Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2017(60) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2018 volume:15 issue:4

Article
Evaluation of the Ecosystem Services of the Central Marsh in Southern Iraq
تقييم خدمات النظم الايكولوجية في الاهوار الوسطى جنوبي العراق

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Abstract

Ecosystems provide humans with services that include benefits from food, fresh water, climate regulation, and socio-economic assets. The Mesopotamian marshlands are among the largest wetlands in the Middle East and they provide various benefits. However, ecosystem services of the Marshlands are consistently undervalued in national economic analysis and decision making. This study focusses on the Central Marshes, the first National Park in Iraq, and is the first attempt at valuing a series of ecosystem services from a valuable natural ecosystem in Iraq. We adopted the Toolkit for Ecosystem Services Site-Based Assessment (TESSA) for the determination of biophysical and economic values of services at the site level. Data on key ecosystem services (as determined by 30 interviews with residents of the Marshes) included the trading of fish, harvested plants, water buffalo milk, and fodder were collected across six months in 2014. We valued the ecosystem services within the CM (40,000 ha) over a 6-month period to have a total value of 860,078.23 USD. This estimated total value was the sum of 86,637.25 USD from harvested plants, 551,334.80 USD from trading fish, 167, 303.70 USD from trading water buffalo milk, and 54,804.00 USD from trading fodder. The average income per individual in Iraq in 2014 was 6720 USD (World Bank data - https://data.worldbank.org/country/iraq): thus, the CM provided an average salary for 256 people. Our results provided greater understanding of the ecosystem services contributed by the Central Marshes and has highlighted the crucial role of nature in supporting sustainable well-being for humans living in the area. In addition, the results can be used to enhance local policy, to aid management plans of the National park, and to estimate lost and damage that could result from impact of climate change on the area.


Article
Application of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Technique to Estimate Genetic Distance among Some Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Different Iraqi Hospitals
تطبيق تقانة مؤشرات التضاعف العشوائي المتعدد الاشكال لسلسلة الدنا لتقدير البعد الوراثي بين بعض عزلات المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للميثيسيلين والمعزولة من مستشفيات عراقية مختلفة

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Abstract

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the principal nosocomial causative agents. This bacterium has the capability to resist wide range of antibiotics and it is responsible for many diseases like skin, nose and wounds infection. In this study, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR was applied with ten random primers to examine the molecular diversity among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in the hospitals and to investigate the genetic distance between them. 90 Isolates were collected from clinical specimens from Iraqi hospitals for a total of 90 isolates. Only 10 strains (11.11%) were found to be MRSA. From these 10 primers, only 9 gave clear amplification products. 91 fragment lines were generated from these primers across all isolates with an average of 10 fragment lines per primer. Of these, 90 (99%) were polymorphic. The size of the amplified bands ranged between 145-2109 bp. The polymorphism percentage for all primers was 100% except OP-X17 primer which gave 86% polymorphism. The genetic distances revealed from Jaccard similarity index was calculated for the 90 RAPD polymorphic fragment lines. The highest genetic distance value 0.959 was between isolate number (1) and (5) and between isolate number (3) and (10), while the lowest genetic distance value 0.218 was between isolate number (6) and (7). This study shows that RAPD-PCR technique assayed with nine primers can be successfully applied to reveal the genetic distances among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from different hospitals.


Article
A Comparative Efficiency Study of Two Adsorbent Materials to Remove Eosin Y Dye from Aqueous Solutions
دراسة مقارنة كفاءة مادتين مدمصه لإزله صبغة Eosin من المحاليل المائية

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Abstract

This study was done to find a cheap, available and ecofriendly materials that can remove eosin y dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption in this study, two adsorbent materials were used, the shells of fresh water clam (Cabicula fluminea) and walnut shells. To make a comparison between the two adsorbents, five experiments were conducted. First, the effects of the contact time, here the nut shell removed the dye quickly, while the C. flumina need more contact time to remove the dye. Second, the effects of adsorbent weight were examined. The nut shell was very promising and for all used adsorbent weight, the R% ranged from 94.87 to 99.29. However C. fluminea was less effective in removing the dye with R% ranged from 47.59 to 55.39. The third experiment was initial dye concentration. The C. fluminea showed very low ability to remove eosin y , while the nut shell was more effective in removing the dye with R% up to 97.36 and an inverse correlation between the increase of initial dye concentration and R%. The fourth experiment was the effect of pH value of the solution and the adsorbent particles size. The results show that fine particles were more effective than granular particles. Throughout the whole study, the walnut shell was very promising in removing the dye, while the C. fluminea shell was much less effective than the walnut shell.


Article
An Epidemiological, Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Study of the Leishmania tropica Parasite in Iraq’s Anbar Province
دراسة وبائية وتشخيصية وعلاجية لطفيلي Leishmania tropica في محافظة الانبار- العراق

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Abstract

This paper involved the registration of 1,936 cases of infection of the Leishmania tropica parasite observed at hospitals and health centers in Ramadi, Fallujah, Baghdadi, and Hit during 2017. The results revealed that the highest rates of infection were found in Ramadi and Fallujah. The 1-10 years age group recorded the highest rate at 35.5%. There was no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) between the sexes. December and January saw the highest rate of infection, where the rate in rural townships was found to be 65.5%, higher than in urban regions which saw a rate of 34.4%. Facial lesions were the most prominent area of infection, recorded at a rate of 41.3%. The study also included an examination of 180 rodents (94 mice and 86 black rats) - the investigation demonstrated the presence of the amastigote stage at a rate of 43.6% among mice and 53.4% among rats. The study also involved an analysis of the impact of the use of a water extract from the Rhanterium epapposum plant, also locally known as the Arfaj plant, on Leishmania tropica parasite growth. As part of this study, a concentration of between 0.05-5 mg/ml was used. The application of these concentrations led to an inhibitory effect on parasite growth - an application of relatively higher concentrations caused greater effects in times of growth between 1-5 days.


Article
Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Clinical Samples Using PCR Targeting ETA and gyrB Genes
الكشف عن السلالات المرضية لبكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa باستهداف جيني الضراوة ETA و gyrB

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Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa has variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity. Therefore, rapid detection with high accuracy and specificity is very important in the control of this pathogenic bacterium. To evaluate the accuracy and specificity of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay, ETA and gyrB genes were targeted to detect pathogenic strains of P. aeruginosa. Seventy swab samples were taken from patients with infected wounds and burns in two hospitals in Erbil and Koya cities in Iraq. The isolates were traditionally identified using phenotypic methods, and DNA was extracted from the positive samples, to apply PCR using the species specific primers targeting ETA, the gene encoding for exotoxin A, and gyrB gene. The results of this study indicate that 100% of P. aeruginosa isolates harbored the gyrB gene, whereas 74% of these isolates harbored ETA gene. However, the specificity of PCR for detection of P. aeruginosa based on the both genes was 100%, since no amplified product obtained using DNA extracted from other bacterial species. Hence by considering the importance of rapid detection of this bacterium due to the presence of problems in biochemical methods, PCR targeting multiple virulence genes is suggested in identification of pathogenic strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from some infections which should speed diagnosis of an antimicrobial therapy.


Article
Anticorrosion Behavior of Deposited Magnetite on Galvanized Steel in Saline Water Using RF-Magnetron Sputtering
السلوك المضاد للتآكل من ترسيب المغنتايت على الحديد المغلون في المياه المالحه بأستخدام الموجات الراديويه-الترذيذ الماكتروني الفعال

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Thin films of Magnetite have been deposited on Galvanized Steel (G-S) alloy using RF-reactive magnetron sputtering technique and protection efficiency of the corrosion of G-S. A Three-Electrodes Cell was used in saline water (3.5 % NaCl) solution at different temperatures (298, 308, 318 & 328K) using potentiostatic techniques with. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and fitting impedance data via Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) were applied to G-S alloy with Fe3O4 and tested in 3.5 % NaCl solution at 298K.Results taken from Nyquist and Bode plots were analyzed using software provided with the instrument. The results obtained show that the rate of corrosion of G.S alloy increased with increasing the temperatures from 298 to 323K; and showed that deposition of Fe3O4 caused protection efficiency to reach 79.76% for G-S in 318K. In addition the enthalpy & entropy of activation were evaluated. Apparent energies of activation have been calculated for the corrosion process of uncoated and coated G.S alloy by sputtering technique in saline water (3.5 % NaCl). The morphological analysis was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technique.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization of Poly Heterocyclic Compounds, and Effect on Cancer Cell (Hep-2) In vitro.
تخليق، تشخيص مركبات غير المتجانسة متعدده، و تاثيرها على الخلايا السرطانية( Hep-2) خارج الخليه

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A synthesis series of new heterocyclic derivatives (A2-A7) (pyrrole, pyridazine, oxazine and imidazol) derived from 4-acetyl-2,5-dichloro-1-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate(A1) have been synthesised. Synthesis of compound (A2) by the reaction of starting material (A1) with hydroxyl amine hydrochloride in the presence of pyridine. Compound (A2) was reacted with hydrazine hydrate in dry benzene to give (A3) derivative. The compound )A3( deals with sodium nitrite to give diazonium salt, and the reaction diazonium salt with ethyl acetoacetate to produce compound (A4). To a mixture of compound (A4) and hydroxyl amine with sttired to yield (A5).Compound (A6) was prepared by reaction compound (A4) with thiosemicarbazide in presence of drops of acetic acid. Synthesis of 1compound (A7) by reaction compound (A6) with ethyl chloro acetate. The reactions have been monitored by TLC and the synthesized compounds were characterized using spectrophotometric methods FT-IR, 1H NMR.The biological effects of the prepared compounds on the cancer cells were studied in vitro. The results indicated that these Synthesized compounds (A1–A7) inhibited1 the cancer1 cells1 efficiently, the compound (A6) was activity inhibited on the cancer cells.


Article
New Spectrophotometric Estimation and Cloud Point Extraction of Cefdinir
طريقة طيفية جديدة لتقدير السيفدينير بالاستخلاص بنقطة الغيمة

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A sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of cefdinir (CFD), a cephalosporin species. This study involves two methods, and the first method includes the preparing of azo dye by the reaction of CFD diazonium salt with 4-Tert-Butylphenol (4-TBP) and 2-Naphthol (2-NPT) in alkaline medium, which shows colored dyes measured at λmax 490 and 535 nm, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed along the concentration range of (3-100) μg.ml-1. The limits of detection were 0.246, 0.447 μg.ml-1 and molar absorptivities were 0.6129×104, 0.3361×104 L.mol-1cm-1 for (CFD-4-TBP) and (CFD-2-NPT), respectively. The second method includes preconcentration for cefdinir dyes by using cloud point extraction in the presence of Triton X-114 (10% v/v) and recording measurements using the UV-Visible technique. Cloud point extraction enables the drug to be precisely estimated under the optimal experimental conditions. The concentrations were ranged between (0.1-6.0) and (0.2-6.0) μg.ml-1. The limits of detection were 0.032, 0.054 μg.ml-1 and molar absorptivities were 0.4733×105, 0.2788×105 L.mol-1cm-1, respectively. Enrichment factors were 24.61, 24.58, and distribution coefficients were 1526, 1393 for (CFD-4-TBP), (CFD-2-NPT), respectively. The proposed methods have been applied for the determination of CFD in commercial formulation with no interference. The results appear to be no significant difference between the two methods.


Article
A Comparative Study on the Electrical Characteristics of Generating Plasma by Using Different Target Sources
دراسة مقارنه للخصائص الكهربائية للبلازما المتولدة من أهداف مختلفة

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In this research, the electrical characteristics of glow discharge plasma were studied. Glow discharge plasma generated in a home-made DC magnetron sputtering system, and a DC-power supply of high voltage as input to the discharge electrodes were both utilized. The distance between two electrodes is 4cm. The gas used to produce plasma is argon gas which flows inside the chamber at a rate of 40 sccm. The influence of work function for different target materials (gold, copper, and silver), - 5cm in diameter and around 1mm thickness - different working pressures, and different applied voltages on electrical characteristics (discharge current, discharge potential, and Paschen’s curve) were studied. The results showed that the discharge current and potential increase by increasing the applied voltage ranging between 300-700 V. Discharge current increased as working pressure increased in the beginning, and then semi-stabilized (slight increase) starting from 1×100 mbar, while discharge potential decreased at the beginning as working pressure increased and then semi-stabilized at the same point at which discharge current stabilized. The Paschen’s curves were compared with each other. It was concluded that the lower breakdown voltage was associated with lower work function of the (Au, Cu, and Ag) cathode material. Breakdown voltages were (395, 398, and 420) for Ag, Cu and Au respectively.


Article
Conjugated Polymer (MEH-PPV:MWCNTs) Organic Nanocomposite for Photodetector Application
المركب النانوي العضوي للبوليمر المترافق MEH-PPV المدمج مع الانابيب الكاربونية متعددة الجدران لتطبيقات الكاشف الضوئي

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Fabrication of a photodetector consists of the conjugated polymer "MEH-PPV"- poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenlenevinylene) and MEH-PPV:MWCNT nanocomposite thin film. The volume ratio investigated was 0.75:0.25. MEH-PPV was dissolved in chloroform solvent and doped with MWCNTs. The spin coating method was used to achieve a facile and low cost photodetector. The absorption spectrum decreases by adding the CNTs. The PL spectrum detected recombination curve results by doping the polymer with CNTs, and AFM measurement showed an increase of roughness average from (0.168 to 2.43nm) of "MEH-PPV" and "MEH-PPV:CNTs", respectively. The doping ratio 0.25, which has a higher photoresponsivity, was evaluated at 1.70 A/W and 2.14 A/W of the UV and Vis. wavelength range. Time-dependent photocurrent analysis showed that the higher sensitivity was 176.56 % at 350nm and 290.99% at 500 nm of the "MEH-PPV:MWCNTs" thin films, while I-V characteristics showed a rectifying behavior.


Article
Enhancement of the Tensile and the Compression Properties for Heat- Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Materials
تحسين خاصيتي الشد والانضغاط لراتنج الاكريليك المبلمر حراريا لمادة طقم الاسنان

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This work aims to investigate the tensile and compression strengths of heat- cured acrylic resin denture base material by adding styrene-butadiene (S- B) to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The most well- known issue in prosthodontic practice is fracture of a denture base. All samples were a blend of (90%, 80%) PMMA and (10%, 20%) S- B powder melted in Oxolane (Tetra hydro furan). These samples were chopped down into specimens of dimensions 100x10x2.5mm to carry out the requirements of tensile tests. The compression strength test specimens were shaped into a cylinder with dimensions of 12.7mm in diameter and 20mm in length. The experimental results show a significant increase in both tensile and compression strengths when compared to control (standard) results for the preparation material.


Article
On Free Resolution of Weyl Module and Zero Characteristic Resolution In The Case of Partition (8,7,3)
حول التحلل الحر لمقاس وايل وتحلل المميز الصفري في حالة التجزئة (8,7,3)

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This treatise is an application of the characteristic-free resolution of K_((8,7,3)) F to the Lascoux resolution of K_((8,7,3)) F (characteristic zero resolution). From this, study, we gain the connection between the resolution of Weyl module K_((8,7,3)) F in characteristic free mode and in the Lascoux mode.


Article
Tadpole Domination in Graphs
هيمنة الشرغوف في البيانات

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A new type of the connected domination parameters called tadpole domination number of a graph is introduced. Tadpole domination number for some standard graphs is determined, and some bounds for this number are obtained. Additionally, a new graph, finite, simple, undirected and connected, is introduced named weaver graph. Tadpole domination is calculated for this graph with other families of graphs.


Article
On Preradical of Semimodules
حول الجذر الابتدائي لشبه المقاسات

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In this paper we study the notion of preradical on some subcategories of the category of semimodules and homomorphisms of semimodules. Since some of the known preradicals on modules fail to satisfy the conditions of preradicals, if the category of modules was extended to semimodules, it is necessary to investigate some subcategories of semimodules, like the category of subtractive semimodules with homomorphisms and the category of subtractive semimodules with ҽҟ-regular homomorphisms.


Article
Some Results on the Average Inverse Shadowing Property and Strong
بعض النتائج حول خاصية معدل معكوس الظل والاركوديكية قوية

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Let (Ӽ, ᶁ_1) and (Ƴ,ᶁ_2) be compact metric spaces, ʄ:(Ӽ,ᶁ_1) →(Ӽ,ᶁ_1) and : (Ƴ,ᶁ_2) →(Ƴ,ᶁ_2) be continuous maps. If ʄ and G have dense minimal points and the average inverse shadowing property, we have proved ʄ×G has an average inverse shadowing property, topological transitive and dense minimal points. Moreover, we have proved ʄ is totally strongly ergodic and weakly mixing.


Article
Optimal UAV Deployment for Data Collection in Deadline-based IoT Applications
النشر الأمثل للطائرة بدون طيار لجمع البيانات في تطبيقات إنترنت الأشياء المستندة إلى الموعد النهائي

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The deployment of UAVs is one of the key challenges in UAV-based communications while using UAVs for IoT applications. In this article, a new scheme for energy efficient data collection with a deadline time for the Internet of things (IoT) using the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is presented. We provided a new data collection method, which was set to collect IoT node data by providing an efficient deployment and mobility of multiple UAV, used to collect data from ground internet of things devices in a given deadline time. In the proposed method, data collection was done with minimum energy consumption of IoTs as well as UAVs. In order to find an optimal solution to this problem, we will first provide a mixed integer linear programming model (MILP) and then we used a heuristic to solve the time complexity problem. The results obtained in the simulation results indicate the optimal performance of the proposed scheme in terms of energy consumption and the number of used UAVs.


Article
Proposing an Analysis System to Monitoring Weightlifting Based on Training (Snatch and Clean and Jerk)
اقتراح نظام تحليل لمراقبة رفع الاثقال بالاعتماد على التدريب (الخظف والهزة والنظيفة)

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Analysis system of sports players is very important for individuals in weightlifting. Assessment of player and strength is important for the performance of weightlifting. This paper proposes an analytical method for weightlifters with check-by-frame video. This analysis system can compute the major steps of seven positions in both snatch and clean and jerk methods in frame-video weightlifting monitoring of movements. Each user can compute the major steps of the seven positions of Hu moments among two frames in the video during training, and the Euclidian distance can be computed for the Hu moment values and lifting moment values in the snatch and clean and jerk methods during training. The outcome of the proposed system shows on efficient, accurate results in monitoring movement analysis in weightlifting for playersduring training in this area.


Article
Pose Invariant Palm Vein Identification System using Convolutional Neural Network
نظام تحديد الهوية من خلال اوردة اليد الثابتة الموضع باستخدام الشبكة العصبية التلافيفية

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Palm vein recognition is a one of the most efficient biometric technologies, each individual can be identified through its veins unique characteristics, palm vein acquisition techniques is either contact based or contactless based, as the individual's hand contact or not the peg of the palm imaging device, the needs a contactless palm vein system in modern applications rise tow problems, the pose variations (rotation, scaling and translation transformations) since the imaging device cannot aligned correctly with the surface of the palm, and a delay of matching process especially for large systems, trying to solve these problems. This paper proposed a pose invariant identification system for contactless palm vein which include three main steps, at first data augmentation is done by making multiple copies of the input image then perform out-of-plane rotation on them around all the X,Y and Z axes. Then a new fast extract Region of Interest (ROI) algorithm is proposed for cropping palm region. Finally, features are extracted and classified by specific structure of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The system is tested on two public multispectral palm vein databases (PolyU and CASIA); furthermore, synthetic datasets are derived from these mentioned databases, to simulate the hand out-of-plane rotation in random angels within range from -20° to +20° degrees. To study several situations of pose invariant, twelve experiments are performed on all datasets, highest accuracy achieved is 99.73% ∓ 0.27 on PolyU datasets and 98 % ∓ 1 on CASIA datasets, with very fast identification process, about 0.01 second for identifying an individual, which proves system efficiency in contactless palm vein problems.

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