Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology

المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية

ISSN: 18154794
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Institute of genetic Engineering and Techno-biology
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology was founded in 2001 ,it was first issued in 2002,it is a semi-annual refereed scientific journal issued by the Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Baghdad University in fields of biology, environment, agricultural sciences ,medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine and researches specialized in bioinformatics

Loading...
Contact info

E-mail:journal@ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq
www.iqjb.net
www.ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq : موقع المعهدعلى شبكة
الإنترنت
TEL:7789300
Baghdad-AL-Jadriyah -p.o.box:12074

Table of content: 2017 volume:16 issue:3

Article
Cytogenetic studies of the drug methotrexate (MTX) on the blood lymphocytes of colon cancer patients .

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of study is to investigate the cytogenetic parameters in order to define the effect of methotrexate (MTX) on blood lymphocytes, manifested by blast index (BI), mitotic index (MI), replicative index (RI), and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). The results showed significant reduction in BI and MI and RI indices with MTX concentrations (0.0, 0.2 ,0.5 ,1, 2, 4, 8, µg/ml) in comparison with the control. The results of BI showed significant reduction according to increasing of concentration. Of the drug in colon cancer patients, it gave 28.6 %, 18.6 %, 14.5%, 10.4%, 6.8 % , 6.7 %, 3.3% respectively. The results of (MI ) gave 3.6 %, 2.3%, 1.6%, 0.18%, 0.22%, 0.0%, 0.0 % respectively. The values of (RI(, gave 0.72% at zero concentration and 0.44% at concentration of 0.2µg/ml of M% TX and 0.27 % at concentration of 0.5µg/ml. On the other hand the SCE showed increases in the SCEs frequency in colon cancer samples in MTX concentration (0.0, 0.2, 0.5, µg/ml) which gave 8.47, 10.41, 10.49. respectively. The SCEs in the high concentration of drug (1,2,4,8 µg/ml) cannot be detected due to its toxicity of the drug. The mutation fraction increased in colon cancer patient which gave 9 at 0.2 µg/ml, and 15.72 at 0.5 µg/ml and 4.1 in 1 µg/ml. The conclusion demonstrated decreasing in (MI), (BI) and (RI) and increasing in the SCEs frequencies and mutation fraction in colon cancer patients in comparison with the control. The presence of mutant cells in lymphocytes of colon cancer that resistant to MTX, gave an idea about amplification in DHFR gene that regulate the activity of DHFR enzyme and also indicated the resistance of cancer cells to drugs.


Article
Detection of BRCAII genetic variations in Iraqi breast cancer patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Presently breast cancer is the most common cancers in females. As BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes play a critical role in the DNA repair of double-strand breaks, the preponderance of the hereditary forms of breast cancer are caused by mutations in the these genes , therefore females with a family history of breast cancer should make frequent genetic follow-up . Genetic variants with unclear clinical significance may appear a diagnostic challenge when performing a targeted risk. In this study, exon 14 of BRCA2 gene was targeted for genetic variables identification in the group of some female Iraqi breast cancer patients using High Resolution Melting (HRM). For our knowing, this is the first time to use this technique for this purpose on Iraqi DNA breast cancer samples. DNA samples were obtained from 36 female Iraqi breast cancer patients (mean age 50.5+9.85) and 10 age-matched apparently health controls. Pre-approval was obtained from all subjects. Thirty five (97.22%) of breast cancer patients were harbouring gene mutations on exon 14 of BRCA2 gene, all were missense. The thirty five (97.22%) of patients were with (t.7397T>C.V2466A) mutation, while a novel missense mutation (a, 7387 A>g.N2463D) was recorded in 22(61.11%) of patients. This study recommend to include larger sampling aiming to determine the prevalence of the mutations in the general Iraqi population.

Keywords

Breast cancer --- BRCA2 gene --- Exon 14 --- Mutation.


Article
Study of micronuclei frequency in human lymphocyte of local samples in Eshtar village and Al-Tameem region surrounding at Al-Tuwaitha site

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study aimed to use the biological techniques in a genotoxicity assessment of DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes due to ionizing radiation which include micronuclus assy in peripheral lymphocytes of local samples in Esther Village and Al-Tameem region surrounding at Al-Tuwaitha site. This technique of the most important cellular genetic indicators that depend on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for radiation dose assessment. This number included thirty samples from Eshtar village, aged (18 - 55 years), and thirty samples from Al-Tameem region, aged (18 - 50 years), also the control group, which included twenty samples aged (16 - 58 years) from other regions of Baghdad was studied. The results of the average of micronuclei showed no significant differences (p < 0.05) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of local samples in Eshtar Village and Al-Tameem region surrounding at Al-Tuwaitha site as compared with the control group. In conclusion, the recorded results revealed no significant differences in the rate of MN for population living in the Eshtar village, Al-Tameem region compared with the control groups. Also, the level of micronuclei in binucleated lymphocyte cells of the samples within was normal value according the technical report series No.405, IAEA in 2001.


Article
Prevalence of toxoplasmosis among cancer patients in Thi-Qar province

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is infectious disease that is spread all over the world caused by one of opportunistic parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. The current study was conducted in Thi-Qar province to investigate the parasite Toxoplasma gondii among cancer patients using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent. Assay test and study some of the factors that may affect in the prevalence of infection, such as age, sex and a number of chemical dosing. 100 blood samples were collected from cancer patients from Hussein Teaching Hospital and the Habboubi Hospital for the period from October 2015 to the end of March 2016. Questionnaire was prepared for each person, as well as the collection of 50 blood samples from healthy persons for the purpose of comparison between them with the current study. The results of the current study showed that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Thi-Qar province in cancer patients and a comparison group of 36% and 24% respectively. Recorded results of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA test results for a positive antibody IgG in cancer patients and a comparison, 30% , 22% respectively. As for the IgM antibody study did not record any positive result in cancer patients group while in comparison group was 2%. The ratios antibodies IgG & IgM together in cancer patients and comparison group were 6% ,0.0% respectively.The highest infection rates for cancer patients was in the age group (50-59 years) was 53.85% and the lowest rates of infection in the age group (30-39 years) 14.29% and reported significant differences P <0.05 to infection rates in females highest compared to males where it was 38.59% and 32.55% respectively. For factor chemical dosing showed high infection rates in patients who have been exposed to more than one dose of a chemical 37.63%. As for those who were not exposed to any chemical dose was ratios have 14.29%.


Article
DsDNA-encased single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) biosensor for detecting hydrogen peroxide in biological environment

Authors: Azhar Kamel
Pages: 31-45
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Hydrogen peroxide is a ubiquitous molecule. We exhale it, and take it in from our diet, and excrete it. It plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes. H2O2 is closely related to several human diseases including cancers. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have drawn great interest in chemical and biological optical sensor applications due to their novel near infrared (NIR) optical properties that are extremely sensitive to the surrounding environment. Herein, DsDNA-encased SWNTs for detecting hydrogen peroxide in a biological environment: dsDNA-SWNTs have been used as a bio-probe sensor for optical detection of H2O2 in a blood model matrix (BMM) and serum, It has been found that, 1.7 M thiocyanate ion (SCN-) and 1 mM nitrite ion ( ) have shown the ability to initiate and accelerate the reaction as well as the restoration of suppressed spectral intensity of SWNT. It has been found that, the detection limits (dl) of H2O2 in BMM-1.7 SCN-, BMM-1 mM nitrite ion, and serum were 5.8, 9.4, and 2.9 µM, respectively and thus have the sensitivity required to detect physiological and environmental of H2O2.


Article
Polymorphism variation of l-selectin the pro213ser (rs2229569) in Iraqi Arab patient with type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
Kebaa A.Saeed Asmaa M. S. Al-Mohaidi

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disorder of metabolism and complex disease affected by genetic, environmental factors, and associated with inflammation, occurs when the pancreas either doesn’t make enough insulin or the body doesn’t use the insulin as it should, lead to insulin resistance (IR) along with gradual loss of ß-cell secretory capacity . The aim of this study was to investigate the role of L-selectin gene (P213S) polymorphism in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Study includes seventy six Iraqi Arabs patients (male and female) having newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and fifty three Iraqi Arabs healthy subjects matched in age, sex and ethnic group. Patients and healthy subjects were genotyped, by PCR-RFLP analysis. Genotype spread analysis indicates that P213S is more frequent in the T2DM group (54.0 %), compared with the control group (16.9%). Thus our results suggest L-selectin (P213S) gene play a role in the development of DMT2 in Iraqi Arabs patients.


Article
Study of mutant frequency hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene in human lymphocyte for local samples of Al-Tuwaitha region-Iraq

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this study was determine the genetic damage in human blood lymphocytes for a number of 60 apparently healthy peoples were living Eshtar village and Al -Tameem region, near to the Iraqi Atomic Energy commission using Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutation assay. Samples included 30 peoples from Eshtar village, aged (15-55 years) and 30 peoples from Al-Tameem region, aged (18 - 58 years), and 20 peoples aged (18 - 56 years) from other regions of Baghdad as a control group, was studied. The results of the average mutation frequency for HPRT (Mf-HPRT) gene showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the males and females of human lymphocyte in this region as compared with the control group. In conclusion, the results indicated that there is a possibility of using the changes at the level of HPRT gene mutation as useful biomarkers for the detection of human exposure to radiological and chemical materials.


Article
Prevalence evaluation of Streptococcus pneumoniae in neutropenic cancer patients

Authors: Raed A.H. Shabaa
Pages: 63-69
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that causes both serious invasive infections, such as septicaemia, meningitis and pneumonia, as well as mild upper respiratory infections. It also belongs to the normal nasopharyngeal microbial flora. The majority of cancer patients develop neutropenia, most often due to chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify of pneumococci, among neutropenic cancer patients. A total of 72 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from cancer patients attending Al-Sader Medical City for chemotherapy who were diagnosed as neutropenic, during 6-month study (2016-2017). All swabs were cultured on blood agar plates, 45 α-hemolytic isolates suspected to be pneumococci were identified by phenotypic methods using and identified using colony morphology, catalase, optochin susceptibility bile solubility and API 20 STREP, and a molecular method using PCR. The results of API 20 STREP test alone showed that out of 45 α-hemolytic isolates only 12 (26.6%) were identified as S. pneumoniae. But after combination with the other phenotypic methods which are catalase negative, optochin susceptibility and bile solubility the result was out of 45 α-hemolytic isolates 23 (51.1%) were identified as S. pneumoniae. The results of the PCR test showed that from all the 45 α-hemolytic isolates 25(55.5%) were identified as S. pneumonia.


Article
Assessment of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation in Al-Amal hospital for cancer in Baghdad.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study aims to use the cytogenetic analysis as a biomarkers of professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in Al-amal National Hospital for cancer Management in Baghdad –Iraq, This study was carried out on Thirty Iraqi radiation workers exposed to a low dose of ionizing radiation, included twelve females and eighteen males between the ages of (22-57) years, as well as Twenty apparently healthy individuals collected randomly from population living Baghdad , aged (19 - 55) years which are non-smokers non- alcoholic as control group . The cytogenetic analysis including, chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes, as fragment, ring and dicentric chromosomes also chromatid aberration , Micronuclei MN frequency, nuclear division index and mitotic index were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes for workers and control group. The present study showed significant increase (p<0.05) in the chromosomal aberration for the worker as compared with the control group. Also there were found significant increase (p<0.05) in Micronuclei MN frequency in nucleated lymphocytes and nuclear division index for the worker as compared with the control group. While it was no significant differences in nuclear division index between worker and control group. Also there were found a significant increase (p<0.05) in comet tail length and tail moment values in the human lymphocyte in these radiation worker of studies as compared with the control group. The present study showes that the increase of chromosomal aberration and Micronuclei frequency, in hospital workers due to exposed to a low dose of ionizing radiation than in the controls. In conclusion, the results indicated that there is a possibility of using the changes in the chromosome aberration and micronuclei in human lymphocytes are as a useful as biodosimetric markers for the detection of human exposure to ionizing radiation. Also, the results obtained confirmed usefulness of the alkaline comet assay as a sensitive additional biomarker in the regular health screening of workers occupationally exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. The current results of unstable chromosome aberration within of normal values according of the technical report of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) No. 405, 2001.


Article
The correlation between KRAS mutations and H. pylori in gastric cancer patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most important etiologic factor for gastric cancer ,it is one of the most common human pathogens, which colonizes in the mucus layer of the gastric epithelium in more than 50% of the population. It is the only bacterium that classified as a class I carcinogen by the WHO .The clinical outcomes of H. pylori infection is determine by host genetic predisposition, bacterial virulence factors, and environmental factors. H. pylori can induce chronic inflammation and oxidative stress that provides a permissive environment to DNA damage, this damage can lead to genetic instability and eventually, neoplastic transformation. KRAS is one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human cancers, in particular in pancreatic, colorectal and lung cancers. However, oncogenic mutations of KRAS are infrequent in gastric cancer. Point mutations of the KRAS are found predominantly in adenocarcinomas. Codons 12 and 13 are the most frequently detected mutation “hot spots”, they make the protein resistant to GTP hydrolysis by GTPases, thereby leading to constitutive KRAS activity. The results revealed that no mutations in codons 12 or13 detected in all patient groups, but the sequencing analysis detected other mutations in exon 2. These mutations were found in 7 /20 (35%) patients of HIP-GC group, 5/16(31.25%) patients of HIN-GC group and 4/15(26.7%) patients of the ulcer group.


Article
Interleukin (IL) 17 expression in Iraqi bladder carcinoma Patients

Authors: Hind M. Mousa
Pages: 94-97
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Interleukin (IL- 17) is pro inflammatory cytokines produced by CD4+ T-helper17 (Th17)cell .It has a vital effect on cells of the immune system playing crucial roles in pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases, like-cancers. The current study was designed to detect the protein expression of IL-17 in Iraqi bladder carcinoma patients, and its correlation with clinical grades. Tissue samples were collected from 45 patients with bladder carcinoma. The immunoexpression of IL-17 was detected by using IL-17 monoclonal antibody. The results of Immunohistochemical (IHC) studying showed that tissues with positive (IL-17) expression were low in bladder cancer patients practically in low grades with significant difference, it is concluded that IL-17 expression can be used as indicators for procession in bladder cancer.

Keywords

IL-17 --- Bladder Cancer --- IHC --- Carcinoma .


Article
Influence of multi-drug transporter gene ABCG2 polymorphism (C421A) in clinical out care in some Iraqi chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib mesylate

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In CML patients, Imatinib Mesylate (IM) treatment is a good choice with an excellent efficacy outcome. But unfortunately, a significant obstacle of IM resistance has emerged relating to the genetic polymorphism in drug transporter genes such as ABCG2 which effects the metabolism and pharmacokinetic IM. This study investigate the influence of ABCG2 C421A SNP in IM response among some Iraqi CML Patients (71 patients : 43 Male , 28 Female) aged between ( 20-70 ) years in chronic phase with positive Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, including 11 newly diagnosed , and 60 treated with standard dose IM (400mg) on frontline treatment , 30 of them were IM response and 30 resistance to IM drug , on the other hand 25 apparently healthy individuals were included as control group. After the patients were informed about the details of the research, they were approved to take samples of their blood for study , 3ml of peripheral blood was withdrawn from CML patients and control groups . The frequency of homozygous mutant genotype (AA) of SNPabcg2 C421Awas significant higher in IM resistant CML patients as compared to IM good response CML patients with (O.R=1.309 and p < 0.01) . The SNP abcg2 C421A was found to contribute to the genetic susceptibility of CML when evaluated with healthy control subjects. These reconnoitering results give a reasonable cause to explore such SNPs to be used as a biomarker in prediction the response to IM treatment before getting started.


Article
The role of single nucleotide polymorphism (C/T) of TGF-β1 gene at position -509 in the promoter region in progression of breast cancer among some Iraqi women

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

: Risk of breast cancer incidence among women can influence by many genes polymorphisms that cause different variations in their expression. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has clear role in progression and invasion of breast carcinoma. Specific polymorphic variants in TGF-β1 gene correlate with increased its expression or loss of inhibition. This study was aimed to find out if the single nucleotide polymorphism C/T at position -509 in the promoter region of TGF-β1 gene with its genotypes can be considered as predisposing factors of in 58 Iraqi women with confirmed breast cancer who were admitted to Alsader Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf province. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used to estimate genotyping of TGF-β1 gene polymorphism in the patients and 30 healthy women without any inflammatory disorders or clinical manifestation of any disease (control group). Genotype distributions of SNP (-509 C/T) showed no significant difference (p˃0.05) between patients (CC: n= 45, 77.58%; CT: n=11, 18.96%; TT: n=2, 3.44%) and controls (CC: n= 25, 83.33%; CT: n=5, 16.66%; TT: n=0). That means the SNP C/T in position 509 in the promoter region of TGF-β1 gene plays no significant role in the progression of breast cancer among Iraqi female patients.


Article
Polymorphism in promoters of TLR-2 gene in Iraqi patients with tuberculosis

Authors: Awatif H. Issa , Mazin S. Salman
Pages: 116-121
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Despite the existence of Tuberculosis control programs globally, TB remains one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is one of the greatest challenges, which face health systems in the 21st century. A defect in the genes of the immune response is the most plausible explanation for susceptibility of some individuals and resistance of others to TB. TLR2(CD282) is one of the toll-like receptors and plays a role in the immune system. TLR2 is present on the surface of certain cells and it distinguishes foreign bodies, also it have role in passing of adequate signals to the cells of the immune system. The main goal of this study is to produce molecular analysis for promoter of TLR-2 genes in Iraqi patients with TB. Seventy-four blood specimens were collected from 74 patients in the Institute of the Tuberculosis and Chest Disease–Basra city's, blood specimens also collected from 74 healthy individuals as control. Extracted DNA was amplified using set of specific primers for promoter regions TLR-2 gene; amplified amplicons were sequenced and analyzed. Genotyping of TLR-2 gene promoter revealed that out of 74 found with TB, 38 (51.3%) patients found to possess C allele (T→C), while 36 (48.7%) possessed T allele. C allele presents only in heterozygous state in Iraqi society, and closely correlated with increasing susceptibility of some individuals to TB.


Article
Role of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in human females with breast cancer

Authors: Abbas Sabbar Dakhil
Pages: 122-128
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) contamination has been involved in pathogenesis of numerous forms of carcinomas, which includes gastric most carcinoma nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and bladder most carcinoma. It has been recently linked with cancer of the breast. The aim of this study is to estimating the relationship among Epstein Barr virus encoded minor piece of RNA (EBER) with tumors of the breast. 40 patients with breast cancer had been regained from the Pathology laboratory of AL-Sadder Medical City in Najaf AL-Ashraf Governorate/Iraq. Scientific records were investigated of the medical information and formalin permanent, paraffin implanted tumor tissue have been observed via Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) method to the discovery of the protein of virus EBER. The manifestation of EBER in most breast tissue in this study became 50% (11 from 22), in which tough association became observed amongst the communication from EBER and sufferers with cancer of the breast. Even as not create considerable variances between ISH terms of EBER with kind of cancer, age, lymph node metastasis and grade. Depedned on the outcomes of the present study, Epstein Barr virus performs a prime part in the pathogenesis of most breast cancers.


Article
Effect of vincristine and vinblastine from Vinca rosa on microtubulues of tumor H22 cell line (hepatic cell line)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Vinca alkaloids (Vincristine and Vinblastine) are microtubular toxins of chemically similar nature that disrupt microtubule function by binding to a site on β-tubulin and suppressing microtubule dynamics. The study aims to evaluate biological activity of Vincristine and Vinblastine on microtubule H22 cell line using GF tubulin. Stable tumor cell line of H22 cell was used to investigate the action of vincristine and vinblastine on the microtubule network. An experimental work was conducted to determine the biological activity of vincristine and vinblastine on microtubule H22 cell line by used GF tubulin. Cells were treated with Vincristine and Vinblastine at various concentrations from 20 μg/ml to 400 μg/ml for 60 min.. Microtubules were detected by means of indirect immunofluorescence. No differences were found between the two cytostatics. As a conclusion, the cells showed changes in the arrangement of microtubules even at the 80 μg/ml concentration of cytostatics after 60-min exposition. Its damage increased with increasing concentration of cytostatics.


Article
Vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression and polymorphism C936T in Iraqi patients with ovarian carcinoma

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study aimed to shed light on the association between the angiogenic factor VEGF gene expression and its genetic polymorphism VEGF C936T in the angiogenesis of ovarian cancer. A total of 44 Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from patients with different stages of newly diagnosed ovarian cancer were provided by certain Iraqi hospitals as well as 14 samples of patients with benign ovarian tumors tissues as a control group were used in this study. The results detected that VEGF mRNA in ovarian cancer samples was statistically significant compared to benign tumors(p value=0.039<0.05). The samples were divided into high and low mRNA-expression depending on the mean value of VEGF gene expression in benign tumors which used as a cutoff, the results showed that high statistical significant differences (P value = 0.0023<0.01) between high mRNA-expressing samples 30(76.9%), and low mRNA-expressing samples 9(23.07%). Statistical no significant differences were detected in compare with other histopathology tumor types. In correlation with stages, statistically significant difference was found between 31 (79.4%) of samples with stage I which showed the highest level of expression(P=0.0210<0.05). The result of VEGF C936T polymorphism showed that out of 42 ovarian cancer patients 24(57.14%) were homozygous for the C/C genotype, 11(26.2%) were heterozygous C/T and 7(16.66%) were homozygous T/T. High significant prevalence of the VEGF 936C allele was detected in both ovarian cancer patients (P value 0.0019 <0.01) and benign ovarian tumors (P value 0.0026 <0.01) as compared with VEGF 936T allele. The study showed that the average of VEGF gene expression in ovarian cancer patients carrying the +936CT+TT genotypes (1.815116, 2.298769) was significantly lower than that in ovarian cancer patients with the VEGF+936CC genotype (4.395884). Same results were obtained from patients with benign ovarian tumors. In conclusion the present study investigated that the presence of the VEGF+936 T allele is associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer since the C936T polymorphism has been reported to be associated with lower VEGF plasma levels.


Article
Assessment the impact of zinc and copper on GST, ALP in blood of cancer patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease globally. The absolute risk of breast cancer increases with age for women . Study the role of trace elements in the blood such as (copper and zinc) and biomarkers breast cancer diagnosis such as GST, ALP . had been measured in serum of 60 women with breast disease , divided to :. the first group (A) (30) women benign breast tumors , the second group (B) (30)women breast cancer. Evaluated of serum copper and zinc of breast cancer women was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry , and the level of (GST)(Glatathione – S- transfers) enzyme and ALP(Alkaline phosphates ) enzyme compared with control group. The results showed a significant increase ( p<0.001) in the level of enzyme (Glatathione – S- transfers) and the (Alkaline phosphates)enzyme in serum breast cancer group , while we observed a slight increase ( p<0.01) in benign tumor group compared to the control group. However , there was a significant decrease in the level of the zinc element compared with the control group and a rise in the level of the copper element, which means copper /zinc ratio in patients was higher than in ontrolgroup.


Article
Study the relation of gastric cancer with helicobacter pylori infection among dyspeptic patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main causative agent of gastrointestinal diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer associated disorders, gastric and duodenal carcinomas leading to morbidity and mortality in humans. This research was conducted to study the relation of gastric cancer with H.pylori infections through some invasive methods(Histology, Direct biopsy smear, Biopsy urease test and culture methods). One hundred and twenty five dyspeptic patients were subjected to esophageal gastroduodenoscopy in Baghdad Teaching Hospital/ Endoscopy unit from10/1/2013 to 8/1/2014, gastric biopsy samples were applied for microbiological analysis. The results showed that there was a relationship between H. pylori infection occurrence and endoscopically diagnosed Gastric cancer (3.2%); it was recorded highest H. pylori isolation (45.45%) from gastric ulcer patients followed by (25%) from gastric cancer patients. Histological examination recorded that active gastritis is found to be the most infected case (93.75%) with H. pylori followed by gastric adenocarcinoma (66.66%) gastric lymphoma (50%), so the study recorded a significant association between H .pylori infection and gastric cancer.


Article
Using HPRT gene mutation assay for detection of reasons of thyroid disorders in patients at Al-Zuaaffaranya city

Authors: Mithal Abd Al-Kareem Abd Aon
Pages: 169-176
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Thyroid disorders have a multifactorial etiology, and the right combination of genetic, environmental, and endogenous factors are required for the initiation of the disease process. This study was carried out to evaluate some hormonal and genetic parameters of some Iraqi patients from Al Zuaaffaranya city with thyroid disorders in order to find if the exposure to pollutant have a role in the increasement of this disorders, this study consisted of two parts The first part was conducted on 25 patients21( 84%) of them females and 4(16%) were males suffered from thyroid disorders who have been referred to the Department of Radiation, Nuclear Medicine Hospital in Baghdad and 25 healthy control during the period from March to july2015. The age of patients and healthy individuals ranged between (13-60) years. The results showed that the most frequent thyroid disorders among patients were thyroid non-toxic goiter15:25 (60% )and hyperthyroidism 5:25 (20%) while hypothyroidism4:25 (16%) and thyroid cancer 1:25 (4%) in less frequent. Thyroid hormones thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid stimulating hormone( TSH) levels were determined in all subjects by enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). T3, T4 and TSH level significantly high p≤(0.01), (1.83±0.144nmol/L, 181.2±54.245 nmol/L, 0.38±0.12 μ IU/ml respectively) In Thyroid toxic goiter(TG), T4, T3 level significantly high p≤0.01(78 ±11.57,1.37±0.06)in hypothyroidism group. The second part of the study include the using of HPRT gene mutation assay as useful biomarkers for the detection of organism's exposure to ionizing radiation .The results of the average mutation frequency for HPRT (Mf-HPRT) gene revealed a significant increase (p<0.05) in patients with thyroid disorders comparing with the control group This indicate a possible exposure to pollutant which may be radiation pollution .


Article
Evaluation of diagnostic and prognostic value of mucin (MUC 1) gene expression in breast cancer patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The Mucin 1 (MUC1) is over-expressed in most human epithelial cancers and has gained remarkable attention as an oncogenic molecule. The aim of the present study is detecting the expression levels of the human Mucin 1 (MUC1) mRNAs in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients in comparison with benign and healthy controls as a tool for screening and diagnosis the early stage breast cancers, and estimating the diagnostic and prognostic values of these levels in association with tumor size and lymph node status. The marker was determined in peripheral blood (PB) of 55 patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma and samples from 20 healthy donors, and 10 women with newly diagnosed benign breast tumors were served as control group using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Mucin 1 (MUC1) was detected in 40 (72.73%) of peripheral blood of breast cancer patients studied, 1(10%) of the benign tumors and 2(10%) of healthy individuals. It showed statistically significant relations with size of the tumor, and Lymph node involvement. On the other hand, it was statistically non- significant for age of breast cancer patients. The present study results reflected the possibility of detecting of that gene transcript in normal and benign blood samples as well as the breast cancer samples which in turn reflect the value of MUC1 gene as one of useful tools for discriminating malignant breast tumors from non-malignant ones.


Article
Evaluation of sperm apoptosis in Iraqi severe oligozoospermic patients using annexin-V by flow cytometry

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study was conducted in the institute of genetic engineering and biotechnology – university of Baghdad during a period from 15 September 2015 to 10 February 2016. The aim of this study was to detect the apoptotic alterations in sperm of Iraqi patients with severe oligozoospermia depending on annexin V- binding using flow cytometry¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬ and study its relationship with some semen parameters. Semen samples were taken from severe oligozoospermic (SOS) patients (n=75) and apparently healthy (AH) subjects (fertile, n=25) by masturbation following 3-7 days of sexual abstinences in Baghdad specialist fertility Centre. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO criteria which include volume, count and the percentages of motility, active, normal and abnormal sperm. Sperm apoptosis was determined using annexin V-FITC kit (Aviscera Bioscience, USA) by flow cytometry. The percentages of live sperms were significantly (p≤0.01) higher in AH subjects than in SOS patients. The percentages of early and late apoptotic sperms were significantly (p≤0.01) lower in AH subjects than in SOS patients. Apoptotic index values were significantly (p˂0.01) lower in AH subjects than in SOS patients. Semen volume significantly (p˂0.01) correlated with the percentage of viable sperm (r = 0.76) and inversely correlated (p˂0.01) with the percentages of early and late apoptosis and apoptotic index. Sperm count was inversely correlated (p˂0.01) with the percentages of early and late apoptosis and apoptotic index. sperm motility percentages were inversely correlated (p˂0.01) with the percentages of early and late apoptosis and apoptotic index. The percentages of both active and normal sperm were inversely correlated (p˂0.01) with the percentages of early, late apoptotic and apoptotic index. In conclusion, our results showed that the percentages of apoptotic and necrotic spermatozoa detected by flow cytometry may be used as biomarkers for the detection of fertility.


Article
XRCC1 codon 194 polymorphism in Iraqi population

Authors: Luma A. H. Al Obaidy
Pages: 194-199
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

XRCC1 is one of the DNA repair genes, which play an important role in maintains DNA stability via DNA repair by base excision repair and single strand break, As its acts as a scaffold to other repairing proteins. In this study the polymorphism at the codon 194 had been studied in (202) of Iraqi population, distributed in two groups (106) Arab and (96) Kurdish. The alleles for the 194 codon, were investigates by PCR-RFLP techniques. It's found that (94) represented 88.6% Arab individuals carrying the CC dominant homozygous genotype, while (12) individuals represented 11.4% who carry the CT heterozygous genotype, and no one had the recessive TT genotype. In Kurdish group (94) represented 97.9% individuals had the CC dominant homozygous genotype, while only (2) represented 2.1% had the CT heterozygous genotype, also no one had the recessive TT genotype. The allele frequency for the Arab individuals was 0.9434 for the C which encoding for Arginin and 0.0566 for the T allele which encoding for Tryptophan. In Kurdish individuals the frequency of C allele was 0.99 while the frequency of the T allele was 0.01. These results may indicates that the C allele is the most common allele in Iraqi population in both Arab and Kurdish, and there is a slightly high allele frequency were observed in Kurdish may due intermarriage leading to reduce the recessive allele in the population.


Article
Polymorphisms and haplotypes in multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene and their association with clinical outcome of some Iraqi patients with acute leukemia.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The human multidrug resistance (MDR1, ABCB1) gene encodes P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which affects the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Polymorphisms in ABCB1 might contribute to cancer risk and therapeutic response. Here, we investigated whether common MDR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (C1236T, C3435T, and G2677T/A) and their expressed levels associated with clinical outcome of acute leukemia. Genotyping was performed in 46 patients with acute leukemia (AL) by direct sequencing analysis resulting in a total of 31 AML and 15 ALL cases matched with 10 samples healthy control. There was a high significant difference in the heterozygous haplotype B (CTGTCT) of MDR1 associated with high level of MDR1 mRNA expression (p=0.0017**: 3.21 ± 0.24) in non-responder (NR) patients with AML patients. While a mutant homozygous C (TTT) haplotype was found to be associated in both NR and CR ALL patients (p=0.0428* and 0.0336*) respectively, with high level of MDR1 gene expression (1.14 ± 0.05 and 1.25 ± 0.03). We conclude that B haplotype of MDR1 associated with poor prognosis of AML, while the C mutant haplotype of MDR1 was associated with ALL but there was no significant differences with clinical outcomes.


Article
Effect of physical and chemical mutagenesis on protease production from Aeromonas hydrophila

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Secondary metabolite production from wild strains is very low for economical purpose therefore certain strain improvement strategies are required to achieve hundred times greater yield of metabolites. The present study was conducted for enhanced production of protease from Aeromonas hydrophila A4 by mutagenesis using ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and Mitomycin C (MitC) as mutagens. Results showed that a protease over producer mutant symbol A. hydrophila A4-78 was obtained after mutagenesis with UV irradiation with higher enzyme specific activity ( 47.6 U/mg protein) in comparison to the wild type (30.01U/mg protein). On the other hand another overproducer mutant symbol A. hydrophila A4-127 was obtained after chemical mutagenesis with MitC characterized with high protease production. The enzyme specific activity in its crude filtrate was 38.4 U/mg protein in comparison with the wild type. it could be concluded that physical mutagenesis using UV irradiation was more efficient than the chemical mutagenesis by MitC to enhance the ability of A. hydrophila A4 in protease production.


Article
Isolation and identification of opportunistic fungi from patients with different types of leukemia in Baghdad province

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The study is concern on determine the type of opportunistic fungal spp.in leukemia patients that were infected with many types of opportunistic fungal infections including oral candidiasis as a result to their immune suppression due to their submission to radiation and chemotherapy treatment. From 125 patients who diagnosed with different types of leukemia, 140 samples were collected, 110 samples were positive, and 30 samples were negative. The number of dermatophytes isolates was 21 which represent (19.09%) of the total cases. The number of Candida isolates was 60 which represent (73.17 %) of the total cases. The number of opportunistic fungal isolates was 29 which represent (26.12%) of the total cases. The result showed that the most common isolates were C. guillermondii 19 isolates which represent (31.66 %) of cases, then followed by C. itermedia 11 isolates which represent (18.3 %), C. kyfer 8 isolates which represent (13.3 %), A. niger 17 isolates which represent (58.62 %), A. fumigatus and A. flavus 3 isolates which represent (10.34 %), Penicillium 5 isolates which represent (17.24 %), and Alternaria 1 isolate which represent (3.44 %).


Article
Cytotoxic effect of saponins extracted from Yucca on human breast cell line (HBL-100) in vitro.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxic effects of saponins extracted from Yucca (Yucca gloriosa var. Variegata L) on humane breast cell line (HBL-100) on diffrent exposure time in vitro, by using double dilution series ( concentration between 2.44 – 5000 µg/ ml). The results showed that the cytotoxic effect of saponins dependent on amount of dose and exposure time. The concentration 5000 µg/ml gave higher growth inhibition (IR), were (73,78 and 96) % compared with control 100% after (24,48 and 72) hours respectively from exposure time, all inhibition rate begin decreases with decreases the concentration of saponins. However low concentrations of extract was found to induce the (HBL-100) cells growth and proliferation, it was between (114 to 147)% by treatment with (39.06 to 2.44) µg/ ml after 72 hours. Yucca saponins worked in tow direction ( inhibition and proliferation), this phenomena called (Hormesis).


Article
AZFc deletion assignment in fertile male

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Infertility due to male factor, is considered as a major contributor in the prevalence picture of the infertility in the world. Spermatogenic process & its products are considered the backbone of male fertility. This process is directly related to the genes expression which are located on the long arm of Y-chromosome (Yq). These genes are occupy the three AZF (Azoospermia factors;AZFa,AZFb and AZFc) regions which proved to be a hot spot for deletion mutations. AZFc intervals deletion is the most prominent deletion with less penetrance that ranging from mild oligospermia to moderate oligospermia. To assess AZFc deletion correlation with male fertility status and to evaluate the rate of AZFc deletion within primary fertile males population. Cross sectional study was adopted to select 110 child fathering fertile males who are subjected for conventional infertility investigations and molecular genetic analysis (AZFc deletion). Sixteenth cases (16/110 (14.5%)) shows poor semen parameters (oligospermia) but with normal genetic analysis (no AZFc deletion). one case out of which (1/16 (6.25%)) complaining of secondary infertility. 5 cases (5/110(4.5%)) shows AZFc deletion with variable range of oligospermia. 4(4/5(80%) out of which complaining secondary infertility but with primary fertile status (fathering a child). Conclusion: These results denoting that, AZFc delation mostly associated with spermatogenic failure (oligospermia) but not necessarily with absolute male infertility.


Article
Molecular genetic analysis role in diagnosis of primary amenorrhea patients

Authors: Safaa M. Al-Taei
Pages: 235-239
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Twenty one cases of primary amenorrhea, with poor secondary sexual characters, were studied clinically and genetically to assign SRY gene defect incidence. Different primary amenorrhea categories were diagnosed but only one case shows abnormally positive SRY gene in a 46 XX intersex patient. This case shows defected maleness internal genitalia and variable degree of external genitalia development. However this single case represent an incidence rate of (0.047(4.7%)). Molecular analysis shows accurate and applicable investigation, and recommended to enrolled as a routine investigation in diagnosis of all cases of intersexual risk.


Article
Detection one of DNA repair gene for lung cancer in sample of Iraqi patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The DNA sequence can be changed and damage by environmental agents such as mutagenic chemicals and certain types of radiation. The correction of DNA sequence errors in all types of cells is important for survival. DNA gene repair is an important way to repair this damage. One of DNA repair genes is the Ref-1 gene, However Ref-1 gene like other genes contains mutations which are found in different sites. In present study, whole blood was collected from 20 individuals distributed to two groups:- Ten lung cancer patients from various provinces and both gender and different age groups and Ten volunteers from healthy people as control group. DNA was extracted with ReliaPrep Blood gDNA Miniprep System and the results of Ref-1 by PCR gave positive for all samples. then analysis PCR product of 5 samples (patients and normal ), results compared with sequencing of original Ref-1gene in NCBI showed similarity between sequences of normal samples, while there were differences in the sequences of samples lung cancer patients. Results of sequence analysis Ref-1 showed that were 11 mutation in 5 patients samples with gene Ref-1and show single mutation in some samples .Mutations lead to changes in the genetic code and in amino acids that is important reasons of an increase in the gene expression changes in Ref-1gene.

Keywords

Lung cancer --- Ref-1 gene --- PCR --- NCBI .


Article
The possible cancer risk factor of Helicobacter pylori infections in immunocompromised children

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The frequency of Helicobacter pylori in children with malignancy was evaluate in the present study. Among 51 children included in the study ,29 of them are in malignancy group (79.3% of them having positive one step diagnostic test) ,while 22 children were control group (54.5% of them having positive one step diagnostic test). H.pylori infection was significantly higher in the malignancy group compared to the control group(P<0.05) ; 44.8% having positive culture for H.pylori ,while only 18.2% of control having positive culture for H.pylori. the results showed that there is no significant association between H.pylori and the type of cancer with P > 0.05. And there is a significant association between H.pylori and age more than 5 years with p< 0.05 which is statistically significant among patient groups. results also showed that there is no significant association between H.pylori and sex among both patients and control groups with P> 0.05.


Article
Occurrence of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma among patients in Basrah city

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Oral cancer consider as the sixth common malignant disease (it,s incidence about third in developing countries and eighth in developed countries). Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) account 95% of all oral malignant lesions A few studies have been written in Iraq regarding the incidence of oral cancer.The aim of this study was to identify differences in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients according to age groups ,gender, and location of the tumorin Basrah city.This study included 21 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were clinically diagnosed and then confirmed by histopathological examination. Age, gender, as well as clinical signs and the site of lesions, were recorded.There were 21 new cases of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Basrah from September 2015 to December 2016 , 13 in men and 8 in women. Cancer at all oral sites affected men more than women. The Tongue is the most frequent site.

Table of content: volume: issue: