Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552265X 25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:2 issue:226

Article
Israeli love and its implications for heritage and archeological sites In Hebron governorate
المخاطر الاسرائيلية وتداعياتها تجاه المواقع التراثية والأثرية في محافظة الخليل

Authors: د. سامي محمد علقم
Pages: 1-16
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Abstract

The heritage sites in Hebron Governorate in all its details represent a historical history connected to the past and the present, Reflecting the heritage of the Palestinian people and its originality and roots in its land, and gives a precise picture of the features of successive civilizations that ruled the region, However, this historical legacy is threatened by destruction due to the policy of the Israeli occupation authorities to confiscate, demolish or Judaize buildings so that the occupation authorities strive to loot the goods of the Palestinian people and obliterate, destroy or confiscate their cultural heritage, And all that indicates the right to his land and sanctities; in an attempt to falsify historical facts; As a result of this policy occurred Palestinian architecture in Hebron, As a component of the Palestinian culture in the range of targeting the occupation authorities; they have confiscated many of the Palestinian historical buildings, whether residential or religious or archaeological sites, issuing a series of military orders backed by the army and the Israeli police, and pasted biblical accounts of these buildings; As well as resorting to the policy of theft and forgery.

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Article
Semantic Analysis of Qataʼa in Holy Quran Among Linguistics and Interpreters
التحليل الدلالي لمشتقات الجذر (ق ط ع) في القرآن الكريم بين اللغويين والمفسرين (دراسة صرفية(

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The paper has shown the semantic indication of (qataʼa) in part of the language’s dictionaries where (qataʼa) has different forms; hence the single had a variety of meanings. The paper has also shown that (qataʼa) has two indications; one is true, and the other is metaphorical. We noitice in the indication of (qataʼa) the two forms of Faʼal) and (Tafaʼal) in the past and present tense, for instance, the form of (Faʼal) states an overdoing and multiplication, and the form of (Tafaʼal) indicates submission. We notice in pronunciation of (qataʼa) and (qataʼan cut hard) a broken plural


Article
The Intonation Patterns to The Vocal PauseIn Surat Al-Adiyat - Study laboratory
الهيئات التنغيميّة للوقف الصوتيّ في سورة العاديات (دراسة مخبرية)

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This research deals with the subject of The Intonation Patterns to The Vocal Pause of its sides functional and physicist, was taken from al-adiyat a model, came in three sections: The first, how to measure The Intonation Patterns to The Vocal Pause acoustic , stopping second on Time tempo to Pause in linguistic text, eat a third of whom, phonetics and physical analysis The Intonation Patterns to The Vocal Pause in Surat Antiquities, which consisted of Quranic comma. It adopted an analytical study of the physical properties (acoustic) of this Surah on Praat voice analysis program, and the program Cool Edit pro for cutting art audio and configured to search, and the sample is studied the performance of Sheikh Mahmoud Khalil exclusive (1980).


Article
The downward spiral of the concepts of the prophet in the Makkah Quranic period Quotations in semantic analysis and explanatory criticis
السُّلَّم النزوليّ لمفاهيم الرَّسول في المرحلة القرآنيَّة المكِّيَّة مقولات في التحليل الدلاليّ و النقد التفسيريّ

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The inferior view of the Qur'anic discourse and its context is given a qualitative explanation because it puts us in front of the Qur'anic verses that have dealt with the stages of the Islamic call in a real and precise manner. The examination of the tools and treatments deepens an internal Koranic examination that goes beyond the external examination which is likely to contradict the Qur'anic will. This is the result of the downstream view of the production of accurate interpretive statements in the production of the realist hierarchy in the expression of the Muhammadic message and the concepts that share the production of the system of the apostolic act and what it opposes. This is why careful reading of the concepts related to awareness of the apostolic phenomenon One hand and facing it on the other. The meaning of this is that we are faced with systematic observations that show their effects in monitoring the Quranic follow-up to the community event, and Quranic follow-up to receive the Koranic discourse and dealing with the Prophet peace be upon him and peace and blessings at the beginning of the call, As well as its impact on the manifestations of the Prophet's biography and recording the positions of Quranic follow-up in this field and the Koranic monitoring of the incidents; the research is to read a set of words in order to produce a developmental understanding. The research aims at following up the concepts of the opposition in the atmosphere of the Muhammedian missionary formation and produce an inferior reading of the system of this formation and solve problems of nodal and show the effects of intellectual and advocacy active in the Quranic stage Makki; where research ends in the moments of the downward spiral to the formation accompanied by concepts: muzammel; prophet; withess; the owner; orphan; host; the rost; Al-munther; the save; prophet the proverb; Al-Bashir to develop the network of the massage in this phasein the light of these concepts of the institutional


Article
The Jewish Sect in Egypt 1897-1948 –A study in Their Zionist Activity
الطائفة اليهودية في مصر (1897-1948) دراسة في نشاطها الصهيوني

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The Zionist activity of the Jewish community in Egypt coincided with the beginnings of the emergence of the World Zionist movement, which found in the Jews of Egypt a great variety and geographically close to Palestine, and from this reality the gain of support for that community and harnessing its human and material energies in the service of World Zionism was one of the goals of the organization In 1897, the first Zionist Society was founded in Cairo in the name of the "Zionist Society of Barkostash", followed by the organizations and institutions that promote Zionist ideology in Egypt and the emigration of Jews to Palestine, and these institutions describe the members of the Jewish community in Egypt with guests who cannot They settle or calm their thoughts only in their home, the Zionist movement has been active among the ranks of the poor of the Jews of Egypt, and the Zionist propaganda has taken their promise of economic prosperity, democracy, tolerance and freedom of opinion in their promised state, and it is noteworthy that the Jewish community in Egypt enjoyed religious tolerance and freedom Wide and government support, the Egyptian government did not interfere in the affairs of that community, and this contributed to the growing phenomenon of Zionist activity in Egypt, and that activity was initially met with a bit of indifference from the government and the Muslim clerics and the general Egyptian people, perhaps because they did not know the dangerous intentions of that The global project, which intends to gather Jews from all over the world and settle them in Palestine, and with the growing national consciousness and the development of the Palestinian cause and the intensification of political assassinations by Zionist organizations in Palestine, the intentions of the Zionist movement are becoming clearer and in Egypt has become an official and popular reaction to the activity . The Zionist, the pro-Zionism demonstrations began to meet with counter-demonstrations, the events of the autumn of 1945 were an example, and the wave of public outrage in Egypt was not directed at Egyptian Jews for being Jews, but for their pro-Zionism activities that were a provocation to Egyptian public opinion, this was The continued provocation by them is a cause of aggression against them and their economic centers in the country which led to the emigration of a large part of the community to outside Egypt, that the presence of Zionist activity in some of the Jewish community in Egypt, did not prevent some of the children of that left-leaning sect from taking another stand Completely opposite, it was founded in the middle of 1946 in Egypt by an association against the idea of World Zionism, known as the Israeli Association against Zionism, which was of the view that the interest of the Jewish community requires standing by the Egyptian government and fighting Zionist ideas. In this humble research, a historical study followed the most important details of Zionist activity in Egypt in the period (1897-1948), since the founding of the first Zionist Organization in Egypt until the 1948 war, after which the members of the Jewish community in Egypt were subjected to attacks and expected reactions that prompted the majority of them to leave the country.


Article
Reform and modernization in the Ottoman Empire
الاصــلاح والتـحديث فــي العـهد العثمانّي الأخير

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Abstract

The boundaries of the Ottoman Empire span several centuries on a vast expanse, across the ancient continents of the world, with different races, diverse peoples and multiple faiths, and the Ottoman Empire was one of the forces that influenced the course of international politics at the time, and then it was weakened by the political balance and administrative, which was governed by the laws of the sultan between the central authority on the one hand, and those who carry out that policy from Baswat and Pikatagwat... and others on the other hand. The weakness is growing in state institutions and despite repeated attempts by some sultans to restore power and prestige to the body of the sprawling empire, it has achieved little or nothing. The first reformist calls were inspired by the spirit and principles of Islam in remedying the imbalance, and the reformers advocated the necessity of applying Islamic law within the various institutions, to return to its prosperous past, and on that basis the pioneering attempts were based on Islam and its basic principles at a stage where it did not expand The Ottoman Empire in the European-style quotation, as the European superiority was not as impressive as the Ottomans and pushed them to quotation, and the Ottomans were preparing themselves a major state during the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth century, and during that stage many of the leaders of the movement tried Reform in the Ottoman Empire, doing self-reliant reforms not on the quotation from the West, including Shaykh al-Islam Saad Eddin Effendi, Osman II, Murad IV and others. The nature of the research required it to be divided into an introduction, six axes and a conclusion, the first axis addressed the beginning of the Ottoman retreat since 1683, and the signs of weakness experienced by the Ottoman state, as well as the emergence of European supremacy during that era, and the emergence of a number of early Ottoman reformers and their role in the beginnings The reform process. The second theme was devoted to the ways in which they showed Salim III in the reform, which led to his eventual execution, and the third axis was devoted to the study of the reign of Sultan Mahmud II at an important stage of the nineteenth century, with the appearance of a number of eminent personalities in Egypt and Iraq, as well as some changes of Europe. The fourth axis touched upon the Ottoman organizations, the efforts of a number of Ottomans and their influence on Western culture, which led to the promulgation of a number of important decrees (orders), including the line of Sharif kolkhanf in 1839 and the decree of Humayun in 1856, and a number of laws including the Land Law of 21 April 1858 The law of the Tarabo of 14 January 1859, as well as the state law of 1864, and its interpretation in the stabilization of the new correctional grounds. The fifth axis dealt with a brief presentation of the results of the movement of Ottoman organizations, and its influence in the Arab States, especially the state of Baghdad, and devoted the sixth (last) to the features of the Iraqi reformist Midhat Pasha, the most important administrative works in the state of Baghdad, as well as giving a brief presentation Of the subsequent changes to the reign of Medhat Pasha until the early 20th century. In conclusion, we tried to show the most important conclusions reached through the research hubs, seeking reference to several related sources including a number of research and university messages as well as the use of the International Information Network (Internet), and these sources can be identified through the margins Search or list of sources.

Keywords

The boundaries of the Ottoman Empire span several centuries on a vast expanse --- across the ancient continents of the world --- with different races --- diverse peoples and multiple faiths --- and the Ottoman Empire was one of the forces that influenced the course of international politics at the time --- and then it was weakened by the political balance and administrative --- which was governed by the laws of the sultan between the central authority on the one hand --- and those who carry out that policy from Baswat and Pikatagwat... and others on the other hand. The weakness is growing in state institutions and despite repeated attempts by some sultans to restore power and prestige to the body of the sprawling empire --- it has achieved little or nothing. The first reformist calls were inspired by the spirit and principles of Islam in remedying the imbalance --- and the reformers advocated the necessity of applying Islamic law within the various institutions --- to return to its prosperous past --- and on that basis the pioneering attempts were based on Islam and its basic principles at a stage where it did not expand The Ottoman Empire in the European-style quotation --- as the European superiority was not as impressive as the Ottomans and pushed them to quotation --- and the Ottomans were preparing themselves a major state during the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth century --- and during that stage many of the leaders of the movement tried Reform in the Ottoman Empire --- doing self-reliant reforms not on the quotation from the West --- including Shaykh al-Islam Saad Eddin Effendi --- Osman II --- Murad IV and others. The nature of the research required it to be divided into an introduction --- six axes and a conclusion --- the first axis addressed the beginning of the Ottoman retreat since 1683 --- and the signs of weakness experienced by the Ottoman state --- as well as the emergence of European supremacy during that era --- and the emergence of a number of early Ottoman reformers and their role in the beginnings The reform process. The second theme was devoted to the ways in which they showed Salim III in the reform --- which led to his eventual execution --- and the third axis was devoted to the study of the reign of Sultan Mahmud II at an important stage of the nineteenth century --- with the appearance of a number of eminent personalities in Egypt and Iraq --- as well as some changes of Europe. The fourth axis touched upon the Ottoman organizations --- the efforts of a number of Ottomans and their influence on Western culture --- which led to the promulgation of a number of important decrees (orders) --- including the line of Sharif kolkhanf in 1839 and the decree of Humayun in 1856 --- and a number of laws including the Land Law of 21 April 1858 The law of the Tarabo of 14 January 1859 --- as well as the state law of 1864 --- and its interpretation in the stabilization of the new correctional grounds. The fifth axis dealt with a brief presentation of the results of the movement of Ottoman organizations --- and its influence in the Arab States --- especially the state of Baghdad --- and devoted the sixth (last) to the features of the Iraqi reformist Midhat Pasha --- the most important administrative works in the state of Baghdad --- as well as giving a brief presentation Of the subsequent changes to the reign of Medhat Pasha until the early 20th century. In conclusion --- we tried to show the most important conclusions reached through the research hubs --- seeking reference to several related sources including a number of research and university messages as well as the use of the International Information Network (Internet) --- and these sources can be identified through the margins Search or list of sources. --- الاصلاح، التحديث، العهد العثماني.


Article
The difference between a certificate and a novel in fundamentalists
الفرق بين الشهادة والرواية عند الأصوليين

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Abstract

The subject of the research (the difference between the novel and the testimony of fundamentalists) was because of its great impact on many jurisprudential applications, and I tried to show the meaning of the novel and then the certificate language and terminology, and then to indicate the conditions considered in the acceptance of the witness and narrator and showed the names of the news, and differentiate between the novel and the Testimony, And it is the crux of the topic with some of the application and Alfafahi. And this effort of the eyeballs, ask the people to forgive us what was falsehood, to make the best of the right, and for the great first and last, praise be to God


Article
The Judicial and Educational System in the Period of the Qurmania Family 1711-1835
النظام القضائيّ والتربويّ في عصر أسرة قرمانيا 1711-1835

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The purpose of this research is to highlight the importance of the judicial and educational systems in the region of Tripoli during the reign of the Qaramanic Dynasty (1711-1835), in terms of how these two systems were, and what are the roles of the Qaramanic rulers in the development of these two systems, Because they are closely linked to the population, and their advancement leads to the advancement of the country and neglect leads to chaos in all parts of the country. The nature of the research necessitated dividing it into two sections : The first part dealt with the judicial system, and the second part dealt

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Article
National Identity in speeches and conversations of Abdul Karim Qasim (1958-1963)
الهوية الوطنية في خطب واحاديث عبد الكريم قاسم (1958- 1963)

Authors: م. د. غصون مزهر حسين
Pages: 193-206
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In this research, we address the national identity in the ideas of Abdel-Kareem Qassem, which he emphasized and emphasized through his speeches and speeches on various occasions. National identity means public order in society according to a moral principle within a cohesive community fabric, as well as awareness of " In the love of the homeland and loyalty to him and sacrifice in his way, "as emphasized by Abdul KarimQassem, Abdul KarimQassim printed the policy of the Government of the revolution in its own character, values and principles that he believed in and seeks to achieve, his political principles were clear fundamental embraced and derived from the need of people and their suffering, It has been t The principles are on the tongues of political blocs, parties, individuals and conscious figures, echoing them in their councils and speaking to them on every occasion to express their opinions. These principles were not necessarily based on political philosophy or ideas absorbed by political bulletins and books.


Article
Principles of Sociology to Ikhwan Al-Safa.
من أسس علم الاجتماع عند اخوان الصفا - التحليل الاجتماعي –

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this research paper consist of an introduction and four chapters, and ends up with section and conclusions . introduction refers to the importance of the research and its objectives .while the sections are as following; 1- Culture, elucidating culture concept and its role in building society. 2- Some of elementary units of social life. a -society. b - social actions. c - individual personality. 3- some of essential society insititutions , social systems(law), and politics. 4- Some of essential social actions; a- Diffrenatiation and classes b- Deviation c- Dectrions conflict

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Article
The Apostle Paul's first message Analytical study
رسائل الرسول بولس الأولى (دراسة تحليلية)

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The Apostle Paul is one of the men who converted to Christianity, and he took upon himself the propagation of that call, which began when he went to persecute the followers of Christianity and he appeared to him Christ, and he threatened him to return and believe in him, and thus began a new stage of his life I saw the light of this new religion. The search included his first letters, the first of which he wrote before being persecuted and imprisoned, and there are letters written in his prison and another after his departure, and these letters were written in a total of 14 letters between the years (50-61), and all his prayers were opened to prove divinity to Christ, as he emphasized The Return of Christ (coming back) again and to be so soon, the teachings of the Apostle Paul varied with the teachings of Christ that came in the books of the four Gospels, these letters are the first of the books of the New Testament written in the Greek language and the strength of his personality and culture had the greatest effect in imposing The idea of his disciples, in his faith, was that salvation was faith in Christ, not faith in the devotional aspect, and despite his assertion on the ideological side, but he did not come out on some of the taboos of the Torah, especially regarding food such as the sanctity of blood and animal smothered, adultery, and finally Paul did not receive any The teachings qualify him to preach the invitation to the new message, the Christian religion.

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Article
Modern God created the soil on Saturday A recent critical study
حديث خلق الله التربة يوم السبت دراسة حديثية نقدية

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The research examined a recent study "God created soil on Saturday " which is one of the ahaadeeth that the scholars differed in old and new, between this research the attitudes of scientists from talking and the Board with discussion and the correct statement, as well as it came with scientific benefits and accurate results and edited, and if we strive to reach our goal I hope to God that we have agreed to the good hopefully exalted


Article
مؤتمر لندن للمعارضة العراقية (14-17 كانون الاول 2002) ودور الولايات المتحدة الامريكية فيه

Authors: أ.م.د. وسن سعيد عبود
Pages: 279-310
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This research addressed the study of one of the conferences held by the Iraqi opposition to unite its efforts against the Baath regime in Iraq. The research found that this conference came with a proposal and encouragement of the US administration, which was in a critical situation before the international community, which refused to use military action to overthrow Saddam. The US administration found in the Iraqi opposition a solution to its problem by presenting it as a unified and declaring an alternative to the rule of Iraq. Thus, the international argument that refuses to support the military option falls . Was the most important conference in which the US administration supports the Iraqi opposition and keen on its success in front of public opinion. Moreover, the conference largely reflected the contradictions and conflicts between the opposition factions. The conference clearly marked the beginning of adopting concepts such as sectarianism, nationalism and ethnicity among the political entities, which cast a shadow on the political scene in Iraq after 2003.


Article
Manufacturing structure in Diyala province 2015 (Special study on small and large industries)
هيكل الصناعة التحويلية في محافظة ديالى لعام 2015 ( دراسة خاص على الصناعات الصغيرة والكبيرة )

Authors: د. مي ثامر رجب عبود
Pages: 311-332
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The industrial sector is an important sector that contributes effectively to the gross domestic product hence , the support of the industrial sector and upgrading the existing industries should be the main objectives any development policy as this sector has a significant relative weight among economic sector . The importance of small industries as best field to absorb some of the products of large prospects and the production of small enterprises , so it is not strange that coordination and cooperation between the two industries and it is necessary to identify ways of cooperation and the relation ship between the two activities to achieve the objectives of its existence . The research aims to identify the reality of the industrial structure in diyala governorate in terms of studying the concept of industrial structure and its patterns and the industrial branches in the province for the year 2015 . The problem of the research has been the province has invested all the possibilities available for industrial activity in them , and whether the industrial structure fit the greet potential of the province , and is there a difference in the structure of manufacturing in the provinces of diyala . The hypothesis of the research came in answer to the previous question . Diyala province has huge potential that has not yet invested or invested in part in the industrial activity , which has grown relatively ,but its investment in the industry was not efficient development , as well as there is a significant , related industry and manufacturing at the district level . The research was based on the descriptive approach and the analytical mothod . The most important findings of the research : 1- supporting the private sector and providing infrastacture and providing protection to him so that he can raise his products to the level of competition. 2- Encouraging information programs that contribute to citizens awareness of the importance of national products in order to encourage national and increase their importance to the national products . 3- raising awareness of the importance of small and large enterprises and clarifying their role in economic development .

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Impact of climate in growing leguminous crops in the province of Arbil Applied climate study
تأثير المناخ في زراعة المحاصيل البقولية في محافظة أربيل دراسة في المناخ التطبيقيّ

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The climate is the most important natural factor affecting agriculture . the success of planting any agricultural crops depends on the nature of the climate prevailing in the area of cultivation . the most important climatic elements that have an effective effect in the cultivation of leguminous crops and the various agricultural activities that can be practiced are : Temperature , rain , wind and relative humidity . when the climatic reguirements of any crop are well – established , its cultivation is successful and profitable, and vice versa when those reguirements are not met . the study of the climatic reguirements of leguminous crops covered by the study and its balance with the available climatic potential in Erbil governorate in order to know the role of the climatic factor in the cultivation of these crops and their geographical distribution .


Article
Variance of dependency ratio in Baghdad governorate and its relation to the social variables of the population for 2016
تباين نسبة الاعالة في محافظة بغداد وعلاقتها بالمتغيرات الاجتماعية للسكان لعام 2016

Authors: أ.د. .ندى نجيب سلمان
Pages: 355-364
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The subject of population support is one of the most important topics in the geography of the population as it shows the amount of burden on the workforce in society and reflects the balance or lack of balance among population groups. According to the ratio of gender and age groups and their relation to social variables. The research was based on three axes, the first dealt with the variation in the dependency ratio, the second studied the ratio of the type of dependents and dependents and the third the social variables related to dependency. The most important findings of the study were the high dependency ratio in the rural districts of the governorate, in addition to the fact that the proportion of the type of the unemployed surpassed that of the dependents, as well as the low percentage of the population (15-94) years, indicating the high rate of support in the districts of Sadr and Abu Ghraib and Mahmudiyah


Article
The estimation the size of erosion in the Merka Sur valley In Erbil
تقدير حجم التعرية في وادي مركه سور في محافظة أربيل

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The study aims to study the estimation the size of erosion in the Merka Sur valley , that located in Erbil in northern of Iraq as part of simple torsion mountain region (1000 - 2100) m , with a basin area (162.1 km2). The researchers used remote sensing technology (RS) from the US Landsat L8 OLI to Lineament Extraction, the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for topographic analysis (elevation and slope) , hydrological analysis (river drainage system), GIS, For mapping and engineering analysis within the Arc GIS 10.3 environment The results shows natural characteristics: Lithological, soil and natural plant, as well as identify the spatial distribution of these characteristics. Lineament a role in determining the type of erosion within their presence as in the western side of the valley. Where there a heavily Lineament that motivate the presence of the groove erosion , despite its presence in the resistance to erosion configurations like (formation of Qmjoukh , Aqra – Bkhme). The slope of the gradient plays an important role in determining the type of erosion. In steep slopes (18-50 degrees) stimulates the gully erosion type , while simple slopes (1 - 18 degrees) Sheet erosion. The results showed that the number and the total length of valleys within the upper ranks of river (the first, second, third) have a role in the degree of erosion within the erosion rates by Bergsma equation , Finally, The height factor and vegetation density were found to play a role in erosion and reduce wind erosion within the region.

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A study of some physical properties and chemical and biological water to the Tigris River near the Alshuhadah Bridge and evaluated for different purposes for the period (2012-2014)
دراسة لبعض الخصائص الفيزيائية والكيمائية والبيولوجية لمياه نهر دجلة قرب جسر الشهداء وتقييـمها للأغراض المُختلفة للمُدة (2012-2014)

Authors: د. نجلة عجيل محمد
Pages: 389-424
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The research investigates some physical, chemical and biological properties of the Tigris water River near the Alshuhadah Bridge and evaluated these properties for drinking, irrigation industrial and construction purposes for the period (2012-2014), and until July for the year (2014) due to the lack of data for the rest of the year. Through the analysis of properties results it had been found that there is some variation during the months of the year, as well as between the annual averages for the three years where the Cadmium element did not record any value, which was equal to zero, as well as the iron element except for the month of May for the year (2013). In addition, it was noted that the Tigris River water near the Alshuhadah bridge in the month of May for the year (2012 ) and the month of July of the year (2013) within the class (C2) which is a brackish water and it needs to filtering operations for some crops which are sensitive to salinity and that due to lack of the total dissolved salts in the water in the mentioned two months(July and May), while it found in the rest of the three years months within the class ( C3) which is a high-salinity water and cannot be used without continuouslydrainage. The value of (PH) of the water was found within the permissible limits for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes and has taken the baseband side during the three years with except for the month of December for the year (2012) and the month of April for the year ( 2014) which was neutral in pH (PH = 7), while it noticed that in the month of May for the year (2014) was acidic (PH =6.89) and the value of (TDS), sodium and nitrate for the three years within the permissible limits for drinking purposes. In addition, the value of the absorbed vital oxygen was within the permissible limits for irrigation purposes. Also the value of chlorides, carbonates and boron for the three years was within the permissible limits for drinking and irrigation, while the rest items values fluctuated between the permitted and non-permitted to be used for these purposes, Besides that, the values of calcium, magnesium, sodium and chlorides for the three years was within the allowed boundaries for the purposes of building and construction. While the usage of water for industrial purposes for affected components in industry, it had fluctuated between permitted and non-permitted for using.


Article
A geographical analysis of the phenomenon of child labor in the city of Nasiriya (Study in social geography)
تحليل جغرافي لظاهرة عمالة الأطفال في مدينة الناصرية (دراسة في الجغرافية الاجتماعية)

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Abstract

The study is mainly designed to stand up to the reality of child labor in the city of Nasiriyah, see the most prominent factors and reasons that led to the spread of this phenomenon in recent times and develop appropriate solutions to address them. It was found during the study of the high proportion of male workers to 90.4%, while the proportion of female workers fell to 9.6% of the total proportion of working children in the city. As it turns out that 27.9% of working children are those who at the age of 9 years old and under, and social aspects of the analysis showed that a large proportion of child workers belong to the families of disjointed where the percentage of divorce, strife family for my parents respondents 24.2%, and the proportion of children orphans who Vkaddo one or both parents stood at 28.7%, which reflects the role of social factors in pushing children into the labor market. Analyzing the results of the questionnaire low educational level of the parents of the respondents generally showed, reaching secretary and semi ratio secretary (mom Aujraj elementary) of parents 73.1%, and the mothers 84.4%, it turns out that the largest proportion of children are those who have abandoned the study or did not attend at all schools and the proportion of 68.7%, which confirms that there is a strong correlation between child labor and education relationship.


Article
Fear In The Holy Koran
الخشية في القرآن الكريم

Authors: د. حسن محمود شكر
Pages: 455-470
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Abstract

In the name of God the most gracious the most merciful And prayers and peace be upon Muhammad and his good and pure family. The fear of God is a characteristic of the messengers, and reached by the close angels and righteous Worshipers, so my research was to study (Fear in the Holy Quran) because of the importance of this subject in the life of man from several aspects of educational social socialism, and characterized by fear overwhelm his actions and statements and that got the happiness of the realm and the hereafter It is a light cast by God in the heart of His worshipers , and worship without fear has no effect, only if the worshiper subjected his body and heart to God Almighty, it sends life to work, but make worship loving the soul. My research has been divided into an introduction, three researches, and a conclusion. As for the introduction, it dealt with the importance of the topic and the extent to which societies need it. As for the first topic: the definition of fear of language and terminology, and its virtues and fruits. As for the second topic: I dealt with the reasons for the fear and opposition to it. The third topic: I have showed the types of fear. As for the fourth topic: I have addressed the fear of prayer as a model. At the end of my research I came out with the result that fear is a blessing from the grace of God on man, which he enjoys by whom he wishes of his worshipers to be pleased with the first life and the last life

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Article
Following the strategy inside and outside the circle in the collection of material socializing with fifth graders
أثر استراتيجية داخل وخارج الدائرة في تحصيل مادة الاجتماعيات لدى تلاميذ الصف الخامس الابتدائي

Authors: م.د عباس علي كريدي
Pages: 471-494
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Abstract

Abstract: The current research aims to identify the impact of the strategy of inside and outside the circle in the achievement of social studies at the fifth grade primary school . To achieve the point of this research the scholar applied the null hypotheses : There is no statistically difference significant between the average scores of the experimental group students who have studied the social studies by strategy of inside and outside the circle and between the average scores of the control group who studied the same material in the trditional method in the achievement . The current research confined on the students of public primary day schools in Baghdad for the academic year (2016/2017), the scholar depended on a partial seizure experimental design (the experimental group and a control group of the post-test),and the scholar chose the primary shchool Ibn Al-Nadim one of the Education directorate /Al-Russafa the second / Baghdad, for the academic year (2016/2017) and that for the purpose of application the experiment , the sample consisted of (80) students , by (40) one in the experiment group that taught according to the strategy of inside and outside the circle, and (40) of the student in the control group that taught by the traditional method . The scholar equalized between the two groups before starting the experience in some variables (pre-knowledge test, IQ level ), the material that going to be taught has been identified which included the first two chapters of the social studies book that going to be taught to the fifth grade primary, then the scholar formed the behavioral goals that included (80) behavioral goal in light of the overall goals and according to (Bloom) classification for the knoledge domain of three levels (knoledge, understanding, application) . The scholar prepared an achievement objective test a multiple-choice type that included (30) paragraph according to the map test. The experience applied in the academic year (2016/2017) by three lessons per week for each group . The result showed that there are statistically diffrences significant at the level of (0,05) between the average scores of the experimental group students who have studied by strategy of inside and outside the circle and between the average scores of the control group who studied the same material in the trditional method and the advantage of the experimental group in the achievement .

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