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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2018 volume:21 issue:3

Article
Incorporation of Ions into Giant Molybdenum-oxide Cluster as a General Phenomenon

Authors: Al-Ameen Bariz Omarali
Pages: 1-12
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Abstract

In spite of the integration and concomitant release of all 16 {Mo1} (necessary for ions Recently, the integration of different kinds of matter into giant wheel-shaped molybdenum-oxide clusters has been investigated with so-called chemical adaptability phenomenon. This refers to the integration of a large number of appropriate cations and anions even of the large “salt like” {M(SO4)}16 rings (M = K+ or NH4+) based on the cooperative/synergetic activation of silent receptor sites. An even more remarkable consequence of the flexibility behavior of the molecular giant wheel-shaped molybdenum-oxides of the type {Mo176} and {Mo154}: the possibility of the integration of Cu2+ as tetrahedrally coordinated divalent cations at the same wheel area. In this study and in order to make the phenomenon as a general, the incorporation of ions into giant molybdenum-oxide cluster was expanded to involve the integration of some other cations (Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Zn2+) or salt like ring{Tl(SO4)}16. Uptake and almost half of the 16 {Mo2} units the parent ring structure is maintained in the following resulting hybrids {(Mo146) (K(SO4))16} 1compound, {(Mo146) (NH4(SO4))16} 2 compound and {(Mo146) (Tl(SO4))16} 3. Moreover, the integrating of a tetrahedrally coordinated divalent cation like Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Zn2+ in addition to Cu2+, at the same wheel area (after releasing six {Mo2}-type building blocks of the parent wheel-shaped cluster) produced hybrid compounds with the general formula: [H4MIIn MoV28MoVI114O432(H2O)58]-26+2(n-5) (where MII= Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Cu2+, n=5, but with Zn2+, n=6) compounds (4–8). The result corresponds to the extreme flexibility of molybdenum-oxide building block linking resulting in the formation of a huge variety of structures from “molybdate” containing solutions (a unique molybdenum-oxide diversity phenomenon). The prepared compounds were characterized by CHN, Cit.Tit for the determination of the number of the MoV centers, spectroscopic methods (IR and UV-Vis) and X-ray crystallography (determination of the characteristic unit cell dimensions).


Article
1, 2(2, 2-dihydroxy Benzelidenamine) Phenyl Complexes as Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

Authors: Dina A.Najeeb --- Taghried A. Salman
Pages: 13-23
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Abstract

The corrosion inhibition on carbon steel in 1MHCl by 1, 2(2, 2-dihydroxy benzelidenamine) phenyl and its complexes was studied at different concentrations by "weight loss method". Data mark, for the compound shows good performance. These measurements show that the inhibition efficiency obtained by these complexes increased by increasing their concentration. The inhibition efficiency follow the order Co>Ni>Cu. The activation and adsorption thermodynamic parameters were determined and discussed. The surface coverage (Ɵ) of the inhibitors conform "Langmuir adsorption isotherm". (Morphology) of the carbon steel alloy has been examine using "scanning electron microscopy" in existence and inexistence of inhibitor.


Article
Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies of Removal of Two Dyes from Aqueous Solutions using Low Cost Adsorbent

Authors: Zainab Hussain
Pages: 24-31
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Abstract

The capability of the low cost materials viz. Dried Mint Leaves (DML) to eliminate two cationic dyes, Methylene Blue (MB) and Safranin-O (SF-O) from an aquatic solutions was studied by the technique of batch mode adsorption process. Influence of contact time, initial dye concentration (mg/L), adsorbent amount (g/L) and temperature was investigated. The equilibrium and thermodynamic peculiarities of the dyes abscession were too inspected. The empirical data were found to comply the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Also Dubinin-Radushkevich model show that the process was physisorption. The negative free energy pointed to that the adsorption processes were spontaneously feasible. The process of adsorption has been existed to be exothermic in nature. The abscession of MB was found to be more spontaneous and feasible than the removal of SF-O on the adsorbent.


Article
Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, and Caspase-9 activity of 2-(3,5-dibromo-4-methoxyphenyl)3(3-mercapto-5(pyridine-4-Yl)4H1,2,4-triazol-4yl)-thiazolidine4-one against various human tumor cell lines

Authors: Firas A. Hassan
Pages: 32-38
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Abstract

Caspase, or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases, belong to a extremely protected group of cysteine proteases that have a crucial role within the numerous phases of apoptosis. The derivative of 2-(3,5-dibromo-4-methoxyphenyl)-3(3-mercapto-5(pyridine-4-yl)-4H1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)-thiazolidine4-one (C3) described a high toxic efficacy in murine melanoma tumor(B16F10), human prostate tumor (LCCaP), and non-small cell lung tumor (H1299) by measured half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 values were 41 µg/ml, 54.11 µg/ml , and 109.9 µg/ml , respectively, which was the most significant cytotoxic towards (B16F10) cell line treated at (P<0.0001) for 24 hours. No significant cytotoxic effect were observed in human neuronal glioblastoma cell line (U138 MG) and testes cell lines (Tera-1) at P-value (0.650), by comparison with normal cell line. Furthermore, 1,2,4-Triazole derivative (C3) encouraged In-vitro increase in caspase-9 activity in (B16F10) tumor cell line. Derivative (C3) effect on the mechanism of apoptosis reveal a highly increased caspase-9 activity, which observed at 10 µg/ml concentrate in B16F10 cell line, IC50 was at 5.264 µg/ml. A series of 1,2,4-Triazole derivatives (C2, C3) were screened for their In -vitro antioxidant properties, through hydrogen peroxide, Nitric oxide, and total antioxidant capacity. The highest activity was indicated during measured (IC50, TAC50) values, with derivatives C2 and C3 by comparison with ascorbic acid as standard. Triazole derivative (C3) did not exhibit cytotoxic activity when applied human neuronal glioblastoma tumor (U138 MG) and testes cell line (Tera-1).


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Polymers Bearing Thiourea Moiety and Study Their Efficiency in Removing Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions

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Abstract

Two new polymers were synthesized poly[5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl (6-methanethioa- mido-6-oxohexanoyl)carbamodithioate] and Poly[N1-((6-aminopyridin-2-yl) carbamothioyl)-N6-thioformyladipamide]. These polymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. These polymers were tested in removing some heavy metal ions (Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Co(II)) from water. The adsorption behavior of these polymers has been studied using different parameters such as, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, weight of the polymer, pH of the solution and temperature. This study reveals that the two polymers have high adsorption capacity for mentioning metal ions. Langmuir, and Freundlich isotherm models were used to fit the experimental data. The experimental data of the adsorption equilibrium correlates well with the isotherm equations.


Article
Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity Assay of Mropholine Mannich Base Derivatives of Benzimidazole with Some Heavy Metals

Authors: Mahasin Alias --- Shaimaa R. Bakir
Pages: 50-60
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Abstract

Mannich bases derivatives of Benzimidazole were prepared from condensation reaction of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole with formaldeyhed once with mropholine and another with pyrazinamide to prepare L1 and L2 respectively, coordinated with three metal ions of Pd(II), Pt(IV) and Au(III). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by metal and elemental analyses, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity measurement at room temperature, 1HNMR and 13CNMR. Experimental results showed that the ligands (L1&L2) coordinated as bi-dentate and tridentate with metal ions respectively. Cytotoxicity of Mannich bases and their metal complexes were examined against mice cell line RAW 264.7 using MTT method .Each cell line was injected by following doses (400,200,100 and 50) µg/ml of prepared compounds by using mice cell as a negative control and cis-platin as a positive control. The ligands and Pd(II), Pt(IV), Au(III) complexes showed good activity at various concentrations especially Pd(II) complexes of both complexes.


Article
New Stabilizers for Poly(vinyl chloride) Derived from 1,1 -Bis (4-aminophenyl) -4-Phenyl Cyclohexane Compounds[II]

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Abstract

This article included the photostabilization study for poly(vinyl chloride)) by using newly stabilizers derived from [1,1 -Bis (4-aminophenyl)-4-Phenyl Cyclohexane] as additives against photodegradation. For that purpose, many samples (films) has been prepared by adding additives to the poly(vinyl chloride) with different weight percentages from additives and by different thickness. The photostabilization activities of these compounds were determined by detecting the carbonyl group (The position off carbonyl absorption is specified at 1724-1770 cm-1) with irradiation time. The absorption spectra of poly vinyl chloride films were followed using Shimadzu Spectrophotometer Also, change the viscosity of the averagee molecular weight and the degree of deterioration (α) and the average number of chain scission (s) was studied .We found through results that the rate of photostabilization in the presences of additives follows the following trend:- C4 > C3 > C2 > C1 > PVC UV absorption peroxide decomposer, for mechanisms haven been suggested according to experimental results obtained.


Article
Experimental and Theoretical Study of 4-Methylaminoantipyrine with Divalent Metal Ions

Authors: Farah M. Ibrahim
Pages: 70-81
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Abstract

Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ complexes with 4-methylaminoantipyrine (MAP) were synthesis and characterized by IR, UV-Vis., thermal analysis, CHNO-S analysis, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity measurements and this work includes a theoretical study of MAP complexes where it was done by the program of hyperchem8.0.7 using semi-empirical calculations. The PM3 method at 298 K used to calculate geometric properties, binding energy (ΔEb), heat of formation (ΔH○f), total energy (ΔEtot.), ultraviolet and vibrational data of the MAP complexes. The comparing of experimental data with theoretical data gave good results, so the square planar geometry suggested for complexes.


Article
The Kinetic Model for Decolorization of Commercial Reactive Red 120 Azo Dye Aqueous Solution by the Fenton Process and Study the Effect of Inorganic Salts

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The degradation of a commercial azo dye Reactive Red 120 (RR120) in synthetic aqueous solution using Fenton's oxidation has been studied. The influence of different reaction parameters such as pH, hydrogen peroxide, ferrous sulfate, and the RR 120 concentration on the oxidative degradation of RR 120 have been appraised. The optimal reaction conditions were determined and it was found to be pH = 3.50, [H2O2] = 1.1×10-3 M, [Fe2+] = 1.0×10-4 M for [RR 120] = 7.5×10-5 M. Under optimal conditions, 96.0% decolorization efficiency of dye in aqueous solution was achieved after 15 min of reaction. The effect of azo bond loading (Lazo bond), from 0.25 to 1.0, and pH values from 2.5 to 5.0 were estimated on RR 120 color removal kinetic rates. A correlation between the kinetic of the color removal rates (ln k2) versus Lazo bond was carried out at the different pH levels. The color removal rate increased linearly with decreasing Lazo bond, in the order of pH: 3.5 > 5.0 > 2.5. All the experimental data were analyzed using the first and second-order kinetic models. The second-order provides the best correlation of the data. 67% Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of the RR 120 were achieved after 15 min of reaction by fixing the initial H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio, COD loading factor (LCOD), and pH at 11, 0.25 and 3.5, respectively. Also, the effects of various inorganic anions (such as Cl−, SO42-, CO32-, etc.) on the oxidation efficiency of Fenton were studied. This study can benefit planners who deal with contaminated textile wastewater using chemical treatment by advanced oxidation technologies.


Article
Analytical and Gravimetrical Studies of the Corrosion Inhibitory Behavior of Carnosine

Authors: Dhuha H. Fadhil
Pages: 94-97
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The corrosion inhibition characteristics of Carnosine (2-(3-aminopropanamido)-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl) propanoic acid) in corrosive solution for mild steel have been investigated at 30ºC through gravimetrical technique namely Weight loss method. The morphology study of mild steel with and without Carnosine to impedance the corrosion for mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid has been figured, utilizing with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the investigated Carnosine might be an excellent corrosion inhibitor with enhanced inhibition efficiency of 91%. The inhibition effectiveness of the Carnosine raising with increase of Carnosine concentrations, and decreases with increasing of temperature corrosion solution. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.21.3.10]

Keywords

Corrosion --- Inhibitors --- Carnosine --- Gravimetry.


Article
The Consequences of PCBs and BPA Resulting from Terrorist Operations in Three Regions of Baghdad on Thyroid Function

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Persistent organic pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bisphenol-A (BPA) are widely known of being toxicants. Exposure to a variety of dangerous toxic effects has been attached in all humans .in this paper the effect of terrorist operation on thyroid gland functions in a sample of Iraqi individual (AL-karradah and Abo-Gharib) comparison with Al-jadria rejoin as (control). The correlation between sera thyroid hormones thyroxine T4, triiodothyronine T3, Thyrotropin TSH and the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bisphenol-A (BPA) have been measured. 75 volunteers from three Iraqi areas were included in this study‎. Their ages ranged between (15-65) years. Our examination proposes an inverse relationship between BPA presentation and thyroid hormones. In this manner, increased persistent organic pollutants exposure might be a factor in the causes of hypothyroidism ‎and thyroid gland function. The result of this study showed that the effect of persistent organic pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bisphenol-A (BPA) on thyroid hormones, and the effect of military and terrorist operations on the thyroid gland. In the end we concluded that persistent organic pollutants resulting from the explosions and terrorist operations in the area of (Al-karadah, Abo-Gharib) high compared with the control (Al-jadria) as the lowest percentage of pollution, this leads to many diseases on the health of the human body and also the effect of persistent organic pollutants on the thyroid gland and its negative effect on thyroid hormones and cause thyroid disease.


Article
Study the Effect of Friendly Environmental Materials Addition on Viscosity Index and Pour Point of Engine Diesel Lubricating Oil

Authors: Taghreed Mahdi Hameed
Pages: 105-111
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In this work, the effect adding of some vegetable oils to mineral oil on physical properties such as viscosity and pour point of mineral lubricating oil was studied. Some vegetable oils, like corn oil and castor oil were used. Engine lubricating oil (si-cf4 diesel oil) that produced in AL-Doura refinery was selected and used in this study. Viscosity and pour point measurements were tested by viscometer and pour point tester respectively. Deferent mixtures of castor oil and corn oil were prepared with mixing ratios ranging from (0-100)% at 80°C added to the Iraqi motor lubricating oil with a percentage ratio in the range of (0-6 ) % and the best results was obtained at percentage ratio of 6% and study the viscosity index and pour point of the resulting lubricant oil. It was found that the addition of the of vegetable oil gave lubrication oil has a viscosity index ranging (106-115) and pour point ranging (-14--18)°C. It was found that the effect of addition of corn and castor oil mixture to mineral oil was varied according to the ratio of that oils.


Article
Studying the Properties of Porous Alumina Using Starch as a Binder

Authors: Hazim K. Alag --- Rafid Sabbar Zamel
Pages: 112-118
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This work is concerned with the preparation of alumina porous ceramic, the effect of binder (corn starch) and sintered on the physical and mechanical properties of ceramic bodies were. In this work porous raw material ceramic have been produced by using natural additive (corn starch) with (0, 5, 10, 15) wt%. The mixture were dried at 80oC for 2 hours. These samples were sintered at 10000C. Many mechanical properties tests were used to determine the properties of prepared ceramic material which involves: the linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, diametrical compression strength, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (X-RD). The results show the interconnected pores between (10-25µm) without additive, (15-28µm) at 5wt%, (17-35µm) at 10wt% and (20-55µm) at 15wt%. The pore size are illustrated by small and large spherical shape the corn starch particle, which are connected and contain an interconnected pores throughout small pores channels.

Keywords

Bioceramic --- Alumina --- Binder.


Article
Genetic Variations in rplB Gene Associated with Multidrug Resistance Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Different Clinical Sources

Authors: Alaa Salim Hamzah
Pages: 119-125
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In this study, two hundred specimens were collected from patients suffering from urinary tract infection, wound infection, otitis infection and respiratory tract infection (fifty specimens from each infection). After laboratory diagnosis by biochemical tests and confirmation by advance tests (VITEK- 2 Compact system), only twenty isolates were diagnosed as Acinetobacter baumannii (10%). Then sensitivity test was carried out of all these isolates by using twelve antibiotics, all isolates exhibited various levels of resistance to different antibiotics. Then DNA extraction of all twenty isolates followed by amplification of rplB gene aggainst using PCR with specific primers. DNA sequencing of all isolates was done, then alignmented sequences in NCBI and drew phylogenetic tree by using Geneious 9 software among locally isolates alone and then between them and high identity globally identified registred isolates in Gene Bank. Distribution of locally isolates in phylogenetic tree showed three different groups. The phylogenetic tree showed there were eight locally isolates differed from the standard isolates. From these locally isolates, one isolate (AE_12) was documented in NCBI under accession number (LOCUS KY818058) of nucleotides sequence and protein ID "ARV90996.1".


Article
Contaminated Fungi in the Biology Department laboratories and Antagonistic Potentiality of Myrtrus Communis Volatile oil Against the Isolated Fungi

Authors: Ali Muayyed Najem
Pages: 126-130
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Abstract

Antagonistic activity of Myrtrus communis volatile oil was evaluated against fungi isolated and detected in different hoods in Biology Department in order to eliminate and purge the hoods of laboratories from contaminant fungi which are rendered scientific projects. Many fungi samples were detected in four laboratories which were Aspergillus fumigates, Asp.niger, Asp.flavus, Cryptococcus albidus, Fusarium solani, Asp.terrus, Asp.terriola, Penicillium notatum and Mucor sp. Only four pure isolates were gained due to difficulties in purification of the isolates included Fusarium solani, Asp.fumigatus, Asp.niger and Asp.Flavus. Volatile oil of Myrtrus communis showed the highest fungicidal effect causing 100 % inhibition against Asp.fumigates and the lowest was against Fusarium solani.

Keywords


Article
Cytotoxic and Cell Cycle Arrest of Total Alkaloids Extracted from Chelidonium Majus Against Human Colon Cancer (HCT-116).

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Chelidonium majus, commonly known as Greater Celandine is a plant widely distributed in nature the plant been used in various traditional system of medicine to treat various disorders. Antitumor activity of total extracted alkaloid of this plant have been studied, there are few studies that examine the properties of the total extracted alkaloids. Thus the objective of this project is to investigate cytotoxic effects of total alkaloid extracted from C. majus against Human colon cancer cell line. Powdered plant material was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet installation. The extract subjected for acid-base extraction and purification with chloroform to obtain total alkaloids. Cytotoxicity effect of total alkaloids was estimated using MTT-assay in addition to the determination of apoptosis/necrosis FITC Annexin V /PI assay and Cell Cycle Analysis by Pi Staining. It was found that Chelidonium majus contain high amount of total alkaloids where the yield of total extracted alkaloids was about (2.146 %) of total dried weight. The total extracted alkaloids from C. majus showed high significant cytotoxicity effect on (HCT-116) cell lines which was in a dose dependent way, where the IC50 was (67.43 µg/ml). Annexin V-FITC assay showed that total alkaloids from C. majus is strong inducer of apoptosis in HCT-116 cell line. While, the cell cycle arrest evaluation showed that the extract arrests cell cycle progression by significantly restricting cells in different phases (G1, S, G2/M) in a dose dependent way. It is concluded that the plant contains a large quantity of total alkaloids. The total extracted alkaloids showed cytotoxic activity against colorectal cancer (HCT-116) cell line which was in dose dependent manner indicating that the extract could be used in cancer therapy.


Article
Variational Approach for Solving the Ponds Seepage Problem

Authors: Fadhel S. Fadhel --- Isam H. Khayoon
Pages: 139-145
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In this paper, the function of the pond’s seepage problem is derived using versional approach as especial case of generalized dam problem. In this problem the two dimensional cross section will produce problem with two free surfers which are evaluated as a part of the problem using simulating computer program


Article
Solving the Multi-Objective Travelling Salesman Problem with Real Data Application

Authors: Barraq Subhi Kaml --- Mohamed Saad Ibrahim
Pages: 146-161
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The aim of this paper is building a mathematical model for Travelling salesman problem (TSP) with multi-objective; the model describes the problem of (TSP) with three objectives (cost, distance, time), Real data were collected with a sample of twenty states of United State of America, Three methods were used (Branch and Bound algorithm, Nearest neighbor and two-way exchange improvement heuristic), The comparison was conducted among results reached. To solve the problem multi-objective of (TSP), The weighted model demonstrated the effectiveness and flexibility to solve real problems of multi-objective (TSP), where it can be said that it is impossible to solve this problem without resorting to multiple -objective mathematical models, In other words, the number of possible rout for the 20 town is , to find the optimal routs among these routs it takes very long time and a lot of effort, here stand out importance of two-way exchange improvement heuristic algorithm, where this rout is satisfactory to the decision maker in terms of cost, distance and time.


Article
Reflections Removal Using K-Means Clustering

Authors: Yossra H. Ali --- Maisa` S. Mohsen
Pages: 162-168
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The reflection generated from the semi reflectors (glass windows) affects the algorithm efficiency of the computer vision. It is a naturally hard problem to separate a single overlapped image into a reflection image and a transmission image, which is a kind of blind separation problems. This paper presents an automatic algorithm to separate the reflected and the transmitted components of a single superimposed image by clustering mixture pixels. Various examples are tested to validate the effectiveness of the proposal algorithm. Experimental results proved that the proposed algorithm can produce acceptable results.


Article
A Comparison of Corner Feature Detectors for Video Abrupt Shot Detection

Authors: Matheel E. Abdulmunem --- Eman Hato
Pages: 169-179
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Comparison of feature detectors and evaluation of their performance is very important in computer vision. A new algorithm is proposed in this paper to compare the performance of four corner feature detectors based on abrupt shot boundary detection. The proposed algorithm consists of two stages: feature vectors generation where corner detector for all video frames is computed to obtain the descriptor feature vectors, and features matching where the number of matching features between two successive frames is calculated. The corner feature detectors used in this paper are BRISK, Harries, MinEigen, and FAST. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm using MinEigen features detector provides better performance than other features detectors where the average value of recall, precision, and F measure is 0.99083, 0.98808, and 0.98875 for selected testing videos respectively. The results also show that the FAST is superior to others feature detectors when considering execution time.

Keywords

Abrupt dedication --- BRISK --- FAST --- Harries --- MinEigen.

Table of content: volume:21 issue:3