Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073 25203339
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

AIMS AND SCOPE

The Journal of Engineering is an open access, monthly, refereed, peer-reviewed journal. It focuses on the different disciplines of engineering.

Its scope is to cover almost all the aspects of engineering and technology and their related topics. The Journal of Engineering tries to emphasize on publishing high-quality papers with an acceptable, professional and considerable background.

The submitted papers undergo plagiarism, a double-blind peer review by professionals in the paper specific specialty. This process is accomplished according to the Journal criteria of evaluation, where the manuscript, contents, and organization of the paper are to be checked. The papers will be available online for the readers.

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Contact info

Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:+964 7714076860
Email: info@jcoeng.edu.iq
https://www.jcoeng.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:24 issue:12

Article
Error Investigation for Free Form Surfaces in Bezier Techniques
التحقق من الخطأ لاشكال السطوح الحرة في تقنية بيزر

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Abstract

Surface modeling utilizing Bezier technique is one of the more important tool in computer aided geometric design (CAD). The aim of this work is to design and implement multi-patches Bezier free-form surface. The technique has an effective contribution in technology domains and in ships, aircrafts, and cars industry, moreover for its wide utilization in making the molds. This work is includes the synthesis of these patches in a method that is allow the participation of these control point for the merge of the patches, and the confluence of patches at similar degree sides due to degree variation per patch. The model has been implemented to represent the surface. The interior data of the desired surfaces designed by MATLAB software have been transformed to UG-NX8 software to get the machining process simulation and G-code programs for the model, as well as a virtual machining process has been simulated to show the machining pitfalls, using CIMCO edit software. The sample has been machined using 3-axis vertical CNC machine. Finally, the sample has been measured using (CMM inspection) and it’s found that the average of error (0.144 mm).

Keywords

Bezier --- CNC --- CMM


Article
The Effect of Urban Land Use Changing on Green Area Neighborhoods No. 336 & 338 in Baghdad – Case Study
أثر تغير إستعمالات الأرض الحضرية على المناطق الخضراء محلتي 336 ، 338 في بغداد – حالة دراسية

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Abstract

The role of the green areas lies in being one of the systems that plays the vital role in achieving the environmental dimension besides the socio-cultural body and the economic dimension in the hidden value of ecosystem services. However, many developing countries are characterized by a state of low community environmental awareness, which coincides with the basic need for land for housing and other uses, to take precedence over nature protection strategies. In the absence of clear planning and long-term planning strategies, all this led to abuses and violations of urban land use. In Iraq, the situation became more apparent due to the political, security and social conditions that followed the year 2003. Hence, the research problem of the phenomenon of excesses on the use of green land in the Iraqi cities in general and Baghdad in particular, which led to many bad effects. The aim of the research is to explore the importance of green spaces and the value of biological diversity, and to detect the effects of the phenomenon of continuous abuses. In order to address the problem of research and achieve its objectives, the premise of its content has been developed: Green infrastructure as a hierarchical and interrelated thematic system that can contribute to the production of a basic design of the city that believes in its functions and enhances its role and ensure its sustainability. The study followed an analytical descriptive approach to data collection and vocabulary extraction in relation to green areas, levels and hierarchies, and the extraction of theoretical indicators for the effects of the changes that occurred on them. They were tested in practice in neighboorhoods no. 338, 336 in the city of Baghdad, in the light of a field analysis and survey. The research found a decline in the area of green areas as their ratios do not meet the local and global standards required, especially with the increasing of urban and population density over the past decade. In addition to what the neighborhoods suffer from urban chaos and a severe shortage of infrastructure services. Greenness and its functional and visual role in beautifying the urban landscape can be observed only in the remaining agricultural use, in nurseries and orchards, which are private property that does not include the general population in the use of its functions. Finally, the research presented its vision regarding the treatment of the negative effects that were diagnosed, in light of the strategy to provide green spaces in the random neighbourhoods at multiple levels, starting with the residential clusters, through the streets and roads pedestrians, and ended with the level of neighborhoods.


Article
Studying the Effects of Different Polymers on Rheological Properties of Water Base Muds
دراسة تاثير مختلف البوليمرات على الخواص الريولوجية لسوائل الحفرالمائية القاعدة

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Abstract

This research is focusing on finding more effective polymers that leads to enhance the rheological properties of Water Base Muds. The experiments are done for different types of mud for all substances which are Polyacrylamide, Xanthan gum, CMC (Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose). This study shows the effect of add polymer to red bentonite mud, effect of add polymer to Iraqi bentonite mud, the effect of add bentonite to polymer mud. The mud properties of Iraqi bentonite blank are enhanced after adding the polymers to the blank mix, CMC gives the highest value of plastic viscosity and Gel strength than others; X-anthan gives the highest value of yield point and gel strength than others. For the red bentonite mud, Polyacrylamide has the highest shear stress and yield point than the others polymers, but Xanthan has the highest effect on plastic viscosity than other polymers. All polymers reduce filtration loss. The polymer solution mud failed to suspend the barite so we cannot use it as drilling fluid even so this mud has good Rheological properties (PV and YP). The maximum amount of each polymer is founded for the studied clay types.


Article
Similarity and Difference between Sustainable and Green Architecture (a Comparative Study)
أوجه التقارب والإختلاف بين العمارة المستدامة والعمارة الخضراء (دراسة مقارنة)

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Abstract

The research is concerned with studying the characteristics of Sustainable Architecture and Green Architecture, as a general research methodology related to the specific field of architecture, based on the differentiation between two generic concepts, Sustainability and Greening, to form the framework of the research specific methodology, where both concepts seem to be extremely overlapping for research centers, individuals, and relevant organizations. In this regard, the research tend towards searching their characteristics and to clearly differentiates between the two terms, particularly in architecture, where the research seeks understanding sustainable and green architectures, how they are so close or so far, and the possibility of finding common features between them that might make them as a one synaptic concept. The research problem focuses on that there is no clear differentiation between sustainable and green architectures, what causes a matter of confusion and unclarity in dealing with building projects what affects understanding processes and procedures during the progress of design, construction, and operation, within the whole building life cycle, and this leads to a defect in understanding the formation of building design, construction and operation. The research hypothesis shows that environmental and architectural indicators can form a mechanism to differentiate between sustainable architecture and green architecture. This mechanism depends on several elements that form, together, the hypothesis testing tool, and in turn, this tool will become a method to verify the hypothesis reaching accomplishing the goal of the research (formation of a theoretical framework) that enable to differentiate between sustainable and green architectures. The research methodology depends, also, on the effects of factors like economy, technology, welfare, and else, with focusing on the green growth and sustainable development as distinguished statuses in the two concepts, to reach establishing a comparative study and understanding their developing stages and clarifying the main differences between sustainability and greening, architecture wise, to form the elements of the theoretical framework to differentiate between sustainable architecture and green architecture. The theoretical framework is applied in two environmentally friendly architectural projects (case studies) to search their environmental and architectural features to reveal the availability of the features and characteristics of a sustainable building and a green building in each one of them.

Keywords


Article
Biotreatment of Actual Potato Chips Processing Wastewater with Electricity Generation in Microbial Fuel Cell
المعالجة الحيوية لمياه الصرف الصناعية من معامل انتاج رقائق البطاطا مع توليد الطاقة الكهربائية في خلية الوقود الحيوي

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of treatment actual potato chips processing wastewater in a continuously operated dual chambers microbial fuel cell (MFC) inoculated with anaerobic sludge. The results demonstrated significant removal of COD and suspended solids of more than 99% associated with relatively high generation of current and power densities of 612.5 mW/m3 and 1750 mA/m3, respectively at 100 Ω external resistance.


Article
Thermal Properties of Lead-Acid Battery Plastic Lightweight Concrete
الخصائص الحرارية لبلاستك بطاريات الرصاص الحامضية في أنتاج الخرسانة خفيفة الوزن

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Abstract

This study investigates the possibility of using waste plastic as one of the components of expired lead-acid batteries to produce lightweight concrete. Different percentages of lead-acid battery plastic were used in the production of lightweight concrete. The replacements were (70, 80 and 100%) by volume of the fine and coarse aggregate. Results demonstrated that a reduction of approximately 23.6% to 35% in the wet density was observed when replacement of 70% to 100% of the natural aggregate by lead-acid battery plastic. Also, the compressive strength decreased slightly with the increase in plastic content at different curing ages of 7, 28, 60, 90, 120 days. The lowest value of compressive strength was (20.7 MPa) for (waste plastic =100%) at (120) days test age. The results also revealed that the thermal conductivity decreased by the addition of waste plastic compared to plain concrete and this property is decreased due to an increase in waste proportion.


Article
Comparative Analysis of Various Multicarrier Modulation Techniques for Different Multilevel Converters
مقارنة بين اداء تقنيات التضمين المتعددة النواقل لجميع انواع مغيرات القدرة متعددة المستويات

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Abstract

The applications of Multilevel Converter (MLC) are increased because of the huge demand for clean power; especially these types of converters are compatible with the renewable energy sources. In addition, these new types of converters have the capability of high voltage and high power operation. A Nine-level converter in three modes of implementation; Diode Clamped-MLC (DC-MLC), Capacitor Clamped-MLC (CC-MLC), and the Modular Structured-MLC (MS-MLC) are analyzed and simulated in this paper. Various types of Multicarrier Modulation Techniques (MMTs) (Level shifted (LS), and Phase shifted (PS)) are used for operating the proposed Nine level - MLCs. Matlab/Simulink environment is used for the simulation, extracting, and analysis the results. Finally, a comparison is made between the results for all topologies that are implemented regarding to the criteria of the output voltage waveforms harmonic distortion factor, No. of the necessitated power components, and the complexity of each circuit. Based on simulation results, the MS-MLC is finer as compared to the other types of MLCs. It also observed that the MLCs (with three types) using Phase Opposition Disposition (POD) technique is performed better in terms of getting greater fundamental output voltage and lower THD% as compared to the other techniques.


Article
Performance of Different Concatenated Coding Schemes for CDMA System
تقييم الأداء باستخدام مصحح الأخطاء الأمامي إلى جانب التشفير المتسلسل في نظام النفاذ المتعدد

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Abstract

In this paper different channel coding and interleaving schemes in DS/CDMA system over multipath fading channel were used. Two types of serially concatenated coding were presented. The first one composed of Reed-Solomon as outer code, convolutional code as inner code and the interleaver between the outer and inner codes and the second consist of convolutional code as outer code, interleaved in the middle and differential code as an inner code. Bit error rate performance of different schemes in multipath fading channel was analyzed and compared. Rack receiver was used in DS/CDMA receiver to combine multipath components in order to enhance the signal to noise ratio at the receiver.


Article
The Influence of Clay Bricks Dust Incorporation on the Self-Curing of Cement Mortar
تأثير غبار الطابوق الطيني على الانضاج الذاتي لمونة السمنت

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Abstract

Self- curing is the potential of lightweight aggregate to absorption great amount of water thru mixing which prominently can moves to the paste during hydration process. Self- curing empowers a water to be distributes more evenly act out the cross section. Whereas, the external curing water is only able to penetrate several millimetres into concrete with low water cement ratio. Brick dust accumulates in the demolish site creates serious environmental contamination. This study investigates the effect of brick dust recovered from construction site on the Properties of mortar cured in three curing conditions. Mortar in this study produced using BD as cement additive with (2, 4, 6, and 8) % by weight of cement. BD was used as cement replacement (1, 2, 3, and 4) % by weight of cement. Three curing conditions were experienced in this study to identify whether BD can be used as self- curing agent. Compressive strength, Fresh and hardened density, water absorption, and modulus of rupture were tested. The results of compressive strength and modulus of rupture were decreased when BD used as cement additive and as cement replacement increase. However, they were higher for mortars cured in air conditions than those cured in water and partially water curing. Water absorption, was increased with the increase of (BD) when used as cement additive and replacement. It was indicated BD could be used as self- curing agent and could replace cement at specific ratios which will achieve economical profits and reduce environmental pollution.Self- curing is the potential of lightweight aggregate to absorption great amount of water thru mixing which prominently can moves to the paste during hydration process. Self- curing empowers a water to be distributes more evenly act out the cross section. Whereas, the external curing water is only able to penetrate several millimetres into concrete with low water cement ratio. Brick dust accumulates in the demolish site creates serious environmental contamination. This study investigates the effect of brick dust recovered from construction site on the Properties of mortar cured in three curing conditions. Mortar in this study produced using BD as cement additive with (2, 4, 6, and 8) % by weight of cement. BD was used as cement replacement (1, 2, 3, and 4) % by weight of cement. Three curing conditions were experienced in this study to identify whether BD can be used as self- curing agent. Compressive strength, Fresh and hardened density, water absorption, and modulus of rupture were tested. The results of compressive strength and modulus of rupture were decreased when BD used as cement additive and as cement replacement increase. However, they were higher for mortars cured in air conditions than those cured in water and partially water curing. Water absorption, was increased with the increase of (BD) when used as cement additive and replacement. It was indicated BD could be used as self- curing agent and could replace cement at specific ratios which will achieve economical profits and reduce environmental pollution.Self- curing is the potential of lightweight aggregate to absorption great amount of water thru mixing which prominently can moves to the paste during hydration process. Self- curing empowers a water to be distributes more evenly act out the cross section. Whereas, the external curing water is only able to penetrate several millimetres into concrete with low water cement ratio. Brick dust accumulates in the demolish site creates serious environmental contamination. This study investigates the effect of brick dust recovered from construction site on the Properties of mortar cured in three curing conditions. Mortar in this study produced using BD as cement additive with (2, 4, 6, and 8) % by weight of cement. BD was used as cement replacement (1, 2, 3, and 4) % by weight of cement. Three curing conditions were experienced in this study to identify whether BD can be used as self- curing agent. Compressive strength, Fresh and hardened density, water absorption, and modulus of rupture were tested. The results of compressive strength and modulus of rupture were decreased when BD used as cement additive and as cement replacement increase. However, they were higher for mortars cured in air conditions than those cured in water and partially water curing. Water absorption, was increased with the increase of (BD) when used as cement additive and replacement. It was indicated BD could be used as self- curing agent and could replace cement at specific ratios which will achieve economical profits and reduce environmental pollution.Self- curing is the potential of lightweight aggregate to absorption great amount of water thru mixing which prominently can moves to the paste during hydration process. Self- curing empowers a water to be distributes more evenly act out the cross section. Whereas, the external curing water is only able to penetrate several millimetres into concrete with low water cement ratio. Brick dust accumulates in the demolish site creates serious environmental contamination. This study investigates the effect of brick dust recovered from construction site on the Properties of mortar cured in three curing conditions. Mortar in this study produced using BD as cement additive with (2, 4, 6, and 8) % by weight of cement. BD was used as cement replacement (1, 2, 3, and 4) % by weight of cement. Three curing conditions were experienced in this study to identify whether BD can be used as self- curing agent. Compressive strength, Fresh and hardened density, water absorption, and modulus of rupture were tested. The results of compressive strength and modulus of rupture were decreased when BD used as cement additive and as cement replacement increase. However, they were higher for mortars cured in air conditions than those cured in water and partially water curing. Water absorption, was increased with the increase of (BD) when used as cement additive and replacement. It was indicated BD could be used as self- curing agent and could replace cement at specific ratios which will achieve economical profits and reduce environmental pollution.


Article
Variable Structure Control Design for a Magnetic Levitation System
تصميم مسيطر ذو هيكل متغير لنظام الرفع المغناطيسي

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Abstract

In this paper the variable structure control theory is utilized to derive a discontinuous controller to the magnetic levitation system. The magnetic levitation system model is considered uncertain, which subjected to the uncertainty in system parameters, also it is open-loop unstable and strongly nonlinear. The proposed variable structure control to magnetic levitation system is proved, and the area of attraction is determined. Additionally, the chattering, which induced due to the discontinuity in control law, is attenuated by using a non-smooth approximate. With this approximation the resulted controller is a continuous variable structure controller with a determined steady state error according to the selected control parameters. Finally the ability and the effectiveness of the proposed continuous variable structure controller to the magnetic levitation system are verified via numerical simulations. When state initiated inside the area of attraction, the results show that the ball position can be directed to follow various desired positions, with steady state error not exceeding0.1mm.

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