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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Contact info

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2018 volume:21 issue:4

Article
Chemical Modification of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Resin to Improve the Photostability Processes

Authors: Adel Kamil
Pages: 1-9
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Abstract

The photostability of PVC films phenylphrine HCl acid complexes was investigated. PVC reacts with phenyl phrine HCl acid (L) in THF to prepare PVC-L compound, which characterized by various spectroscopic methods. PVC-L has been reacted with different metal ions to form PVC-L-MII complexes. The structures of these complexes were characterized by IR and Uv-Vis. Spectrophotometry. The photostabilization activity of these compounds was determined by monitoring different indices with irradiation time. The changes in viscosity average molecular weight of PVC with irradiation time were also confirmed (using THF as a solvent). The quantum yield of the chain scission (Φcs) of modified polymer films was evaluated and found to range between 4.990x103 and 1.147x104. Surface morphology of the films was studied by atomic force microscope (AFM). All results show that the rate of photodegradation of PVC-L-MII films following the trends: PVC‐L‐CdII > PVC‐L‐ZnII > PVC‐L-CuII > PVC‐L-CoII > PVC‐L > PVC. According to the experimental results obtained several mechanisms were indicated depending on the structure of the PVC-L-MII complexes.


Article
Impact of Some Heavy Metals and BPA Resulting from Terrorist Operations in Three Regions of Baghdad, Iraq on Serotonin‎

Authors: Alaa H. Jawad
Pages: 10-15
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Abstract

In this paper the effect of terrorist operations in three regions of Baghdad, Iraq were studied on serotonin hormones, in 75 Iraqi individual from (AL-karradah and Abo-Gharib) regions as comparison with Al-jadria as (a control). The correlation between sera serotonin and the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and bisphenol-A(BPA) have been selected for study, relation of heavy metals, BPA and monoamine neurotransmitter frameworks has been recommended as a potential underline component of action. The serotonin framework has been moderately ignored, along these lines; the objective of this article is to audit the writing on the connection between heavy metals, BPA and the serotonin. Our examination proposes a positive ‎correlation between serotonin and the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and BPA. In conclusion, that serotonin levels in the area of (Al-karadah, Abo-Gharib) pollutants areas were high as compared with the control (Al-jadria) as the lowest percentage of pollution. Thus considerable further investigation will be necessary to understand the role of serotonin in the pathogenesis and high levels in the some regions in Iraq such as AL-karradah and Abo-Gharib.


Article
Evaluation of Chemistry and Concentration of Air Pollutants from Brick Factories in Nahrawan Area, Northeast Baghdad, Using GIS Methods

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Abstract

This study aimed to measure the concentration of the total suspended particle (TSP) and gaseous pollutants (CO, CO2, SO2 and NO2) that emitted from Nahrawan’s brick factories and compare it to its counterparts from the village of Nahrawan. Samples from 17 sites, as well as Nahrawan village were collected in the current study. The results showed that TSP had the highest concentration (9801.7 μg/m3), exceeding world health organization (WHO) standard in all study sites, including Nahrawan village. The results also indicated that CO concentration at most sites exceeded WHO standard. The results showed that CO2 concentration in all the sites exceeded WHO standard (250 ppm), while the measure taken from Nahrawan village registered lower. SO2 was not record in air of Nahrawan village, yet it formed the highest concentration (0.1 ppm) in the study area, much greater than the WHO standard (0.01 ppm). On the other hand, NO2 assumed the highest concentration of (0.3 ppm) again, higher than WHO standard of (0.11 ppm) across all sites, except Nahrawan village. Spatial analysis was performed to generate spatial patterns of air pollutants released by bricks factories in Nahrawan region and to represent the values of wind speed. Visualization of the spatial patterns revealed that the pollutants highly concentrated in the central and southern study area and is located towards the prevailing wind.


Article
Determination of Toxic Elements in Tobacco, Tobacco Smoke and Ash from Selected Imported Cigarettes Brands

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Abstract

Metals are essential to the human body but can be harmful to health when it exceeds permissible limits. Different sorts of cigarettes were chosen from the markets in Iraq to conduct the tests of the elements in these species. The chose samples were tested using EDX instrument. Results demonstrated the presence of the proportions of dangerous elements such as (Sb, Ni, Zn, P, Pb, Cd, Ca, Si, S, Cr, Mg, Na, As, Al, Cl, and Sn), which greatly affect the health of the smoker and its negative effects to the environment. The genuine risk is the result of accumulate these elements in the body of the smoker's lungs, liver, blood or brain and its effects are chronic and more dangerous and threatens the life of the person in the future. A special absorption system was used to absorb tobacco smoke for the tested samples by deionized water. The remaining ash collected for acid digestion and prepared to atomic absorption analyses.


Article
Synthesis of Unnatural Diethyl 2-Hydroxysuccinate From 2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic Acid As a Starting Material for Annonine Building Blocks

Authors: Jewad K. Shneine
Pages: 30-37
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Abstract

Since Annonin I is considered as a biological active natural product, this work concerns on the synthesis of the side chain of this biologically important molecule as a part of total synthesis of the whole molecule. As a result of our retrosynthetic analytical method, the commercial available 2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid A and pentyl halide B represent generally the main building blocks for the synthesis. The synthesis begins with Fischer esterification of the dicarboxylic acid 1 and then conversion into Diethyl 3-bromo-2-hydroxysuccinate 3 which was the key compound to obtain the acetal (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxan-4-yl) methanol 6. In this respect, two different synthetic routs were evaluated to transform compound 3 into 6. Furthermore, the removal of bromide step (reduction of 3) was also studied using different reducing agents.


Article
Maximum Power Point Tracking Approach Based on Temperature for PV Surface Using PSPICE Program

Authors: Harith M. Saeed Hamed --- Zainab M. Kubba
Pages: 38-45
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Abstract

This paper studies the effect of PV surface Temperature on PV panel output characteristics. Circuit simulator PSPICE is used to compose PV panel model at 75W, 4.8A and 21V. The behavior of PV model under varying conditions (solar insolation, temperature and PV panel surface temperature) is studied. The ABM feature of PSPICE is used to include the above parameters in PV PSPICE model and produced temperature dependent voltage. This voltage is converted to current with galvanic insulation by element Gploy with gain 0.8. This model defined as a hierarchal block in PSPICE library and could be called as individual source for any applications. The effect of PV surface temperature on its I-V curves specially the positions of the MPP, is used to keep track of the MPP. Therefore, DC-DC boost converter was used to achieve this purpose. Boost converter was raised a PV panel voltage from 17V to 34V (for all variation of PV surface temperature 280K to 360K) also output current 4.4A for switching frequency 10kHz are selected.


Article
Simulation of Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Auto Guided Land Vehicle

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Abstract

This paper concerned with simulating the behavior of designed control system that tries to govern robot to safely passing a path containing moving obstacle ahead. The used robot carried some specific sensors are used to sense the existence of obstacles along the moving path, these sensors are IR sensor that used to detect the obstacle and visual sensor that used to measure the size and the distance for the obstacle. In order to overcome the obstacle, the controller assumes new transient away point at the far side of the obstacle, and guides the robot to pass through that point. The position of such transient point is depending on the size and direction of the obstacle. Then, whenever the robot close to the transient point, the controller guides the robot to identify the intended path again. This algorithm enables the robot to move far away from the moving obstacle and then back it into planned path.


Article
PCR – Based Detection of Microcystin and Nodularin in both Freshwater and Bloom in Tigris River

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Abstract

Cyanobacterial blooms have a range of social, environmental and economic impacts due to their content of secondary metabolites involving toxins. Microcystins (MCs) is one of the cyanotoxins found in freshwater ecosystems. This study was aimed to adopt a rapid technique for determining the microcystin in blooms and freshwater by the detection of phycocyanin operon of cyanobacteria using PCβF and PCαR primers as well as mcyE gene encoding to microcystin/ nodularin using HEP primers. The molecular results showed that phycocyanin operon and mcyE gene were disclosed in the freshwater and bloom of samples at the studied sites. In conclusion, The PCR assay used in this study was helpful and rapid, in particular when the target organism concentration in the freshwater sample is very low.


Article
Variation between Antagonistic Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oil and Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles from the Essential Oil against Some Fungi

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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the antagonistic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) essential oil at different concentrations (500, 1000, 2000 or 3000 ppm) against three different fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penecillium notatum and Candida sp.), these isolates were isolated from air. On the other hand, a combination between the Rosemary essential oil and synthesized nanoparticles were tested against the isolated fungi. Results revealed that Rosemary essential oil exhibited the highest antifungal potentiality comparing to the antagonisty of the biosynthesized nanoparticles. The concentration 3000 ppm of the essential oil showed 100% mycelial growth inhibition of all the fungi. Aspergillus niger was the most sensitive which showed no growth in the concentrations 1000, 2000 or 3000 ppm. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Rosemary essential oil exhibited a considerable fungicidal activity against all the fungal isolates. The inhibition of all fungal isolates increased as the concentrations of the synthesized silver nanoparticles increased. Asp. niger was the most sensitive fungi to the inhibitory impact of the Rosemary nanoparticles and Penicillium notatum manifested mild response, while Candida sp. was less sensitive.


Article
On Conjugate –Gradient Algorithms

Authors: Shawki A.M. Abbas
Pages: 68-75
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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to recognize the attitude of the conjugate –Gradient Algorithms for solving linear systems Ax=b under the existence of rounding errors. The effect of matrix condition number of A on the relative error of the calculated series of approximations {x_k } is analyzed. An especially appealing feature of the algorithm qualified is that error rating can be obtained very easily. Some examples are presented to support the theoretical results and to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the methods. The paper ends with some conclusions that sum up the finding of the study. The executed program for calculation is carried using “Matlb7”.


Article
Image Classification Using Bag of Visual Words (BoVW)

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Abstract

In this paper two main stages for image classification has been presented. Training stage consists of collecting images of interest, and apply BOVW on these images (features extraction and description using SIFT, and vocabulary generation), while testing stage classifies a new unlabeled image using nearest neighbor classification method for features descriptor. Supervised bag of visual words gives good result that are present clearly in the experimental part where unlabeled images are classified although small number of images are used in the training process.


Article
Color Image Restoration Using Iterative Mead’s Filter

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Abstract

Image restoration is reconstructing the true image starting from degraded (blurred and noisy) image version. This problem could be handled as blind or non-blind mode depending on whether functional knowledge or point spread function (PSF) knowledge is available. These knowledge are related to the type and parameters of the additive noise such as; distribution, mean, and variance. Accordingly, the present work aims to restore the original image using adaptive Mead’s algorithm applied on degraded version. The proposed method is individually applied on the three color components; red, green, and blue (RGB) of the image. The results are quantitatively and qualitatively compared to the original one using two quality measures, they are: mean squared error (MSE) and cross correlation coefficient (CCC). Results showed valued performance of the proposed method when restoring the degraded images. Quality measures proved that the blue component was reconstructed better than the red, and the red was reconstructed better than the green component. Frequent tests showed the matching score between the reconstructed image and the original one was about 97%, which ensure the validation of the proposed method and correct path of computations.


Article
Review on Image Steganalysis Using INRIA Dataset

Authors: Hanaa Mohsin Ahmed --- Halah H. Mahmoud
Pages: 94-108
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Abstract

Steganography can be defined as the science of private communication while steganalysis is the science of detection of embedded messages in digital media with the use of steganography (Each of steganography and steganalysis are under much interest from media and law enforcement entities). Blind steganalysis had the attempt of differentiating steganographic images from cover images without knowing the method of steganography. Popular data-sets are common in various areas like image processing, artificial intelligent, and security which allow the researchers to validate their approaches. INRIA dataset is one type of image dataset which include Holiday, Copydays and BIGANN evaluation datasets. This paper presents study on number of researches using INRIA dataset for image/ information retrieval and especially blind image steganalysis. All these works depends on statistical properties of image. No one use machine learning tools like deep learning especially convolution neural network to detect attack in image using INRIA dataset.


Article
Spam Classification Using MOEA/D

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Abstract

In mathematics, it’s very easy to find the maximum point or minimum point of a function or a set of functions, but it’s difficult to find a set of function simultaneously in the real world due to the different kinds of mathematical relationships between objective functions. So the multi objective optimization algorithm has the ability to deal with a many objectives instead of one objective, because of the difficulties in the classical methods of multi objectives optimization, the evolutionary algorithm (EA) is effective to eliminate these difficulties, in order to apply the evolutionary algorithms to improve the multi-objective optimization algorithm, the multi - objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition is one of the algorithms that solve multi objective optimization problems. This paper aims to enhance the e-mail spam filtering by using multi - objective evolutionary algorithm for classifying the e-mail messages to spam or non-spam in high accuracy. The first step in the proposal is applying normalization. The second step is applying feature selection which is implemented to choose the best features. Finally, implement multi - objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition. The evaluation of the performance of model by using testing databases from the spam database. The model depended accuracy as a criterion to evaluate model performance. The experimental results showed that the proposed system provides good accuracy in the experiment 1 (91%), very good accuracy in the experiment 2 (92%) and excellent accuracy in the experience 3 (98%).

Table of content: volume:21 issue:4