Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology

المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية

ISSN: 18154794
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Institute of genetic Engineering and Techno-biology
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology was founded in 2001 ,it was first issued in 2002,it is a semi-annual refereed scientific journal issued by the Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Baghdad University in fields of biology, environment, agricultural sciences ,medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine and researches specialized in bioinformatics

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Contact info

E-mail:journal@ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq
www.iqjb.net
www.ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq : موقع المعهدعلى شبكة
الإنترنت
TEL:7789300
Baghdad-AL-Jadriyah -p.o.box:12074

Table of content: 2018 volume:17 issue:2

Article
Integrating Date Palm Biotechnology with community, A Review

Authors: Kadhim Mohammad Ibrahim
Pages: 1-12
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Abstract

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) tree is one of the oldest cultivated fruit trees in many regions in Asia and Africa particularly Mesopotamia. The tree has sustained and associated with many human cultures as a source for food, wood, furniture besides the high nutritional value of fruits. The tee has been and still plays a vital role in mitigating harsh environments in the regions where date palm groves are already established. The proposed review focuses on entire utilization of date palm biotechnology in improving the environment, enrichment of flora and fauna diversity, flourishing the tourism, and other aspects of human life. Biotechnology has been integrated almost in all human aspects including the full usefulness of manipulating date palm tree. Widespread of date groves certainly will encourage the biodiversity enriching the ecosystem with a variety of fauna and flora including birds, butterflies, insects, other plant species, and soil microorganisms. Industry based on date palm pruning remains will also flourish the biofuel production. In the last decades, the advances in horticultural and technological practices have been reflected on the date industry shifting into modern agricultural systems. Although, implementation of this progress in some date palm countries is still a slow process. Major challenges are post-harvest and mechanization technologies that are so crucial for building rural


Article
Characterization and immobilization of purified polyphenol oxidase extracted from banana peel

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Abstract

This study was undertaken to obtain a crude extract of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from banana peel in addition to purification and characterization to determining the optimal temperature, pH, the storage periods , number of used times and dyes decolrization. A partial purified polyphenol oxidase from banana peel was immobilized by agarose and Calcium Alginates. The entrapment of PPO by the Calcium alginate showed the best method for the immobilization. The immobilized and free PPO enzyme properties were studied. The results of study showed the optimal pH of free and immobilized PPO enzyme activities from banana peel were 7.0; the optimal pH of free PPO enzyme stability ranged from 6.0 - 7.0. The optimal pH of immobilized PPO enzyme stability ranged between7 - 8. The optimal temperatures of free and immobilized PPO activity extracted from banana peel were 35ᴼC and the free enzyme was stabilized in temperature 35 ᵒC then the enzyme activity began to decrease and it was lost at 60ᵒC; the immobilized enzyme remained stable in temperature ranged 35-55 ᵒC. The immobilized PPO activity which incubated for more times with catechol decreased after ninth time of using, the experiment showed that the activity of immobilized enzyme decreased with long storage period. The neutral red, acridine and toluidine were decolorized and showed a change in their absorbance values after the immobilized PPO incubate for a time while no analysis occurred for other dyes.


Article
Association of c.1298A>C Variation in Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase Gene with Neural Tube Defects: Case-Control study in Syrian population

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Abstract

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common multifactorial congenital disorders worldwide. Some genetic variations in Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene were shown to be associated with NTDs. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate the effect of c.1298A>C variation on NTDs risk in a cohort of Syrian population. The study consisted of 262 individuals distributed into two groups; the first group involved 72 isolated NTDs-cases and 86 healthy controls, the second group included 30 mothers of NTDs-offspring as cases and 74 mothers with no previous family history of NTDs or any other birth defects, as controls. No significant association was found between the c.1298A>C variant and the risk of NTDs. However, a significant association was found in both over-dominant and heterozygous co-dominant genetic models, in maternal c.1298A>C variation suggesting a risk factor for having NTDs by more than 2-fold. Furthermore, our data point out to a possible interaction between maternal-fetal genotypes and nutritional factors in inducing NTDs. Our findings strongly emphasize the leading role of maternal genotype in determining the pregnancy outcomes. Awareness is needed in our society to the importance of adequate diet and taking nutritional supplements before and during pregnancy. This is the first study on NTDs and their etiology in Syria, further studies are needed.


Article
The Relationship between Human Papilloma virus (HPV) infection and Gene Expression of miRNA-744, BCL-2, CASPASE-3 genes Associated with Cervical Cancer in Iraqi Patients

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Abstract

: Most types of HPV are harmless and some types are high risk and can cause cervical cancer or abnormal cells in the lining of the cervix that sometimes turn into cancer. A total number of 90 subjects (70 Iraqi patients with cervical dysplasia (abnormalities) and 20 apparently healthy women) were included in this study. The patients and healthy were aged between 25-55 years. The molecular detection in our study showed that 30 of patients were positive to HPV and 40 patients were negative to virus compared to negative results in healthy women. The most common genotypes is HPV-16. Also multiple infections of HPV-HR were observed in the infected women. The correlation between gene expression, histopathology and HPV virus showed a significant increase of folding values of the genes mi-RNA744 and caspase-3 parallel to decrease of folding value of the gene Bcl-2 which indicated that the apoptosis rate was increased with the histopathology grade where the highest level of expression of the genes was in carcinoma. The results also revealed that mi-RNA744 could be up regulator of the gene caspase-3 and down regulator of the gene Bcl-2.


Article
First Report of Entecavir and Tenofovir Resistance in Iraq for Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

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Abstract

The primary goal of therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is to prevent liver disease progression. In patients with drug-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV), a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV), which is strongest combination therapy against HBV. However, long-term tolerance data are lacking, and cost may be an issue for combination therapies. Several, well-designed, randomized controlled trials have shown that TDF monotherapy provides similar antiviral efficacy compared with the combination of TDF and ETV. Mutations in the polymerase (Pol) gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are often associated with drug resistance. The pattern of mutations varies geographically, thus giving rise to infection to HBV diversity. This study was carried out to detect mutations in Pol gene of hepatitis B virus isolated from CHB Iraqi patients. Selected 20 CHB patients who's had highly viral load after treatment course (6 months) were analyzed by PCR and sequencing, also S202GCI mutation was most frequently detected 9/20 (45%) and followed by M204V/I/S (40%), L180M (35%), M250V/I/L and A181T/V (30%), T184SCGA, N236T and A194T (25%), T184ILFM (10%). T184SCGA, T184ILFM, S202GCI and M250V/I/L mutations association with Entecavir resistance, A194T mutation association with Tenofovir resistance and L180M, A181T/V, M204V/I/S and N236T mutations association with multi –drug resistance.

Keywords

Pol --- CHB --- HBV --- Tenofovir .


Article
The relationship between levels of osteocalcin, calcium, vitamin K and vitamin D in sera of patients with bone fractures compared to apparently healthy control

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Abstract

The production of osteocalcin is stimulated by 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D and depends on vitamin K. Vitamin K increases the carboxylation of osteocalcin, but it does not increase its overall rate of synthesis. Although its function is not completely understood, osteocalcin may exist as a deposition site for hydroxyapatite crystals. It may also affect energy metabolism via the production and action of insulin. The present study aimed at measuring serum levels of osteocalcin, calcium, vitamin k and vitamin D in sera of patients complaining from different types of fractures compared to levels in apparently healthy controls. Serum osteocalcin was within normal limits in patients and controls. Serum calcium generally lower than normal, vitamin D was lower than normal and vitamin K was within normal limits. The results indicated the importance of measurement of vitamin D and serum calcium in patients with fracture.


Article
Histopathological Study of Different VLM Stages of Toxocara canis Infection in Liver of Rabbits

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Abstract

Toxocariasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Toxocara canis nematode emberyonated egg which is usually transmitted to humans mainly in children via the faecal–oral route, or accidently ingested larvae from uncooked liver or meat of infected ruminants and poultry. T. canis larvae remains a problem throughout the world because it remains on arrested stage without development to adult stage and causes multisystem disease in the paratenic hosts such as humans, ruminants, poultry and rodents, most infections are asymptomatic and manifests in humans causing the well-characterized syndrome; Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM). The result of this study indicated detection of T. canis larval stage in liver tissues of infected rabbits at third week post infection. In conclusion the result indicated the possibility of using histopathological examination to diagnosis if there was an infection with T. canis larval stage in paratenic host tissues. It was also recommend that this test could be used to ensure that meat and its products of any local or imported are free from this infection.


Article
Role of leukemia inhibitory factor(LIF) gene variation on implantation rate following IVF program in PCOS and non PCOS women

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Abstract

Implantation of the blastocysts into the maternal uterus is a crucial step in mammalian reproduction, which is controlled by a number of complex molecules like hormones, cytokines, and growth factors and their cross talk. A network of these molecules plays a crucial role in preparing receptive endometrial and blastocysts. This study aimed to found out the role of Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) , gene expression, concentration and genetic polymorphisms in the endometrial that may interfere with implantation process of polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) and non-PCOS women. A convenient blood (6ml)sample of 80 infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) program were intentionally divided according to the cause of infertility into 40 healthy women their husbands complaining from male infertility factors, and 40 infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Leukemia inhibitory factor( LIFs) were measured on ovulatory and luteal phase of cycle (CD14-CD16,17) at the day of ovarian pickup and embryo transfer by using quantitive polymerase chain reaction(qPCR ), Elisa technique ,polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and sequencing to determine any genetics polymorphisms in LIFgene study. Results of the present study indicate that no mutation was detected in LIF gene in the healthy and PCOS women. The LIF gene expression in addition to levels of serum leukemia inhibitory factors are more valuable in predicting the pregnancy out come in infertile PCOS women than in non-PCOS women .This result can be utilized to be used as predictors of implantation window for successful implantation and pregnancy.


Article
Evaluation of lipid profile among Iraqi patients with the Breast Cancer

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Abstract

Breast cancer is most common cancer among women worldwide. In this study, the association between serum concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides( TG|), low density lipoproteins (LDL), high density lipoproteins (HDL),( VLDL) very low density lipoproteins and breast cancer has been investigated. These case control study include three groups: thirty women with breast cancer and fifteen healthy women as control group. Serum lipids: cholesterol,( LDL),( HDL) and (VLDL) were analyzed in all subjects of study using conventional method. The results of this study showed that there was a significant increase in the rate of the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins( LDL),( VLDL) very low density lipoproteins in the work group when compared with control (P=0.028, P=0.017, P=0.024 and P=0.033) respectively, except high density lipoproteins (HDL). We conclude that high concentration of cholesterol, triglyceride, (LDL), and (VLDL) may be associated with breast cancer.

Keywords

: Lipid profile --- Breast cancer --- TG --- HDL --- VLDL .


Article
Genetic Polymorphisms SNP (rs5925) of LDLR Gene Associated with Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Iraqi Patients

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Abstract

The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) allele status is the predominant hypercholesterolemia genetic risk factor. Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human LDLR gene receptors represent an excellent nominee for association with hypercholesterolemia. So, a common SNP ( c.1959T>C ; p.Val653Val , exon 13 , rs5925) in LDLR gene was studied using Real-Time PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques to show association between LDLR SNP with Familial hypercholesterolemia . Seventy of Familial hypercholesterolemia patients who were clinically diagnosed by physician and 30 apparently healthy individuals were conducted within this study. Blood samples were collected from all subjects after 12-14 hour fasting. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and analyzed for rs5925 SNP in LDLR gene with specific primers and probes using Real-Time PCR technique. Also, genomic DNA was amplified by conventional PCR with specific primers for detection of this SNP using PCR-RFLP technique. Using two methods in identification of rs5925 SNP for LDLR gene in this study come in different performance success percentage of the methods. Where, the Real-Time PCR gave 100% performance success for all subjects, while PCR-RFLP gene gave only 64% performance success for FH patients and 70% for control group. On the other hand, when the two methods were success to be done they gave fairly close results. In Real-Time PCR and PCR-RFLP, FH patients appeared CC homozygous genotype and TC heterozygous genotype significantly higher than in control group while the control group showed significantly increasing in TT homozygous when compared with FH patients. In comparison of the allele frequencies of C and T of LDLR gene, FH patients showed that the variable allele C was higher than T allele within this group. This association may be observed between allele polymorphism and risk of FH.


Article
Role of SOX4 gene in the progression of endometrial hyperplasia to endometrial adenocarcinoma

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the role of SOX4 gene in progression of endometrial hyperplasia to endometrial adenocarcinoma .A total of 41 Iraqi patients with abnormal uterine bleeding followed by hysterectomy. Histological findings recorded 36 cases with endometrial hyperplasia and 5 endometrium adenocarcenoma. Cases collected during the period from February 2017 to October 2017. Curettage techniques were used to obtain a ten samples as healthy control group. All cases were obtained from Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital in Wasit Province . Endometrial hyperplasia subjects distributed according to age, the highest percentage ranged (40-50)years recorded (58.33%). To evaluate the SOX4 gene expression, total RNAs were extracted with TRIzol from each sample then directly converted to cDNA. RT-PCR technique was used to estimate the SOX4 gene expression and (GAPDH gene used as a reference gene). The results revealed that there was a highly significant increase (p<0.01) in SOX4 gene expression in endometrium adenocarcenoma (9.24±0.52) followed by endometrial hyperplasia (6.14±0.17) when compared to the healthy control group (1±0.00).In conclusion, endometrial hyperplasia can be a precursor of endometrium adenocarcenoma when the SOX4 gene expression elevated gradually.


Article
Isolation and Detection of Cronobacter sakazakii from Infant Dried Milk using PCR and RT-PCR techniques

Authors: Doaa M. Jebur , Zainab H. Abood
Pages: 91-99
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Abstract

The present study is an attempt for detection of Cronobacter sakazakii by conventional PCR methods using species-specific primers and to detect the gene expression of thermotolerance gene (Tt gene) as virulence factor. 105 samples of powdered infant formula (PIF) and infant's food were collected from Baghdad Governorate and Mesan Governorate markets from November 2016 to June 2017. The samples were cultured on the selective media including Enterobacter sakazakii Isolation Agar(ESIA) and trypton soy agar(TSA). Sixty eight (64.76%) isolates appeared with yellow pigment colonies when cultured on TSA and gave bluish - green colonies on chromogenic media (ESIA). After the growth of bacteria, isolates were identified by microscopic examination and biochemical tests. The identification of C. sakazakii confirmed that twenty one isolates identified as C. sakazakii and the others identified as Enterobacter spp. by using systems API 20E and VITEK2 systems. In addition, a molecular identification has been done by PCR technology utilizing 16S Rrna gene. The results showed that 42(61.76%) from 68 isolates were identified as C. sakazakii and 26(38.24%) were Enterobacter spp. The isolated Enterobacter spp include E. cloacae ssp. Cloacae, E. cloacae ssp. dissolvens, E. hormaechei and E . kobei, E. ludwigii .

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