Table of content

kirkuk university journal for scientific studies

مجلة جامعة كركوك للدراسات العلمية

ISSN: 19920849 26166801
Publisher: Kirkuk University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies (KUJSS) is an official publication of the Faculty of Science at the University of Kirkuk. It was originally published in 2006 with two issues per year. Currently the journal is published every quarter (4 issues a year) since 2013. KUJSS publishes original papers, technical and research papers, in different disciplines (Astronomy, Pure and Applied Physics, Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology, Electronics & Communication, Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, Science of Chemistry, Bio-Science Technologies, Earth Sciences, Geo-physics, and Remote Sensing). English and Arabic are the language used. All manuscript submissions must be made through the journal's online manuscript system at online submissions.
The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of our Journal is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.
Submitted papers will be reviewed by Technical Committees of the Journal. All submitted articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing.

date of firist issue 2006
no.issue per year(4)
no.of issue published between 2006-2012 (12)issue



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Contact info

E-mail: kujss@uokirkuk.edu.iq
site: www.uokiruk.edu.iq/kujss

Table of content: 2018 volume:13 issue:3

Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Biohydrolysis Drug Release Studies of Polymercarrier with Ketoprofen.
تحضير وتشخيص ودراسة حياتية لانطلاق الدواء من بوليمر محمل بالكيتوبروفين.

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Abstract

In the present work, the hydroxyl groups of starch polymers bonds with bioactive material (Ketoprofen drug) by esterification process. (direct esterification and indirect esterification). The modified starch polymers are characterized by some spectroscopic methods such as FTIR ,UV, H1. NMR and C13.NMR. The degree of substitution (D.S) of the hydroxyl groups in starch molecule was determined in all cases. The hydrolysis of modified starch polymers is carried out in the heterogeneous phase in a buffer solution of pH (2.0 , 7.0 and 9.0 ) at various temperatures (25, 37, and 45 Co). The amounts of released Ketoprofen drugs were quantitatively determined by using calibration curve method. Biodegradation (in vitro degradation) of modification starch polymers is carried out by enzymatic cleavage (using lipase enzyme) at pH 2.0 and 37Co. The amounts of released ketoprofen were quantitatively determined by U.V visible spectrophotometry by using the usual calibration curve method. In general, it was found that the release in presence of enzyme was faster than in hydrolysis process.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Pd(II) And Pt(II) Complexes with Bis [Hg (2-Apt)] Compound.
تحضير و تشخيص معقدات( Pt(II), Pd(IIمع مركب ثنائي [(Hg (2-apt].

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The reaction of one mole of Hg(II) acetate with two mole of 2-amino thiophenol gave one mole of [Hg(2-apt)] compound. While the reaction of one mole of [Hg(2-apt)] with two moles of MCL2 salt. Produced new complexes in general formula [M2{Hg(2-apt)Cl4] where M=Pt(II) or Pd(II).All the prepared complexes were identified using FT-IR, 1H-NMR,13C-NMR,elemental analyses (CHNS) and molar conductivity. The results exhibited that metal bounded to the ligand via S and N in squar planer geometries.


Article
Spectrophotometric Determination of Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Oxidative Coupling reaction.
التقدير الطيفي للكلوربرومازين هيدروكلورايد في المستحضرات الصيدلانية بواسطة تفاعل الاقتران ألتأكسدي

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Abstract

An easy and simple spectrophotometric method was described for estimating chlorpromazine Hydrochloride drug in aqueous solution. Where The method was adopted on oxidative coupling reaction of the drug with p- nitro aniline in the presence of ceric(IV) ammonium nitrate and hydrochloric acid solution an orange-brown product dye was obtainded with maximum absorption at 525 nm. with moler absorptivity of 9.24×103 l. mol-1. cm-1 and sandell's sensitivity of 0.0385 µg.cm-2 Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of (12-46) µg.ml-1. The method was applied successfully for the estimating the drug it's on pure condition or in pharmaceutical preparations (Largactil drug).


Article
Shallow Geoelectric Sounding Application For Earthing Purpose In AL Diwaniayah Electric East- Substation Site/ South of Iraq.
تطبيق التحري العمودي الجيوكهربائي الضحل لاغراض التاريض في موقع محطة الثانوية الكهربائية شرق الديوانية في الديوانية / جنوب العراق.

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Electrical Resistivity Method involving Shallow Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) was carried out in four (4)locations in AL Diwaniyah Electrical East- Substation site, AL Diwaniyah province, South of Iraq, using the Wenner (α) array configuration with the aim of determining the conductive zone for establishing suitable earthling medium in the area. At each location, vertical electrical soundings with total spread of AB/3 = 30m were occupied with ‘a’ varying from 1m to 10 m. The acquired field data has been interpreted by Edwards formula, ID IPI2win software and Inverse slope methods. The result reveals between three (4) to five (5) geo-electric zones which comprise of essentially silty clay with fully water saturation condition . The resistivity ranges between 1.05 -7.3 ohm-m and thickness is 2.5 m . The curve types obtained from the study area were QH and QQ types. The results reveal the points characterized by a reasonable silty clay thickness that may serve the purpose of a good earthling medium /protective soil material in some of the locations.


Article
Decision Boundaries in the sense of Naive Bayesian for Multidimensional cases (Naïve Decision Surface Network)
حدود القرار بمنظور نظرية ناييف بايزين للحالات متعددة الأبعاد (شبكة ناييف لاسطح القرار)

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Abstract

Naive Bayesian classifier is a fundamental statistical method that assents the conditional independence of features values by minimizing the probability errors within the classes. In practice, Naive Bayesian classifier often violated assumptions and is not robust to the noise with multidimensional cases. A useful way to signify classifier is through discriminant functions where the classifier assigns a feature vector to divide the feature space into decision surfaces separated by multidimensional boundaries. In this work, Naïve Decision Surface Network is proposed to build on discriminant quadratic functions that obtained for a multiclass, multi features problems. The action all of covariance, variance and correlation possibilities are addressed. An example is illustrated to demonstrate the computational and analytical simplifications and the results showed less classification rate error.


Article
A Compartive Study Between (AES) and (DES) Algorithms Based on the (SET) Protocol
(SET) بالأعتماد على بروتوكول (DES) و(AES)دراسة مقارنة بين خوارزميات

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Abstract

Secure Electronic Transaction protocol is a very large protocol in securing electronic bargains in business online for the sake of privacy. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) cons are that it is slow and short key (56 Bits). The typical attack for this one is the key exhaustion, because of the progress in the computer devices. The goal of this paper is to offer a new perspective so the protocol is more secure and fast, by using (AES) Advanced Encryption Standard (128 Bits for 10 Round , 192 Bits for 12 Round, 256 Bits for 14 Round). Besides, it has a comparison between Data Encryption Standard & Advanced Encryption Standard.


Article
Evaluating and Modeling of Parabolic Solar Cooker by RSM
تقييم و نمذجة طباخ شمسي بشكل قطع مكافئ باستخدام طريقة السطوح الاحصائية

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The present paper has dealed with two stages. In the first, an experimental set up of the parabolic cooker with direct use has been made-up and studied at Renewable Energy Research Center-University of Anbar. Based on experimental results, statistical studies by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) have been done to identify the optimum influential parameters and estimate mathematical temperature model. In this study, parabolic collector parameters that can effect on the Parabolic Collector efficiency are studied in more details. Six amounts of water are used for measuring the increasing of temperature relative to the measuring time. Parabolic Collector parameters are optimised with the consideration of single-response; temperature of the working fluid (in terms of water). The achieved experimental results are analysed by the desirability functional analysis DFA approach, and optimal levels of input factors have been distinguished. ANOVA also has been utilized to recognize the assurance of powerful factors on the response


Article
Prevalence of Ruminants Gastro-Intestinal Parasites in Kirkuk province, Iraq
انتشار الطفيليات المعديّة- المعويّة للمجترات في محافظة كركوك- العراق

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The present study was established on the slaughtered ruminants in Kirkuk central abattoir between June 1st till December, 31st 2015. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites (GIPs) of slaughtered grazing ruminants in Kirkuk province. Fresh faecal specimens (n=276) were obtained from slaughtered grazing ruminants (85 sheep, 71 goats and 120 Cattle) in Kirkuk province. The investigational processing represented as direct and concentration methods were carried out using faecal direct smear, flotation and sedimentation protocol to investigate the fecal specimens to determine eggs/oocysts/trophozoites of the parasites. The obtained data showed that overall prevalence of GIPs among slaughtered ruminants was 78.98%. Six different GIPs species were recognized in the present study, namely: Haemonchus contortus, Strongyloides papillosus, Trichuris spp. Ostertagia spp., Entodinium caudatum, and Eimeria spp. The highest prevalence of GIPs was among goats (91.55%). While, lowest infections was observed among cattle (69.17%). The highest recorded results was Eimeria spp. among adult goats (42.2%), followed by S. papillosus (28.6%) in young sheep. The lowest infection was 5.33% in adult cattle by Trichuris spp. By age groups, young and adult goats showed the most prevalence of GIPs with infection ratio of 93.33% and 88.46%, respectively. Data in the present study revealed that the GIPs prevalent rates among grazing ruminants in Kirkuk province was about 79%. Adult goats seem to be the most infected ruminants GIPs with Eimeria spp., followed by young sheep with S. papillosus. This finding may be due to using unorganized traditional management systems in which huge numbers of the animals are kept together.


Article
Green Chemistry Synthesis of Five-Membered Heterocylic Derivatives (1, 3, 4-oxadizoles) by Using Grinding Technique
تحضير مشتقات من الحلقات الخماسية غير المتجانسة (4,3,1 – اوكسادايازول) بطريقة كيمياء الخضراء من خلال استخدام تقنية الطحن

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In this research we prepared about 28 derivatives of five-membered heterocyclic compounds (1,3,4-oxadizoles) in two lines , in the first line we used phenylhydrazide and in the second line we used 4-hydroxy phenylhydrazide as starting material for cyclization, By using eco–friendly efficient synthesis of oxadiazole derivatives through the reaction of aromatic hydrazide with different substituted aromatic aldehydes by grinding them in the presence of catalytical amounts of iodine


Article
Evaluation of DOTS Strategy in Tuberculosis Treatment in Kirkuk Governorate
تقييم كفاءة استراتيجية العلاج قصير الامد تحت الاشراف المباشر لعلاج التدرن في محافظة كركوك

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More than 2 billion people, equal to one third of the world’s population, are infected with tuberculosis (TB) bacilli, the microbes that cause TB. One in 10 people infected with TB bacilli will become sick with active TB in their lifetime. To assess treatment outcome and to evaluate the compliance of our patients registered for anti-TB treatment at Kirkuk Center of Tuberculosis Treatment. A one year prospective cohort study of tuberculosis patients (n=100) registered for anti-TB treatment at Kirkuk center of tuberculosis treatment according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Among study participants, 100 patients (100%) were sputum smear positive, the 100 study participant (100%) were tested for HIV. There was no TB-HIV co-infection .Among the 100 study participants, 90(90%) had successful treatment outcome (90 cured). The overall death, default, were 3(3%), 7 (7%) respectively. There was no treatment failure. Active pulmonary tuberculosis was predominant at age group (21-30) year, 31(31%) patients. Also there was a significant association between the residence and tuberculosis, 77 (77%) patients were living in urban area. Treatment outcome of the patients who registered in Direct Observation Treatment, Short course therapy (DOTS) was successful.


Article
Numerical Derivative Using the Piecewise Uniform Mesh
الاشتقاق العددي باستخدام الشبكات الاعتيادية جزئياً

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In this paper, a technique of a piecewise-uniform meshes formed on an improvement finite difference algorithm for finding derivatives of functions. The purpose was to overcome difficulties which face numerical derivatives of functions with stiff formula, the main idea is that the formula includes some terms that can lead to rapid variation in the graph of the functions, which have recently been named singular layers in numerical analysis. The fundamental numerical difficulty is related to non-physical oscillations of the solution (instability) when the formula of the function dominates over the formula of its derivatives, this is a characteristic of many fluid flow problems. The use of Shishkin mesh to find derivatives of arbitrary degree and order is the novelty of this paper. The method was applied to find derivatives of some examples until third order and the results were compared with a previous study, mentioned in the paper, to derive the functions numerically.


Article
A New Security Method for the Internet of Things Based on Ciphering and Deciphering Algorithms
طريقة جديدة لأمن إنترنت الأشياء المستندة إلى خوارزميات التشفير وفك التشفير

Authors: Ali Ayid Ahmad علي عايد احمد
Pages: 154-174
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Abstract

Internet of Things (IoT) is an advanced application scenario of Internet and becomes buzzword in current world of distributed application platform. Security is one of the biggest challenges to the private and sensitive data processed through the IoT. In this research paper a cryptographic algorithm technique is being proposed to provide more security of information flowing through the distributed network under IoT system The proposed cryptographic algorithm is capable of providing the enhanced security of data and information from the sensor or Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) sub systems of IoT to communication network such as Internet to cloud storage. The main features of this proposed algorithm is the simplicity, adaptability under distributed applications and its ability to encrypt and decrypt all types of data.


Article
Geomatics Study of Suspended Sediments in Selected Samples of Tigris River Between Sarafiya Bridge and Alshuhadaa Bridge, Baghda-IRAQ
دراسة الجيوماتيكية للترسبات العالقة في نماذج مختارة من نهر دجلة ما بين جسر الصرافية وجسر الشهداء، بغداد-العراق.

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The geomatics study is one of the techniques used in the geochemistry to improve and determine the chromatic anomalies using geographic information system(GIS), and to apply statistical analysis to identify the quality of elements and chemical compounds that affect the color change implications. Therefore, the present study involves a geometical study of the chemical elements (Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Co, Ni, Cd, As, Cr, Tl, Zn, Cu) in 9 suspended sediment samples that were collected along Tigris River between the Sarrafiya bridge and Shuhadaa bridge(Baghdad) and were analyzed byInductively Couple Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS).The elements (Pb, Cu, Zn) showed a strong positive relationship (r> 0.90) with colors (red, green and blue), indicating the contribution of these elements in giving light colors to the color reflections of the studied samples which possess high concentrations of these elements. The elements (Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Ti, Co, Ni, Cd) have a negative correlation with these colors, indicating the contribution of these elements to the dark coloration of the reflections of thesewater suspended sediments.


Article
Application of Magnetic Method in Shallow Investigation for Parts of ( Tall Arab-Kumbet ) Archaeological site / Southern Kirkuk City.
تطبيق الطريقة المغناطيسية في الاعماق الضحلة للتحري عن أجزاء من موقع (تل عرب كومبت) الآثاري/جنوبي مدينة كركوك.

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In this study a survey for the archaeological area of Tall-Arab (Kombat) has been done by magnetic method using ( MCL-2 microcomputer magnetometer ) which can measure the vertical component of the magnetic field. The studied area is located in Hay Al-Wasti which is located at about 15 km to the south of Kirkuk center. It covers about 1320 m2, with dimensions ( 120 * 110 )m. In the beginning a reconnaissance magnetic survey has done in order to choose the convenient measuring altitude of the sensor and the suitable station–spacing. Measurement were taken from 50 cm height above ground surface, with 10 m. station – spacing. The observed magnetic reading were corrected for the daily changing of earth magnetic field, while the normal correction was neglected because the space of the area is small and terrain correction was not applied because the area is nearly flat and sedimentary. Then a vertical field magnetic map was drawn from the corrected data. Many samples of archaeological bricks and soil were collected from the study to measure their magnetic susceptibility using the instrument ( SM-30 ). The magnetic data treated by applying different methods such as the graphical and the polynomial analyses for regional– residual separation. The qualitative and quantitative interpretation has done on the magnetic field map by using different limited ways and the central anomalies have been identified on the remaining and vertical magnetic field map. The quantitative interpretation has done using the fore ward modeling of chosen traverses by the program ( Mag2dc ). The qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that the negative anomaly are a result of the existence of canals, trenches or graves (cellars). Positive, linear-elongated anomaly reflect the existence of extended archaeological walls that have been built from mud or backed clay. Positive, circular or quasi-circular anomaly represent a base foundation for construction, which may have been destroyed or disintegrated by influence of weathering or other factors


Article
Measuring the Effectiveness of Glucose-6-Phosphatase Dehydrogenase G6PD and Compare it with Some Variables Biochemical in Blood Tests in Children with Macular Degeneration
تقدير فعالية أنزيم كلوكوز –6– فوسفيت دي هايدروجينيز G6PD ومقارنتها ببعض المتغيرات الكيمو حيوية في دم الاطفال المصابين بداء الباقلاء

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The study includes measuring of some blood variables, measuring the level of the effectiveness of the enzyme G6PD quantitatively and studying the different relations between them in the blood of children with the disease of the rest of the children's hospital in Kirkuk in the center of Kirkuk province. The study includes (60) children age group (1-10) years (46) males and (14) female, in addition to (30) healthy children of the same age group as control group (21) male and (9) female. The results show a significant decrease in the level of efficacy of G6PD in children with bacillus disease compared to healthy (2.75 ± 5.04) IU / G at the probability level (P00.01). The healthy people reach (1.5 ± 12.49) IU The results show that children with G6PD deficiency have significantly lower levels (1P00.0) in Hb, RBC, and PCV, with a concentration of 1.40 ± 0.30 g / 100 ml, 1012 * (1.03 ± 3.77) for each liter, (8.36 ± 31.08%), respectively, whereas in the healthy, the concentration is 1.5 ± 12.49 (IU / g), 1.22 ± 12.23 g / 100 ml, 1012 * (0.445 ± 4.476) per liter, (3.66 ± 35.90%), respectively. (P = .01) in the white blood cell count as compared to healthy patients, with a level of 109 (3.96 ± 10.63) per liter. In the healthy, it is 109 * (2.3 ± 8.88) L.


Article
The Evaluation of the Environmental Pollution of the Soil and Water of the Al-Mushreq Sulfur Company Before and After Production Stoppage in 2003 Mosul-Iraq.
تقييم التلوث البيئي لتربة ومياه الشركة العامة لكبريت المشراق قبل وبعد توقف الانتاج عام 2003 موصل-العراق.

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The study deals with the study of environmental conditions and the evaluation of soil pollution and sulfur water in Mashreq sulfur mine area before and after the cessation of sulfur extraction in 2003. This is done by comparing the results of hydrochemical analyzes of the water samples taken from the Tigris River and the water wells and soil samples taken from the Mashraq and its surroundings, Extraction and productivity on the characteristics of surface soil in the company's public through the results of hydroochemical analysis of water samples taken in 2007 and previous years with 2017 and its resistance before and after extraction stopped. The main source of pollution is the injection of hot technological water at 140 ° C in the field. The main recipient of these pollutants as hot water and sulfuric means is the Tigris River and the hydrogeological fact of the area. The soil and soil resources were particularly important depending on their use. The extent of soil contamination was measured by the relative coefficient of Erichment Factor. EF< 2 was found to be the result of natural and not human activities due to the rocky natural nature of the area. The ecological hazard factor and Pollution load index are within the permissible limits and there is no industrial impact on the region. This indicates that the pollution is effective in the case of the company's business. In case of stopping it as it is now, there is no effect of pollution.


Article
The Effect of Heat Treatments on the Corrosion Rate of Hypo-eutectoid Steel in the Water and Salt Environments
تأثير المعاملات الحرارية على مقاومة التأكل للصلب تحت اليوتكتويدي في أوساط ملحية ومائية

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The aim of this work is to study the effect of three types of heat treatments (Annealing-Quenching-Tempering) on the Hypo-eutectoid steel corrosion rate in water and salt solutions. The results showed that the maximum corrosion rate was registered for the steel samples treated by quenching in both solutions, and minimum corrosion rate for tempered samples, while the corrosion rate of annealed steel samples was between them. It was found also the corrosion rate of all samples were exposed to salt solution was greater than that in water solution. The results showed also that the corrosion rate of all samples decrease with increasing the time of exposing to the corrosion media. This is because the corrosion product which form the isolation film protect the metal from further corrosion.


Article
Study of Some Blood Criteria in Mice Infected with the Parasites that Causes Diarrhea (Giardia lambalia ,Entamoebahistolytica)
دراسة بعض معايير الدم في الفئران المصابة بالطفيليات المسببةللاسهال (Giardia lambalia,Entamoebahistolytica )

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This research aimed to studying the pathological effects of intestinal parasite Entanebahistolytica& Giardia lamblia on the Hemoglobin concentration and number of WBCs in the albino mice by measuring the concentration Hb and number of WBCs after oral adminstratier of the parasites and various concentrations of (1000, 10,000.100000) and periods fixed time (week, two weeks, a month, two months) It was the follow-up changes that occur in different concentrations of these parasites, this study shows increase in the number of WBCs and decrease in the Hb.


Article
Geochemical and Tectonic Setting of Trachyte rock withinAvromanCarbonite Formation, Zagros Suture Zone,Kurdistan Region/ Northeastern Iraq.
جيوكيمائية و تكتونية صخور التراخايتضمن تكوين هورمانالكاربوناتي، نطاق التحام الزاكروس،إقليم كردستان/شمالي شرق العراق

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Trachyte extrusion rocks exposed as dyke cutting Avroman carbonate formation that is part of northwestern Zagros suture zone.Petrographical study combined with EMPA study reveals that these trachyte rock composed of essentially Plagioclase and Clinopyroxene minerals with occurrence of some accessory minerals such as Ileminete and Magnetite. Secondary minerals of Zeolite facies (Analcime) and Serpentine minerals are present as result of alteration and serpentinization process. The whole rock geochemical indicates that these rocks are poor in silica and rich in calcium content. Upper continental crust indicate that these elements are depleted in Large ion lithophil element(LILE) and enrich in high field strength element(HFSE). Chondrite normalized rare earth elements are characterized by enrichment in light rare earth element(LREE) relative to heavyrare earth element(HREE). Geochemical data indicate that these rocks were generated from on enriched (OIB) mantle source formedWithin Plate (WIP).


Article
The Effect of Dehydration and Shefaleer Herbicide Spraying Date to Control Some Weeds
تأثير التعطيش وموعد رش االشيفالير في مكافحة بعض الادغال

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The study conducted to know the effect of dehydration on Raphanusrapnanistrumgrowth as broad leaf weed and wild barely as leaf weed addition to study the effect of Shefaleer herbicide as integrated with three dehydration periods which included 3,6 and 9 days besides control treatment and two stages of spraying herbicide. The results showed that the Shefaleer herbicide had highefficiency in Raphanusrapnaistm-n control but this herbicide didn’t show any effect on wild barely. The results also indicated that the plant exo exposures to dehydration periods caused significantly in creates of amine acid content and cytoplasmic membrane signal damage so the results also showed significantly in creases of propene amino acid content and cytoplasmic membrane signal damage so the results also showed significantly decreases in chlorophyll total content according that in treatment control.


Article
Effect of Working Hours on The Physical - Chemical Properties of Hydraulic Oil For Agricultural Tractors
تأثير ساعات العمل على الخواص الفيزيائية – الكيميائية لزيت الهيدروليك للساحبات الزراعية

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The experiment was carried out on tractors type KOTI model 2013 belongs to North Oil Company/Kirkuk to study the effect of operating time at several levels: 100, 500, 1000, 10000 and 15000 hours of work in some hydraulic oil properties In the tractors. These properties included: oil density, kinetic viscosity, viscosity index, water content for oil, flash point, volumetric ratio of sediment, ratio of solids - ash content, spill point, acidity. The data were analyzed using CRD design with 3 replicates for all time factor levels. The results showed that the hydraulic oil density decreased by increasing working hours and reached 0.834 g/cm3 at 15000 working hours. The less kinetic density of hydraulic oil SWE20 Appeared at 100 Co, as started to collapse gradually by increasing working hours until it reached a minimum level for it 4.92 cts at 15000 Hour, while the least viscosity index reached to 121 at 15000 hours of work despite its declining, The moisture content was nil ppm, which is the best ratio of oils used to lubricate the hydraulic system. The increasing of working hours showed stability in the flash point at 170 Co for the oil, The results indicated an increase in the percentage of sediment by increasing working hours by 0.079% at 15000 working hours, The ratio of solids and ash content increased with increasing working hours which is reached 0.328% at 15,000 hours. The results showed that the oil doesn't affected by increasing working hours and kept its spillage values low and stable at extent –30 Co. While the acidity increased by increasing working hours and the minimum value for acidity reached to 1.78 mg KOH/g oil at 100 working hours, In addition, the machines that works permanently within gas pollution zones led to increase the acidity in hydraulic oil and that affected to the all of the properties of hydraulic oil.


Article
Synthesis and Identification of some (pyrazole, pyridine-2-one, indazole and isoquinol-3-one) Compounds which derived from Chalcone and Evaluation of their Antibacterial
تحضير وتشخيص بعض من مركبات (البيرازول والبريدين-2-أون والايندازول و الايزوكوينولين-3-اون) المعوضة والمشتقة من مركبات الجالكون وتقييم فعاليتها البايالوجية

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In this study, some of (pyrazole, pyridine-2-one, indazole and isoquinol-3-one), compounds have been prepared which derived from the chalcone compounds. The chalcone compounds have been prepared by reaction of cyclohexanone with substituted benzaldehyde (1-5)and with cinnamaldehyde(6,7) and acetanilide with terephthalaldehyde(8-13) in base medium, the resulting chalcones reacted with succinohydrazide using ethanol as a solvent to produce substituted pyrazole (14-17) and using DMSO as a solvent to produce indazole (22-28). also the chalcones reacted with substituted acetanalide using benzene as a solvent to produce pyridine-2-one (18-21) in base medium and using methanol as a solvent to produce substituted isoquinol-3-one (22-35). The prepared compounds were characterized using physical methods, the precise analysis of elements (C.H.N), infrared IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity were evaluated of these compounds also.


Article
Geochemical distribution of Cadmium in geological formation (Miocene- Pliocene)Outcropped in Jambur area , Kirkuk Government /Northern IRAQ
التوزيع الجيوكيميائي للكادميوم في التكوينات الجيولوجية (المايوسين- البلايوسين) والمنكشفةفي منطقة جمبور، محافظة كركوك/شمالي العراق.

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The study deals with geochemical distribution of cadmium ion in some geological formations outcropped, in Kirkuk area, Northern Iraq. Fifteen samples were taken from Fatha (Middle Miocene), Injana (Upper Miocene), Mukdadiya (Upper Miocene-Pliocene) Formation (5) samples from each formation were collected. Induced coupled plasma (ICP-MS) method used to measure the Cd ion concentration and other elements. Analysis done at Vancouver labs in Canada. Cadmium (Cd) ion concentration in Fatha, Injana and Mukdadiya formations are 0.117, 0.149 and 0.194 ppm respectively, which is below that internationally reported value except the pebbly sand unit of Mukdadiya Formation which have values above the international recorded.


Article
Strengthening and Rehabilitation of Ziwani Minaret in Mosul City Depending on Site Testing and Advanced Structural Analysis
تدعيم وإعادةتأهيلمنارة الزيواني في مدينة الموصل بالاعتماد على فحوصات موقعيه وتحليل انشائي متقدم

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Abstract

Abstract Research on the maintenance, protection and restoration of monuments in the northern Iraq city of Mosul, a tedious, lengthy and complex due to the many milestones and development of methods and approaches on the subject if we take all the parameters with the lengthy statement problems needed a more specialized work team and needs a long time. Different work in maintenance and repair of buildings according to their financial ability, artistic, cultural and heritage in all its aspects, there is the need for maintenance of that heritage as an expression of respect for the past and care to continue the dialogue with him because that is linked to the past with the present and looking to the future prosperous, sophisticated, and there was seen a negative heritage and considers it a sign of backwardness of the past and the need to get rid of it, this has caused the destruction of many monuments, in many Muslim countries. Deep foundations were identified carrying the base of the minaret and determine the impact of the foundations in terms of physical, chemical and mechanical result of age and exposure to the boundary conditions. As well as conducting a general survey and measuring the deviation of the Minaret and determine the areas affected as a result and the structural analysis and identification of weaknesses that had caused the collapse of a minaret has also been conducting Necessary tests and study the nature of the materials used in creating the minaret and the vulnerability of these materials by external circumstances and study of mechanical properties. As is the work of steel supporters inside the minaret with a suitable metal sections depending "on structural analysis to be installed to the steel sections are embedded in the base of the Minaret using materials such as epoxy bond Linking to an external Datum being installed after a minaret by choosing a section of supporter.


Article
Determination of the Bulk Etch Rate of the Nuclear Track Detector LR-115
إيجاد معدل القشط العام لكاشف الأثر النووي LR-115

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Abstract

The present paper aims to determine the bulk etch rate (VB) of the nuclear track detector LR115 type  using the track "length-diameter" (Le-D) measurement method. The detector was irradiated with energies 1.8, 2.47, 3.29 and 3.95 MeV of alpha particles under normal incidence. A 1Ci241Am source emits alpha particles with the main energy of 5.485 MeV was used in irradiation of the detector. The energies less than the main value are obtained by changing the source to detector distance in air at atmospheric pressure. The alpha-irradiated detectors were etched with a 2.5 N of NaOH solution at temperature 50±1oC, and then the track diameters were measured. Using an alternative method presented by Al-Nia'emi and the D-Le calibration method, the track lengths were determined from the directly measured track diameters for different etching times according to the energies of the alpha particles. It was found that the average value of VB was 1.1 m.h-1, which is not extremely dependent on the alpha particle energies. The result was compared to values recorded by other studies using different methods of measurement.

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