km2 in 2003 to 2072.98km2 in 2016. Whereas, the annual water coverage was about 185.95km2 in 1990 then dropped to 68.27km2 in 2003, and rose to 180.23 km2 in 2016. The water coverage increasing was on the account of barren lands areas, which were significantly decreased. These collected data can be used to deliver accurate information of the values of vegetation,water, wetlands and drylands sustainability of resources which can be used to make plans to increase tourism and protected areas by using barren lands which cannot be reclaimed for agriculture, and cultivate a new renewable energy can be set up as solar power stations.


Article
An Optimum Strategy for Producing Precise GPS Satellite Orbits using Double-Differenced Observations
الاسلوب الامثل لانتاج مدارات الاقمار الاصطناعية للنظام الملاحي العالمي باستخدام الارصادات التفاضلية

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Abstract

Both the double-differenced and zero-differenced GNSS positioning strategies have been widely used by the geodesists for different geodetic applications which are demanded for reliable and precise positions. A closer inspection of the requirements of these two GNSS positioning techniques, the zero-differenced positioning, which is known as Precise Point Positioning (PPP), has gained a special importance due to three main reasons. Firstly, the effective applications of PPP for geodetic purposes and precise applications depend entirely on the availability of the precise satellite products which consist of precise satellite orbital elements, precise satellite clock corrections, and Earth orientation parameters. Secondly, the PPP processing strategy has been employed by the International GNSS Service (IGS) and IGS analysis centers to evaluate their products in terms of homogeneity and precision over a long period of time. Thirdly, the precise positions, which are determined using PPP technique, and are referenced directly to the geodetic reference frame of the satellite orbital parameters. Thus, the definition of the geodetic datum of the site coordinates using different strategies plays an enormous role in the process of generation satellite orbital parameters which have to be compatible with the corresponding satellite clock corrections and the Earth orientation parameters. This study focuses on producing uninterrupted series of satellite orbit and clock products using different criteria and assesses these products using PPP. The double-difference processing technique was used to achieve the goal of this study by Bernese GPS software version 5.0. Twenty-two globally distributed IGS stations were selected to run PPP based on the generated products and then compare the results with corresponding PPP results which were created based on the IGS rapid products. The comparison pointed to a significant improvement in the generated precise products which have considerably increased the precision of positions. What is more, this study stated that there is an observable agreement between the horizontal positions accuracies which are generated using different techniques for modeling the reference frame.

Keywords

GPS --- Orbit --- Clock --- BSW --- EOP. --- --- مدار --- الساعة --- BSW --- EOP

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