Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904/23121637
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a peer reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdict planar editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.

The journal is basically self – financed by applying fees on the researcher’s work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:59 issue:4A

Article
Determination the Concentration Elements of Cultivation Media (Peat Moss, Perlite and Hormone) Using X-ray Fluorescence Technique

Authors: Jamal K. Al Saedi --- Ramla D. Alalawy --- Nada M. Hasan
Pages: 1769-1777
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Abstract

The concentration of elements were analyzed of twelve cultivation medium (Peat moss, Perlite and Hermon) selected from Iraqi markets using X-ray fluorescence techniques. The analytical results show that the cultivation medium contained high concentration of (Na, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Fe) and low concentration of (Mg, P, Cl, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn). The samples also contained trace concentration of (Ge, As, Se, Br, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, I, Hg, Pb, U). The results were compared using atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique for measuring the concentration of (K, Ca, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb). The Results showed that there is significant difference in the concentration of each element in most of the samples. The concentrations of elements are in threshold levels except few elements such as aluminum. The Cd concentration was higher than the limit in some samples. To purpose of evaluating the precision of the analysis results, calculated the standard deviation SD and relative standard deviation, it was found in the range of (0.004561-0.328634) %, (1.09-19.23) % and accuracy was found in the range of (0.27-44.32) %.

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Article
Effects of some physical agents on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Leishmania tropica: An In vitro study

Authors: Farah Mahmood Shtaib Al-Waeli
Pages: 1778-1785
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Abstract

This work evaluated the effect of Alpha, Gamma irradiation and Nd:YAG, He-Ne laser on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Leishmania tropica in vitro. The experiment included five replicate of S. epidermidis , L. tropica in vitro exposed to effect of Alpha , Gamma irradiation by 241Am isotopes , in two doses


Article
Study the correlation between Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Hormone and Some Biochemical Parameters in Iraqi Women with Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension

Authors: Saja Muhanad Bayram --- Lina A. Salih --- Samia. A. Eleiwe
Pages: 1786-1791
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Abstract

Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a major pregnancy complication that causes pregnant women mortality. Here, we had scrutinized the correlation between serum levels of -hCG and biochemical parameters in PIH. Serum samples were collected from eighty Iraqi women (forty women with pregnancy-induced hypertension as patients group, twenty normotensive pregnant women as a positive control, and twenty normotensive non-pregnant women as a negative control) all groups were diagnosed clinically. All -hCG hormone level was measured for all studied groups, also serum uric acid, albumin, and total protein levels were measured as biochemical parameters. Data analysis showed that serum level of -hCG hormone was significant increase (p≤0.05) in PIH in compared to control groups. Also Uric acid level was increased significantly in PIH group in compared with control groups. While Albumin show there was no significant difference in PIH group. Total serum protein level was measured by Bradford total Protein assay all results was in normal value and showed a significant difference in PIH group in comparison to control groups. Our study shows that there is correlation between β-hCG with uric acid and albumin levels in PIH. Serial estimation of serum β-hCG, uric acid, and albumin can be important to use as a marker of disease and also can be used in better early management of established cases that lead to preeclampsia and eclampsia.

Keywords

PIH --- -hCG --- uric acid --- albumin --- total protein --- Iraq.


Article
Identification of Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates by PCR-ITS regions

Authors: Israa A. Al-Temimay --- Esraa Muslim Aswad
Pages: 1792-1805
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Abstract

The aim of the study was molecular detection of C. neoformans that isolated from 150 (88 female and 62 male) clinical samples (sputum samples) from pulmonary patients in Baghdad. The diagnoses of Cryptococcus neoformans in samples was done by using direct microscopic examination, culture media and PCR Technology. Microscopic examination and cultured revealed that 65 out of 150 (43.33 %) samples were positive and the others samples were Negative. Results of the genetic diagnosis looking for the fungi causing cryptococcosis using primers specific for ITS gene which were specially designed for this study revealed that 6 (4 %) of sputum samples were positive. In this study used the PCR technology due to the present of high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of C. neoformans added to that which is cheaper and faster than the conventional methods currently used in hospital and laboratories.


Article
The Biological Activity of Eucalyptus rostrata Leaves Extraction against E.coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Iraqi Patients

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Abstract

The inhibitory effect of Eucalyptus rostrata leaves extraction was investigated on multiple-antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria (E.coli and S. aureus), isolated from Iraqi patients. The minimum inhibitory concentrations in a final concentration of 10 mg/ml. Tow fold dilutions was done from (12.5- 100) mg/ ml to examine the antibacterial effect of different concentrations of the plant extract on both bacteria. The study results revealed that Eucalyptus rostrata extract has a potential inhibitory effect on both gram negative and gram positive species. The current study supports the traditional approach of using Eucalyptus rostrata leaves extraction in treatment trails against bacterial infections.

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Article
Study the Expression of msrA,msrB and linA/linA’ genes in Presence of Some Antibiotics in Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Luma Saeed Mohammed --- May Talib Flayyih
Pages: 1811-1825
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Abstract

Eight isolates of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) (SA40,SA32,SA30,SA13,SA10,SA36,SA3 and SA7) with different resistance phenotypes to macrolides , lincosamides and streptogramins Were used to detect theexpression of msrA, msrB, and linA/linA’genesby using real time polymerase chain reaction before and after treatment with antibiotics (erythromycin , clarithromycin , clindamycin and lincomycin) calibrated with triosphosphateisomerase.There highst expression of these genes was after 18 hours. It was an induction in the expression of msrA gene in isolates (SA40,SA32,SA30 and SA13) in presence of erythromycin,however,the isolates showed reduction in expression level of this gene . Expression of msrB gene had been estimated along with the using of clarithromycin and there was induction in msrB expression in isolates (SA40,SA30,SA32,SA13,SA36,SA10and SA7) while the expression level was reduced in isolate (SA3). Isolates (SA30 and SA13) showed induction of linA/linA’ expression with the using of clindamycin and lincomycin respectively.


Article
Antibiofilm activity of klebocin crude extract against some species of Enterobacteriaceae

Authors: Zainab Zamel Khalaf --- Alyaa Rzooqy Hussein
Pages: 1826-1835
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Abstract

Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins created by bacteria and its effective against other strains of bacteria which are closely linked to the producing strains and a number of species from the same family. The aim of current study was to evaluate the activity of bacteriocin that extracted from clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia against different species of enterobacteriaceae in both planktonic and biofilm state. The antibacterial activity of bacteriocins (klebocins) from Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates towards diverse pathogenic species from enterobacteriaceae (by well assay method) was demonstrated , however the antibiofilm activity against some species of enterobacteriaceae was studied also by Tissue culture plate method (TCP) in first and last stages of biofilm formation .The results revealed that klebocin with different concentrations was efficient against different pathogenic species by producing different inhibition zones. Results also showed that klebocins had a wide antibiofilm activity on some pathogenic species of Gram-negative bacteria .In addition to these finding it was observed that the antibiofilm activity of klebocin on premature biofilm of Klebsiella was higher than its effect towards other pathogenic species, while it was affected on mature biofilm of other bacterial species as well as Klebsiella.

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Article
The relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and TNF-α in cardiovascular disease patients

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Abstract

Over the last few years the role of microorganisms in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been widely discussed. Advance in basic science have established a fundamental role for inflammation immediating all stages of cardiovascular diseases. Chlamydia pneumoniae activates immune cells to produce cytokines such us TNF-α that are important contributor to atherosclerosis. All blood samples were assayed for molecular detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae by using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) relying on16SrRNAand the level of serum TNF-α measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Seventy patients who suffering from CVD (angina, myocardial Infarction and atherosclerosis) aged between 33-86 years have been investigated and compared to twenty of apparently healthy individuals were studies as control group. Twenty six sample (37.14) %detected positive results for Chlamydia pneumoniae by PCR techniques in patient group, while all control group were negative, furthermore current study revealed a highly significant elevation (p<0.01) in the mean level of TNF-α in sera of patients with CVD compared to control group. Also there were considerable differences in the level of TNF-α between Chlamydia pneumoniae positive and negative within the patient group. The present study concludes there is a significant proportion among patients who infected with C. Pneumoniae and these bacteria play an essential role in the pathogenesis of CVD through stimulation of the inflammatory response.

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Article
The effect of Enalapril drug on some histological aspects of testes tissue in the mature albino male mice

Authors: Abeer Uthman Moosa --- Dina khudhair Hussein ali
Pages: 1843-1846
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Abstract

The study aimed to evaluate whether Enalapril has any effects on the testicular tissue of the albino male mice which received or did not receive treatment with Enalapril. Mature mice were divided into three groups: control group which fed with 0.1mg of normal saline, the second group was orally fed with 10 mg/Kg of Enalapril drug while the third group was fed with 20 mg/Kg of drug, one time a day for 30 successive days by using gavage tube (0.1ml). The histological sections were performed and the slides were examined using the light microscope. The present study result of light microscopic images of mice testes cross sections which treated with 20 mg/Kg of Enalapril showed coagulated necrosis on spermatogonia germ cells, stopping the maturation in testicular tissue and ischematic alternations. Furthermore, the group treated with 10 mg/Kg showed arresting of spermatozoa maturation, congestion of blood vessels and spreading of edema. In comparison with the control group which demonstrated normal interstitial tissue and absence of edema with spermatogenic maturation observing numerous spermatozoa within the tubule lumen. In conclusion, Enalapril might play a role in pathogenesis of testicular tissue and men infertility.

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Article
Structural and morphological investigation of bulk heterojunction blend (NiPc/C60) Thin films under heat treatment

Authors: Atheer M. Mkhaiber --- Ameer F. Abdulameer
Pages: 1847-1857
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Abstract

Thin films of the blended solution of NiPc/C60 are fabricated using spin-coating method for three different ratios (100/1, 100/10 and 100/100) according to the weight. The films are deposited on to glass substrates and treated with several annealing temperatures (373, 423 and 473)K. The structure and surface morphology of the as-deposited and annealed films using x-ray diffraction and AFM was studied and exhibited a change and enhanced crystallization and surface morphology caused by changes in heat treatment temperatures. Investigation of X-ray diffraction patterns of NiPc/C60 indicated that it have polymorphism structure, i.e. mix between amorphous and polycrystalline structure. when heat treatment temperatures changed, led to the α-crystalline films oriented preferentially to the (100) plane. The grain size of the blend (NiPc/C60) thin film is calculated using the Scherrer relation and the variation was nonsystematic with increased annealing temperature. AFM measurements supported the result of XRD.


Article
Structure and Morphological Properties of In2O3 Nanostructure Prepared by Pulse Laser Ablation Method

Authors: Sariya D.AL. ALgawi --- Wafaa K. Khalef --- Sura R.Mohammed
Pages: 1858-1865
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Abstract

A colloidal indium oxide (In2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of indium plate placed on the bottom of the quartz vessel containing (3ml) of pure ethanol. The influence laser energy on the properties of the formed nano-particles were characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet Visible (UV-Vis) technique, and electrical properties measurements. The XRD revealed the crystallization structure of In2O3 nanoparticles and all the films having preferential orientation along (222) plane and intensity increases with increasing laser energy, The UV–Visible spectrum of the colloidal nanoparticles maximum absorbance show around the UV region, which indicates the formation of In2O3 nanoparticles with energy gap about (3.6, 3.8 and 3.9) eV for different laser energy's (150, 300 and 500) mj respectively. The film conductivity decreased with increasing laser energy, while increasing in the the activation energy of In2O3 nanopartical.


Article
Theoretical Study of The Electromagnetic Structure of Boron Isotopes Using Local Scale Transformation Technique

Authors: Saja H. Mohammed --- Arkan R. Ridha
Pages: 1866-1877
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Abstract

The radial wavefunctions of transformed harmonic-oscillator in the local scale transformation technique are used to calculate the root-mean square proton, charge, neutron and matter radii, nuclear density distributions and elastic electron scattering charge form factors of stable (10,11B) and (unstable) exotic (8,14,17B) Boron isotopes. For 10B and 11B, the transformed harmonic-oscillator wavefunctions are applied to all subshells in no-core shell model approach using wbp interaction. For 8,14,17B, the radial wavefunctions of harmonic-oscillator and THO are used to calculate the aforementioned quantities for the core and halo parts, respectively. The calculated matter and charge density distributions are found to be in very good agreement with experimental data for 8,14,17B and 10,11B, respectively. The calculated elastic electron scattering form factors of the longitudinal C0+C2 components for 10,11B are in very good agreement with experimental data.


Article
Determination of flow units of Yamama Formation in the West Qurna oil field, Southern Iraq

Authors: Amna M. Handhal --- Fahad M. Al-Najm --- Hussein A. Chafeet
Pages: 1878-1898
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Abstract

The major objective of this paper is to recognize the flow units of Yamama Formation in the west Qurna oil field, south of Iraq. To attain this objective, four wells namely, WQ-23, WQ-148, WQ-60, and WQ-203 are selected and analyzed. The two techniques that proposed by some scientists to identify flow units are tested and verified. Results are also enhanced using well logs interpretation and the flow areas are proposed through the studying of the behavior of different well logs. Results of applying the two proposed techniques identify six flow reservoir units for the wells WQ-23, WQ-148, WQ-60, and WQ-203, respectively. This study also shows that the flow reservoir properties in the Yamama Formation improved towards the northeast of the West Qurna oil field.


Article
Estimation of Groundwater recharge by groundwater level fluctuation method of Dibdibba aquifer at ‎Karbala- Najaf plateau, central of Iraq

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Abstract

Groundwater recharge estimation is essential for management of groundwater systems. As groundwater is a vital source of water for domestic and agricultural activities in the study area (Karbala - Najaf plateau), ‎where the Dibdibba aquifer represents the primary and essential aquifer, evaluation of groundwater recharge is critical in the study area. A wide range of methodologies exists for estimating recharge.‎ ‎The water-table fluctuation method strategy might be the most generally utilized system for estimating recharge; it requires learning of changes in water levels over time and specific yield. Advantages of this approach include its simplicity and an insensitivity to the mechanism by which water moves through the unsaturated zone. Sensitiveness in measures created by this technique relates to the compelled precision with which ‎specific yield can be calculated and to the degree to which assumptions inherent in the strategy are ‎valid. The primary objective of this study is to calculate the annual and monthly ‎values of recharge for Jan. 2010 ‎through Aug. ‎‎2017‎ for Dibdibba aquifer at Karbala - Najaf plateau, central of Iraq to use results in the management of groundwater in the study area later‎. ‎Water levels measured in four observation wells in the study area, measurements were taken daily at the ‎middle of the night automatically by using modern electronic devices installed on the wells (from 10 BM to 4 AM) to avoid the effect of pumping ‎activity on the water ‎levels and to neutralize the effect of evapotranspiration for Jan. 2010 to Aug. 2017‎.


Article
Porosity Prediction from Seismic Inversion for Yamama Formation in (Abu-Amoud) Oil Field in Southern of Iraq

Authors: Nawal Abed Al-Ridha --- Faleh Mahdi --- Mazin Rasheed
Pages: 1910-1919
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The study is an attempt to predict reservoir characterization by improving the estimation of petro-physical properties (porosity), through integration of wells information and 3D seismic data in early cretaceous carbonate reservoir Yamama Formation of (Abu-Amoud) field in southern part of Iraq. Seismic inversion (MBI) was used on post- stack 3 dimensions seismic data to estimate the values of P-acoustic impedance of which the distribution of porosity values was estimated through Yamama Formation in the study area. EMERGE module on the Hampson Russel software was applied to create a relationship between inverted seismic data and well data at well location to construct a perception about the distribution of porosity on the level of all units of Yamama reservoir. Instantaneous frequency attribute is used to confirm the distribution of low value of acoustic impedance, which in turn indicates the location of high porosity values.


Article
Structural subsurface model of Samawa-Diwan area (south of Iraq)

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Seismic instantaneous phase attribute was applied for conventional seismic interpretation (structural interpretation) on 3D seismic cube of 1914.72km² of Samawa-Diwan area, located in the south part of Iraq within Muthna governorate. Instantaneous phase section is very important to detect structural and stratigraphic features. Six reflectors represent Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous formations were defined from synthetic seismogram of wells in study area, then picked over seismic cube. Fault boundaries maps for each horizon were drawn depending on horizon contacts then fault planes were constructed. Finally, a 3D structural model was constructed in time domain, then converted to depth domain by using 3D average velocity model. Structurally, 3D models showed that study area affected by two types of normal faults formed a graben appear at west side a long study area, and separated by transverse fault to the north and south parts at Hartha Fn. and deep layers, while Tertiary formations have not affected by any type of faults systems. Also, structural map showed existence of four structural domes which they are Samawa and Diwan folded domes, Samawa south faulted dome and fourth one is new folded dome locates in the northwest of study area. All these features extend in northwest-southeast trend.


Article
Petrophysical properties of the reservoir unit (1C) for Upper Shale Member from Zubair formation in Luhais field

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The research dealt with the reservoir division for Upper Shale Member from Zubair formation in Luhais field, Where it was divided into six units of reservoir and non-reservoir, including the main reservoir unit 1C, which is the subject of research in this study, and studied in terms of thickness and lithology. The reservoir unit 1C was associated with environmental sediment, which was the environment of the tidal channels, explaining the sedimentation mechanism that helped to form the oil traps and improve the petrophysical characteristics. The log interpretation was used to determine and calculate the petrophysical characteristics of reservoir unit 1C. The total and effective porosity ratio was calculated with the highest and lowest value, and its porosity was represented by a three-dimensional model representing its distribution in the field, In addition, permeability was calculated through the relationship between porosity and permeability from the pulp where the permeability equation was extracted from the best straight line values containing an unknown value, By compensating for the porosity value of the logs, the permeability could be calculated for the depths of wells that do not contain a core. The permeability of unit 1C is represented by three-dimensional models that are distributed across the field. The oil and water determinations of unit 1C were studied and their existence periods were determined for all wells of the field. The work of three-dimensional models and longitudinal and transverse sections represented the distribution of oil and water polysaccharides in unit 1C. The level of contact of oil - water was determined at a depth of 2753 meters.


Article
Some application of coding theory in the projective plane of order three

Authors: Najm A. M. AL-Seraji --- Raad I. K. AL-Humaidi
Pages: 1947-1951
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The main aim of this paper is to introduce the relationship between the topic of coding theory and the projective plane of order three. The maximum value of size of code over finite field of order three and an incidence matrix with the parameters, n (length of code), d (minimum distance of code) and e (error-correcting of code ) have been constructed. Some examples and theorems have been given.

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