Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

Loading...
Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:59 issue:3B

Article
Effect of Discharged Industrial Water from Tannery Plants in Nahrawan on Groundwater and Brick Quarries Soil

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The discharged water from tannery plants is main source for pollution of soil and groundwater, especially in Nahrawan area. Water samples is collected from 10 sites of wells, discharged water and from using water in different levels of tannery and 7 soil samples from different sites inside factories area and outside it. The results shown that pH for samples of wells and discharged water were within allowable limits between 6.5- 8.5, except the value of pH recorded in the discharged water sample (after the addition of calcium hydroxide) was 12.8, as well as reached the highest value of total dissolved salts (TDS) 7800 ppm in same samples. It also reached its highest value of electrical conductivity (EC) 8200 μS/cm. The results showed that most samples of discharged water recorded high values of turbidity reached to 557 NTU, while the lowest values recorded in water wells and water sample of Nahrawan village. The samples of discharged water was contained high concentration of relatively heavy elements (Pb and Ni), while not sensing concentration of (Cd and Cr), especially for non-use of chromium in the tanning process because of the lack of economic viability by the owners of the factories. The results of analysis of heavy elements in the soil samples to the concentration of Pb in the samples were all within the limits of Iraqi standard was 50-300 ppm. The results indicated that the highest concentration of Ni recorded in samples of soil in the east and south-eastern tanneries exceeding the Iraqi standard concentration of Ni in the soil the amount of 30-75 ppm, while the concentration of Ni in other soil samples was within the limits of the Iraqi standard, while not sensing by concentration of (Cd and Cr) in these samples.


Article
Synthesis, Identification, Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Carbon Steel Corrosion Inhibition in Sea Water by Some New Diazine Derivatives linked to 5-Nitro Isatin Moiety

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research includes synthesis of new 5-Nitro isatin derivatives starting from 5-nitro-3-(imino acetohydrazide)-2-oxo indole (1) namely 5-nitro-3-[iminoaceto(tetra hydropyridazin-3,6-dione)-2-yl]-2-oxo indole (2); 5-nitro-3-[iminoaceto(hexahydrodiazepine-3,7-dione)-2-yl]-2-oxo indole (3); 5-nitro-3-[iminoaceto (1,2-dihydro pyridiazin-3,6-dione)-2-yl]-2-oxo indole (4); 5-nitro-3-[iminoaceto (8-nitro- 1,2-dihydrophtalazin-3,10-dione)-2-yl]-2-oxo indole (5) and 5-nitro-3-[iminoaceto (1,2-dihydrophtalazin-3,10-dione)-2-yl]-2-oxo indole (6). The derivatives were characterized using FTIR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and C.H.N.S analysis with the measurement of some physical properties. Quantum mechanical method of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) of B3LYP with a level of 6-311++G (2d, 2p) were used to calculate the geometrical structure, physical properties and inhibition efficiency parameters, were at the equilibrium geometry in four media (vacuum, DMSO, EtOH and H2O). The theoretical results showed that compound (3) was the best corrosion inhibitor among the others. Finally, the corrosion inhibition, kinetics, and thermodynamics studies of the prepared compound (3) for carbon-steel in sea water had been conducted using the potentiodynamic polarization procedure, while the surface changes of the carbon steel were studied using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) techniques.


Article
Using local Iraqi Bacillus isolate to reduce water salinity

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Microbial desalination cell (MDC) has been created for expelling water saltiness, power generation, and wastewater administration. The MDC comprised of three chambers (anode, center desalination, and cathode).Were tested ability of type locally isolated bacteria Bacillus spp.in produce electricity to water desalination. In recent study results showed that a remove where the salinity recorded 4000 ppm at room temperature at the voltages of 0.6 volts and less salinity at room temperature at 0.2 volts was 200 ppm. Recent results highlight the need to reduce time for reduce salinity decreased from 3500 ppm to 500 ppm the eleventh day at a voltage of 0.5 volts that depended on type of substrate.


Article
Effect of Anti Diuretic Hormon (ADH) in Kidney Function on Post Hemodialysis End Stage Renal Failure Disease (ESRD) Iraqi Patients

Authors: Tiba. A. Kh. Al-Taiee --- Nawal. M.J Al-Shammaa
Pages: 1372-1377
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Chronic renal disease (CRD) is a patho-physiologic process with multiple etiologies, resulting in the inexorable attrition of Nephron number and function and frequently leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In turn, ESRD represents a clinical state or condition in which there has been an irreversible loss of endogenous renal function, of a degree sufficient to render the patient permanently dependent upon renal replacement therapy (dialysis of transplantation) in order to avoid life threatening uremia. The current study was applied on 80 patients, the age range within 25-70 years, selected sample of patients who attend Iraqi center of kidney dialysis, Baghdad Teaching Hospital and Al-Yarmok Teaching Hospital . All the patients body mass index [BMI] were measured. Serum anti diuretic hormone ADH was assessed using enzyme linked immunosorbent kit [Elisa], and urea, creatinine, albumin, hemoglobin were determined by spectrophotometer (PD-303), and sodium, potassium, chloride were determined by Electrolyte analyzer. The study patients were divided into two groups : GA include the healthy subjects as a control and GB include the post dialysis ESRD patients . The results showed a highly significant increase in ADH , Urea and Creatinine levels in GB when compared with the control and highly significant decrease in albumin and hemoglobin levels in GB when compared with the control. Non -significant decrease in sodium and potassium levels in GB when compared with the control, while highly significant increase in chloride level in GB when compared with the control.

Keywords


Article
Investigation the Relationship between Spermatogenesis and the Levels of Some Hormones in a Sample of Infertile Iraqi Males with Azoospermia and Oligospermia

Authors: Hussein Ali Nayyfe --- Mustafa Calapoglu --- Ismail Ozmen
Pages: 1378-1386
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the levels of antiMullerian hormone (AMH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosteron, luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) as markers of spermatogenesis between fertile and infertile males. This study was conducted at (AlRamadi Teaching Hospital for maternity and children) and included 136 males partners of infertile couples. Samples were classified according to the WHO criteria of semen analysis into three groups; Azoospermia, Oligospermia, and normal(control). Assay levels of these hormones were made in the serum and the semen of each sample. The results showed that the level of AMH in serum samples was non-significantly decreased (P>0.05) in both Azoospermia and Oligospermia groups compared to control (6.74±3.21 ng/ml and 6.01±0.25 ng/ml vs. 12.81±7.69 ng/ml). While FSH and LH levels, there were non-significantly(P > 0.05) increased in both azoospermia and Oligospermia compared to control (FSH: 12.11±8.14 mIU/ml and 7.22±6.06 mIU/mlvs.3.14±1.27 mIU/ml; LH: 10.04±7.23 mIU/ml and 7.62±3.30 mIU/ml vs.5.57±2.03mIU/ml).In addition, there were non- significant differences (P> 0.05) of testosterone hormone level among the studied groups. Such, there was a non-significant decreased level of E2 (P> 0.05) in both Azoospermia and Oligospermiagroups compared to control (170.49±37.57 ng/ml and 137.20±53.92 ng/ml vs. 194.91±41.66 ng/ml).İn contrast to semen samples, the results of AMH showed a significant (P< 0.05) decreased level in both Azoospermia and Oligospermia compared to control (8.24±4.17 ng/ml and 8.85±4.79 ng/ml vs. 13.33±0.77 ng/ml). FSH level was non-significant (P> 0.05) increased in Azoospermia and Oligospermia compared to control (3.97±1.91 mIU/ml and 4.09±2.50 mIU/ml vs. 2.47±1.29 mIU/ml). Such, there were non-significant (P> 0.05) increased levels of LH and testosterone hormones in both Azoospermia and control compared to Oligospermia (9.35±6.02 mIU/ml and 5.99±4.43 mIU/ml vs. 4.06±2.82 mIU/ml), and significant (P< 0.05) increased level of E2 in both Azoospermia and Oligospermia compared to control (241.36±35.32 ng/ml and 220.86±48.96 ng/ml vs. 170.71±73.52 ng/ml).The study concluded that the AMH, FSH and E2 hormones levels in serum and semen samples may have been associated with the sperm production and may be a good marker for spermatogenesis, as well as Sertoli cell development. In addition, the age played a critical role in the level of the studied hormones.

Keywords

spermatogenesis --- Azoospermia --- Oligospermia --- AMH --- FSH --- LH --- Testosterone --- E2 --- sex hormones.


Article
Study the Effect of Some Methanolic and Aqueous Traditional Plants Extracts on Probiotic Bacteria

Authors: Sura A. Al-ani --- Ayyad W. Al-Shahwany
Pages: 1396-1408
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Probiotics mean live microorganisms that have beneficial effects on their host’s health. The purpose of this study was to compare aqueous, methanolic of some traditional plant extracts on the viability of dietary probiotic supplementation [a dietary probiotic (Protexin)]. Also, this study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of various extracts concentrations from 1.25 to 100 mg/ml of Rosmarinus officinal, Glycyrchiza glabra, Hibiscus sabdriffo, Curcuma longa, Citrus auratifolia swingle, Cinnamomum zeylancium, Urtica dioica, Thymus vulgaris, Punica grantum and Zingiber officinal on activities of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus thermophillus by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was used as experimental design. Means were compared according to L.S.D. values at 5% significant level. The result appeared that methanolic extract gave high significant effect on bacteria compared with aquatic extracts which may be due to the highly acidity. Depending on phytochemical screening, the highest concentration of the total identified phenols and Flavonoids were (35.63 and 13.53 %) for R. officinus methanolic extracts. Based on the results of this study R. officinus and C. auratifolia methanolic extracts had the lowest MIC 6.25 mg/ml against probiotic bacteria than the other tested extracts. Taken together, evidence gathered in the present study indicates that Z. Officinale, G. glabra, T. vulgaris and U. dioica aquatics extracts can be more safely in treatment of digestive diseases. More study most conducted to evaluate the pH for the traditional plants extracts to guarantee their useful uses in treatment of digestive diseases

Keywords

Methanolic --- Traditional plants --- Probiotic --- pH


Article
Sedimentology and Basin Development of the Middle Miocene Succession in the Zurbatiya Area, Eastern Iraq

Authors: Maysoon Omar --- Thamer Abaas Al-Shamary
Pages: 1409-1418
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study is focused upon the sedimentology and basin development of the Jeribe and Fatha Formations by using the field observations and microfacies analysis. The area of study situated in the Zurbatiyah area to the south of the Shur sharin valley about 21 km northeast of Badrah city to the southeast of Baghdad. This area lies within the Zagros foreland basin, and located between the Zagros mountains at the northeastern and the Arabian shield at the southeastern. The studied succession which including the Jeribe and Fatha Formations were deposited within four associated facies for the Jeribe Formation and three for the Fatha Formation, as shown below: - Jeribe Formation includes dolomitized mudstone-wackstone (semi restricted); Milliolid wackestone-packstone (shallow open marine), Dolomitic packstone (lagoon). Fatha Formation includes pelecypods bioclastic wackestone-packestone (lagoon); peloidal bioclastic packstone (lagoon); massive gypsum (evaporitic lagoon); laminated gypsum (supratidal and evaporitic lagoon) The facies analysis for the studied succession showing two stages of deposition:- The first stage is represented the final transgression stage in the studied area. The fall sea level gradationally appeared by shallowing up-ward and more dolomitized upward from the middle part of the Jeribe Formation. The second stage the deposition was started when the first beds gypsum and anhydrite is appeared for the Fatha Formation refer to the restricted and supratidal environment. The uplifted of the eastern and northeastern parts of Iraq generate a tectonic depositional ridge to the west and northwestern resulted in the formation of restricted basins and regional regression in the Arabian plate.

Keywords


Article
Calculation of Pollution Indicators and Health Hazards of Heavy Elements in Surface Soils in Samarra City

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The current study focuses on the assessment of pollution indicators and health risks of heavy elements in the surface soil of Samarra City. Twelve soil sample collected from different sites in Samarra City, analysis of soil sample to find the heavy metals concentrations which As, Br, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, Zn, Zr, U, B, Cd, Hg, Th, Ce, La, Th, B, Ba .The results are compared with limit of world standard (12). The higher values which refer to pollution in heavy metal are Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Zr, Cd due to industry activity and Hg higher concentration because of Pharmaceutical Industries and Medical Waste . The high concentration in V, Br, Mo, Se, As because of agriculture activity. The enrichment factor calculated for the purpose of calculating saturation coefficient and treatment, analysis and conversion of the values of raw concentrations and the creation of the local background of Iraq. The most of the results are less than five ,but few value are greater than five indicating the anthropogenic input of these elements in soil in Samarra City which are Co, Mo, U in S2 because of agriculture activity and using fertilizer. Mo , Sn in S2 because of highly building activity. Cu, Mo, Zn in S5 Because industrial and motor oil spill. Uranium in S2, S4 and S11 because military activity. Contamination factor (CF) and the value of the pollutant load index are less than 4 that’s mean sites are polluted medium to high. After applying the health risk assessment model, the risk value for each non-carcinogenic heavy element is found to be less than 4 and for all three exposure methods (ingestion, skin contact and inhalation), in terms of carcinogenic components, the average daily dose (LADD) ) And compared to slope coefficient (SF) collected from previous studies. Equations are applied to find less than 0.0001 which is indicative of the occurrence of cariogenic diseases that may affect people exposed to soil. The risk of soil or dust ingestion is more insecure in the area of activity in the effect of cobalt and manganese than on adults, and chromium has an effect on adults at a high level. HI value of inhalation that’s effect on adults and children revel the most hazardous heavy elements is Mn, Cr, Co for adults and children. HI value of dermal absorption the most hazard element Cr, Hg , Ce for adults and children which exposed to the soil. Swallow soil effect on children and adults. Especially chromium and mercury, which in turn affect the health exposed to the ingestion of polluted soil.

Keywords


Article
Seismic Facies Analysis for Lithofacies Prediction, Okam Field of Niger Delta, Nigeria

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Seismic facies analysis constrained with well log information have been used to predict lithofacies distribution across the Okam Field of Niger Delta. Density and gamma ray logs were cross-plotted and the seismic section was subdivided vertically into different seismic facies. The delineated lithologies, from well logs were correlated with seismic facies signatures using lines of intersection across the wells. Gamma ray and resistivity logs were used to identify the interfaces between the lithofacies and correlated across the field. Structural interpretation was carried out. Time slices were generated and examined at different intervals within the identified reservoirs. Stratigraphic related attribute and envelope were extracted on these time slices. Three seismic facies type (facies A, B and C) were identified based on reflection amplitude, reflection patterns and continuity. Seismic facies A represents the undisturbed sediments in the Uppermost Benin Formation (parallel continuous, moderate to high reflections). Seismic facies B corresponds to the sand-shale pairs of the Agbada Formation which is diagnostic of moderate to high amplitude subparallel-parallel discontinuous reflections. The chaotic seismic facies signature (facies C) beneath this represents the overpressured mobile deformed Akata shales. The time slices show lateral variation in amplitude from high amplitude continuous reflections to low amplitude chaotic reflections from the southwest to northeast direction of the field. The extracted stratigraphic related attribute and envelope show lateral changes in amplitude from the northeast direction depicting increase in shaliness towards the northeast direction. The lateral variation in lithofacies across the field suggest varied and spatial changes in key reservoir parameters such as porosity and permeability that suggest changes in reservoir qualities across the field.

Keywords


Article
Seismic Data Processing of Subba Oil Field in South Iraq

Authors: Nawal A. Al-Ridha --- Zahraa Sh. Jassim
Pages: 1441-1449
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Evaluation study was conducted for seismic interpretation using two-dimensional seismic data for Subba oil field, which is located in the southern Iraq. The Subba oil field was discovered in 1973 through the results of the seismic surveys and the digging of the first exploratory well SU-1 in 1975 to the south of the Subba oil field. The entire length of the field is 35 km and its width is about 10 km. The Subba oil field contains 15 wells most of them distributed in the central of the field. This study is dealing with the field data and how to process it for the purpose of interpretation; the processes included conversion of field data format, compensation of lost data and noise disposal, as well as the application of normal moveout correction for the purpose of improving the quality of seismic sections, using Omiga software at the processing department/ Petroleum Exploration Company. After processing RMS velocity map was done also constructed from the processing data and showed a low velocity compatibility north of the study area and an increase in velocity to the south of the oil field.

Keywords


Article
Best Approximation in Modular Spaces By Type of Nonexpansive Maps

Authors: Salwa Salman Abed --- Nadia Jasim Mohammed
Pages: 1450-1452
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper presents results about the existence of best approximations via nonexpansive type maps defined on modular spaces.


Article
Cubic arcs in the projective plane over a finite field of order 16

Authors: Najm A. M. AL-Seraji --- Hamza L. M. Ajaj
Pages: 1453-1479
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The main aims purpose of this study is to find the stabilizer groups of a cubic curves over a finite field of order 16, also studying the properties of their groups, and then constructing all different cubic curves, and known which one of them is complete or not. The arcs of degree 2 which are embedding into a cubic curves of even size have been constructed.


Article
Symmetrical Fibonacci and Lucas Wave Solutions for Some Nonlinear Equations in Higher Dimensions

Authors: M. Allami --- A. S. Rashid --- A. K. Mutashar
Pages: 1480-1489
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

We consider some nonlinear partial differential equations in higher dimensions, the negative order of the Calogero-Bogoyavelnskii-Schiff (nCBS) equationin (2+1) dimensions, the combined of the Calogero-Bogoyavelnskii-Schiff equation and the negative order of the Calogero-Bogoyavelnskii-Schiff equation (CBS-nCBS) in (2+1) dimensions, and two models of the negative order Korteweg de Vries (nKdV) equations in (3+1) dimensions. We show that these equations can be reduced to the same class of ordinary differential equations via wave reduction variable. Solutions in terms of symmetrical Fibonacci and Lucas functions are presented by implementation of the modified Kudryashov method.


Article
Construct a New System as a Combining Function for the LFSR in the Stream Cipher Systems Using Multiplicative Cyclic Group

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, we construct a new mathematical system as Multiplicative Cyclic Group (MCG), called a New Digital Algebraic Generator (NDAG) Unit, which would generate digital sequences with good statistical properties. This new Unit can be considered as a new basic unit of stream ciphers. A (NDAG) system can be constructed from collection of (NDAG) units using a Boolean function as a combining function of the system. This system could be used in cryptography as like as Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) unit. This unit is basic component of a stream cipher system.


Article
Image Feature Extraction and Selection

Authors: Abdul Amir Abdullah Karim --- Rafal Ali Sameer
Pages: 1501-1508
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Features are the description of the image contents which could be corner, blob or edge. Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) extraction and description patent algorithm used widely in computer vision, it is fragmented to four main stages. This paper introduces image feature extraction using SIFT and chooses the most descriptive features among them by blurring image using Gaussian function and implementing Otsu segmentation algorithm on image, then applying Scale-Invariant Feature Transform feature extraction algorithm on segmented portions. On the other hand the SIFT feature extraction algorithm preceded by gray image normalization and binary thresholding as another preprocessing step. SIFT is a strong algorithm and gives more accurate results but when system require increasing speed, it is better to select distinctive features and use them in description process. The experimental results show clearly reduction of features extracted using SIFT algorithm on segmented parts and the algorithm of feature extraction from normalized binary image gives better results for feature localization as shown in experimental images.

Keywords

SIFT --- Otsu --- Feature selection.


Article
Enhancement of Principal Component Analysis using Gaussian Blur Filter

Authors: Yossra Hussein Ali --- Reem Akil Medhat
Pages: 1509-1517
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Characteristic evolving is most serious move that deal with image discrimination. It makes the content of images as ideal as possible. Gaussian blur filter used to eliminate noise and add purity to images. Principal component analysis algorithm is a straightforward and active method to evolve feature vector and to minimize the dimensionality of data set, this paper proposed using the Gaussian blur filter to eliminate noise of images and improve the PCA for feature extraction. The traditional PCA result as total average of recall and precision are (93% ,97%) and for the improved PCA average recall and precision are (98% ,100%), this show that the improved PCA is more effective in recall and precision.

Keywords


Article
Towards Generating Robust Key Based on Neural Networks and Chaos Theory

Authors: Abeer Tariq Maolood --- Ala'a Talib Khudhair
Pages: 1518-1530
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

There are large numbers of weakness in the generated keys of security algorithms. This paper includes a new algorithm to generate key of 5120 bits for a new proposed cryptography algorithm for 10 rounds that combine neural networks and chaos theory (1D logistic map). Two methods of neural networks (NN) are employed as Adaline and Hopfield and the results are combined through several sequential operation. Carefully integrating high quality random number generators from neural networks and chaos theory to obtain suitable key for randomness and complexity.

Keywords


Article
Quality of Experience Metric of Streaming Video: A survey

Authors: Rana Fareed Ghani --- Amal Sufiuh Ajrash
Pages: 1531-1537
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Technological development in the last years leads to increase the access speed in the internet networks that allow a huge number of users watching videos online. Video streaming important type in the real-time video sessions and one of the most popular applications in networking systems. The Quality of Service (QoS) techniques give us indicate to the effect of multimedia traffic on the network performance, but this techniques do not reflect the user perception. Using QoS and Quality of Experience (QoE) together can give guarantee to the distribution of video content according to video content characteristics and the user experience . To measure the users’ perception of the quality we use Quality of Experience (QoE) metric . Here , in complete we display what the QoE and QoS mean and what the difference between them, list the techniques used to measured them ; then we display a study of the literature on different tools and measurement methodologies that have been proposed to measure or predict the QoE of video streaming services.


Article
Analytical Study of Medical Image Combination Techniques

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Image combination is a technique that fuses two or more medical images taken with different conditions or imaging devices into a single image contain complete information. In this study relied on mathematical, statistical and spatial techniques, to fuse MRI images that captured horizontal and vertical times (T1, T2), and applied a method of supervised classification based on the minimum distance before and after combination process, then examine the quality of the resulting image based on the statistical standards resulting from the analysis of edge analysis, showing the results to identify the best techniques adopted in combination process, determine the exact details in each class and between classes.

Keywords

combination --- MRI --- contrast

Table of content: volume: issue: