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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

The Instructions of Submitting The Research to Scientific Evaluation:
a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
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Engineering and Technology Journal
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
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Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

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Table of content: 2018 volume:36 issue:2 Part (C)

Article
The effects of Cyanobactrum Chroococcus Minor and Oscillatoria amonea on Seed Germination of Plant Vigna radiate

Authors: Ghaidaa Alrubaie
Pages: 103-107
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Abstract

Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic photosynthesis algae able to produce toxins and that cause problems in water quality, agriculture and aquatic organisms As well as concerns about the public health for humans. Among the cyanobacterial toxins, microcystins (MC) are the most common. In this study, Identification and Isolation of blue green algae Chroococcus minor and Oscillatoria amonea Belonging to the cyanobacteria division, BG-11 media were used to cultivation. In suitable laboratory conditions (25 ±2C°, 260µE/m2/sec) for 16:8 hrs. Light: dark. The culture was harvested after 30 days and determine the effects of the extracellular of both algae on seed germination for Vigna radiate. The results showed reduction in root and shoot length of the exposed seedlings. Observed throughout the study that with increased concentration of cyanobacterial cell extract been found on the growth radicle and shoots decreasing. It was found the begin decomposition of roots and is not configured to lateral root at treatment (5 ml D.W + 5ml extract) recorded 4.9 cm. the highest inhibitor in seed germination it is recorded 4.7 cm at treatment 10 ml extract (100% extract),compare with control treatment as it recorded 18.8 cm (100% D.W).


Article
Determination of Radon Concentrations in Soil Around Al-Tuwaitha Site Using CR-39 Detector

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Abstract

In this work radon concentration in 37 soil samples collected from 17 regions surround the (Al Tuwaitha) were measured by using solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD.s) CR-39 with natural exposure of one month, and by comparison with standard samples. The radon concentration in the soil samples was about (9.583 ± 0.369 ـــ 28.029 ± 0.631) Bq/m3 in locations one (Rotate Salman) and eight (An area agricultural near high-voltage towers) respectively, with rate of (20.939 ± 0.541) Bq/m3 . The specific activity of radium (Ra) dissolved during generate radon were ranging between (3.37 – 9.857) Bq.kg-1, with rate of (7.393) Bq.kg-1, surface emission of radon gas rate in the soil was found between (0.144 – 0.422 Bq/m2 .h) with rate of (0.314 Bq/m2 .h) and their mass emission of radon gas rate has the highest value of (0.016 Bq / kg . h) and lower value (0.005 Bq / kg . h) with rate of (0.012 Bq / kg . h. These results are within the acceptable limit that recorded by UNECEAR and ICRP


Article
Determination Emitted Gasses from Using Three Types of Woods in Grilling Meats

Authors: Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly --- Ahmed S. Al-Taie
Pages: 113-117
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The randomly using of different woods in grilling meats may cause several health and environmental effects due to various gasses emitted from burning such woods. The current work has examined the type and concentration of several emitted gases from burning raw tree wood, wood charcoal and palm fronds. This study has measured volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon mono oxide (CO), ozone (O3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The concentrations of these emitted gasses were measured at fire start point, 15, 30 and 60 minutes.It has been found that raw tree wood gave highest mean value of VOC ranged from 6.61± 0.57 to 173.67 ± 12.52 ppm whilst palm fronds showed mean values lying between 17.67 ± 2.726 ppm and 48.6 ± 0.123 ppm. On the other hand, wood charcoal had emitted mean values varying from 1.33 ± 0.17 to 2.97 ± 0.13 ppm. For carbon monoxide, raw tree wood gave mean values varied from 39.6 ± 4.65 ppm to 442.67 ± 71.6 ppm while palm fronds showed mean values ranged from 39.47 ± 4.706 ppm to 432.67 ± 51.598 ppm. In addition, wood charcoal has been found to have mean values varying from 17.67 ± 2.32 ppm to 62.33 ± 3.44 ppm. In case of ozone content, raw tree wood had almost similar mean values varied from 0.02 ± 0.0 ppm to 0.02 ± 0.01 ppm and palm fronds showed mean values ranged from 0.0267±0.009 ppm to 0.0433±0.005 ppm. In addition, wood charcoal had almost similar mean values (0.04 ± 0.0 – 0.043 ± 0.03) during all combustion intervals but higher than those of other burning materials. Regarding hydrogen sulfide, the raw tree wood had a rang mean value of 4.43 ± 1.699 ppm to 23.37 ± 0.69 ppm. Palme fronds have given mean value varying from 1.267±0.205 ppm to 1.267±0.205 ppm. Meanwhile, wood charcoal smokes were free from H2S. The sulfide dioxide emitted from raw tree wood showed mean value ranged from 0.33 ± 0.06 ppm to 1.173 ± 0.17 ppm. While palm fronds had almost constant mean values, during all combustion intervals, lying from 0.433±0.205 to 2.4±0.38 ppm. Wood charcoal had mean values varied from 0.3±0.04 ppm to0.57 ±0.09 ppm.


Article
Measurement of Radon Gas Concentrations and Hazard Effects in Underground Water Samples in Karbala Governorate of Iraq

Authors: A.A. Hasan --- I.T. Al-Alawy
Pages: 118-122
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Abstract

One of the most characterizations of social health is the existence availability of sources irrigation water. Since the main source of water, contamination is radon gas. Six regions in Karbala province in Iraq were chosen to evaluate Radon level in underground water-samples by using (SSNTD-CR-39) Detector. The current measurements showed that highest level was in Al-Horr region to be 4.152±2.2Bq/L, where lowest concentration was in Hay-Rumdan 2.165±1.6Bq/L. The maximum Annual-Effective Dose (AED) was found in Al-Horr to be 14.34±3.5µSv/y, whereas the minimal value indicated at Hay-Rumdan 8.66±3.1µSv/y. In general, it has been found that Radon-level concentration, in the studied groundwater-samples, was less than allowed permissible value 11.1Bq/L and annual effective-doses were below the recommended international value 1mSv/y. Therefore, groundwater in all underground water studied in Karbala province is safe where the focus of radon obsession is not a public concern


Article
The Effects of Sputtering Time on Cds Thin Film Solar Cell Deposited by DC Plasma Sputtering Method

Authors: Azhar K. Sadkhan --- --- Mohammed K. Khalaf
Pages: 123-127
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Abstract

CdS thin films of different thickness have been prepared by dc sputtering technique on glass slides for a window layer of solar cells. The CdS target were sputtered in different sputtering times (1,1.5,2.5,3) hrs, working pressure (2×10-2) mbar and discharge voltage(2) kV.The structure of the nanoparticles films was investigated of CdS thin films by X-ray diffraction (XRD).The XRD patterns showed that the films were hexagonal (wurtzite) structure having strong preferential orientation along the (002) plane with particle size in the range of (41.04-41.46-41.88-42.53) nm, the peak at (002) preferred orientations of the films are shifted a little from left to right side and films converted to crystalline form. The morphology of the nanoparticles films was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) which indicates that the average grain size of CdS thin film is in the range of (41.3-44.2-51.6-50.08) nm. The roughness of films surface increases with increasing the sputtering time, which can be useful for the solar cell.


Article
Evaluation of Microbial Quality of The Drinking Water of Al-Bashaar Water Treatment Plant in Wasit Province Southern of Iraq

Authors: Wisam B. Al-Tmemy --- Ahmed J. Al-Azawi
Pages: 128-136
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Abstract

The microbial quality of drinking water which distributed form Al-Bashaar water treatment plant and number of residential areas fed by these water treatment plant was studied each month over six months during a period extended from the October 2013 to April 2014, through the purification stages up to residential sites at different areas situated with various distances from the supplying source, two samples were taken monthly. This station derived their water from AL-Gharraf River in the southeastern part of Iraq, where the feed areas of the city with drinking water. This study included detection of bacteria, evidence of contamination of water and some physical and chemical variables. Results of Bacteriological tests showed increasing in TPC, TC, FC, E.coli and FS bacteria in December and January in all study locations as compared to those of the other months for water plant raw and drinking water and the FS values was less than other bacterial types for water plant .Physiochemical tests showed that air temperature at sampling time was varied between17 and 34°C and between11.5 and 29°C, for water temperature at sampling time also. The results of pH means were within the allowable limit. The highest mean value of turbidity recorded for raw water was in December and the lowest value was in April, while the highest mean value recorded for drinking water was again in December and the lowest value was in April. The highest mean value of residual chlorine was recorded in March; the lowest value was 0 mg/L in some of the farthest points of the plant. From this study, it can be concluded that the drinking water produced by Al-Bashaar plant is mostly undesirable for drinking according to the Iraqi and WHO standards for the drinking water.


Article
Study of Radioactivity of Selected Samples of Soil in Amarah City, Maysan Province, Iraq

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Abstract

In this research study the level of background radiation for four selected areas of soil the district of Amarah city of Maysan province / Iraq by using the counting system and electronic analysis to detect radiation gamma and the detector NaI(Tl) radionuclide resulting from the dissolution chains of 238U and 232Th (214Bi, 214Pb 234Th) are produced in addition to radionuclide potassium individual (40K), the paper also counts the radioactivity of each radionuclide and its concentration .The results have been compared with those of different countries of the world and Iraq. To assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the absorbed dose rate (Dr), the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the effective dose rate (Eeff), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR), the radioactivity level index (Iγ), and the external (Hex) and internal (Hin) hazard indices were calculated. Which is located within the limits allowed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Hence, measurements have been taken as representing baseline values of these radionuclides in the soil in studying area.


Article
Application of CCME WQI in the Assessment of the Water Quality of Danube River, Romania

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An attempt has been made to assess the water quality of the Danube River using water quality index technique. In this study, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) was selected to express the quality of water for drinking water abstraction and to provide information on the spatial and temporal variations of the river water quality. Water quality of 13 parameters has been considered in four sampling stations during 1-year period. The European Community (EC) standards for drinking water abstraction were used for CCME WQI calculation. The water quality variables included in the index are dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonium, nitrates, total phosphorus, water temperature, pH, total suspended solids, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and lead. The results revealed that the water quality was found fair in all sampling stations except one station, which was marginal. It was observed that the most important variables that affected the water quality were ammonium, total phosphorous, water temperature and total suspended solids. Moreover, no significant changes were observed for temporal variation in the Danube river water quality. The CCME WQI gave reasonable results and introduced representative outcomes of the raw data of the river


Article
Purification of the Diyala River Water Using Seeds Extract of Gusen Al-Ban Tree (Moringa oleifera Lamarck) Cultivated In Dura Area, Baghdad

Authors: Esma J. Al-Kalifawi
Pages: 147-152
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In this study, water samples were taken from three sites along Diyala River. The third site of old Diyala Barrage was more polluted than the first sites of Baʼqubah and the second site in Khan Bani Saad. For this reason, the water taken from this site was treated with the seeds extract of Gusen Al-Ban Tree (Moringa oleifera Lamarck) and study the changes in water quality before and after treatment. The preparation of dried seed powder of Gusen Al-Ban Tree of the six concentrations were activated with 100ml of distilled water and that was treated with raw water in 20% of the dilution. After treatment with raw water by Jar test, samples were analyzed for all the parameters such as pH, turbidity, TSS, and bacterial examination. The results of the present study showed that Gusen Al-Ban seed has more coagulant activity specific at concentration 10 and 15 percentage, in this concentration the turbidity values and total suspended solid were zero. The results of the present study demonstrated that Gusen AlBan seeds extract was efficient against bacteria found in raw water. The concentration (1%, 2%, 3% and 5%) of Gusen Al-Ban seeds extract reduced the number of bacteria in raw water to about (93.75%, 95.5%, 99.37% and 99.68%) respectively. Whereas the concentration (10% and 15%) of Gusen AlBan seeds, extract reduced the number of bacteria to 100%. It was concluded from the current study that the Gusen Al-Ban seed is environmentally friendly, non-toxic and a natural coagulant, which is effective against the causes of water-borne diseases.


Article
Photocatalytic Characterization of TiO2 Nanorods and Nanotubes Synthesized by Sol Gel Template Method

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Titanium dioxide nanorods (TNR) and nanotubes (TNT) were prepared by sol gel method using anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membrane as template and calcined at 550°C. The structural of TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface topography and the morphology of the samples were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanostructures were evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) solution at different concentrations 10, 20 and 35 ppm under UV irradiation. The crystallinity and anatase phase of the TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes are confirmed by XRD measurements. Average diameter size of TiO2 nanorods and TiO2 nanotubes obtained from AFM histogram were 96.14, 132.34 nm respectively. A high photocatalytic activity of TiOR 2R nanostructures were obtained at the three different concentrations under UV irradiation.


Article
Impact of Wheat Bran Addition to Iraqi Bread on Postprandial Glycaemia

Authors: Saadi M.D. Al-Nuzal --- Bassim H. Faraj
Pages: 159-164
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Abstract

White wheat flour is used to make different types of bread, among them is “Samoon” a type very common by Iraqi people. White wheat flour is considered responsible for many health problems, and this work deals with studying the impact of adding bran to this bread on postprandial glycaemia to improve its quality. For this purpose volunteers of healthy people were fed different mixture of wheat white flour and bran (0 – 40 %), and the increase of glucose blood level was measured. The volunteers were fed a breakfast of 50 g of bread that contain different percentage of bran, after eight hour fasting. The glucose level in their serum was measured at different time intervals and plots of its variation as a function of time was obtained. The shape of these plots revealed many observations, among them is the decrease in the position of the glucose maxima on increasing the bran percentage. This decrease is associated with increase in the position of the maxima on time scale. After 120 minutes, the glucose level reaches almost normal levels, which is a little bite higher than the start point. Further observation is related to the glycemic load and palatability, which were thoroughly discussed in the text. The consequences of these observations is that the presence of bran, in a percentage close to that of natural one, is recommended for people health and should be recommended normal people and diabetic patients.


Article
Kinetic Study and Determination of Some Insecticides in Soil Samples by Ultrasonic Extraction Followed by Gradient HPLC

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- Ultrasonic Extraction method followed by gradient HPLC was carried out for the simultaneous determination of four insecticides are [imidacloprid (Imi), thiamethoxam (Thi), indoxacarb (Ind) and abamectin (Aba)] used to combat the major insect pests in Iraq, whitefly, Dubas Bug, worms fruits as well as to combat the spiders – dream respectively in eco-soil samples. The extraction recovery was in the range of 99.77 to 109.1 %. The dissipation kinetics and residual levels of these insecticides in soil sample was studied under field ecosystem. The half-life of the mix insecticides was determined. The half-life was in range of 0.38 to 4.06 days with the soil samples were brought from the Agricultural Land called Nahrawan located in the south-east of Baghdad. Such these studies contributed to scientific bases to know the behaver the deferent insecticides mixtures form and to determinate the battier dose uses in application. The coefficient variation (C.V %) was less than (14.1%).


Article
Radioactivity Levels in Some Vegetables and Herbs

Authors: Sahar A. Amin --- Afaf A. Ayoub --- Ali A. Jassim
Pages: 174-178
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Evaluation of the amount of radioactivity in plants is essential from the outlook of health protection, hence assessment of radioactivity levels in many vegetable and herb samples were estimated. The samples were collected from Iraqi local markets, were measured. Many parameters such as radon concentration, radium content and uranium concentration in unit of ppm were determined. Average values of Rn level, Ra content and U concentration in pharmaceutical herbs were 27.7 Bq.m-3, 0.39 Bq.Kg-1 and 0.48 ppm, respectively. While, the mean values of radon level, radium content and uranium concentration in vegetables were 33.89 Bq.m-3, 0.40 Bq.kg-1 and 0.49 ppm, respectively. Ra and U concentrations are positively correlated in the studied herbs and vegetables samples. All values of Ra content were under the allowed world limit, while 80% of uranium concentration values were above the permissible world value


Article
Antioxidant Activity of 2-Amino-4-(3,4- Dichlorophenyl)-5-oxo-4, 5-Dihydropyrano (3, 2-c) Chromene-3-Carbonitrile Compounds

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- Syntheses of coumarins, which are a structurally interesting antioxidant activity, was done in this article. The modification of 4- hydroxycoumarin by different reaction steps was done to yield target compounds. The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods, Infrared Spectra FT-IR and 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra and elemental analysis techniques, melting point and thin layer chromatography. The antioxidant activities of individual compounds were tested against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the results were compared to the ascorbic acid and trolox as standards. The results show that hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of compounds 2and 3 are higher than that of the standard, and the values are 81.1±1.0%, and 82.3±1.5%, respectively and the compounds 1 and 4show scavenging activity on hydrogen peroxide with lower value compared with ascorbic acid..


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Complexes Derived from 4-(4- (Dimethylamino)Phenyl)-2-Oxo6-(2-Oxo-6-(Phenyldiazenyl)-2H-Chromen-3-Yl)-1,2- Dihydropyridine -3-Carbonitrile with Manganese (II), Iron (II), Cobalt (II), and Nickel (II) Ions

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This work involves the chemical synthesis of a series of metal complexes have been the general production (M(L)2X2), where M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II).The ligand (L): 4-(4-(dimethylamino) phenyl)-2- oxo-6-(2-oxo-6-(phenyldiazenyl)-2H-chromen-3-yl)-1,2-dihydropyridine-3- carbonitrile (DPOPCD). These complexes have been prepared and characterized by ligand to metal mole ratio, molar conductance, and spectral (Uv-Visible and FT-IR) studies. The IR spectral data propose the involvement from oxygen and nitrogen at coordination for the central metal ion. On the resulting products, an octahedral geometry has suggested to all complexes.


Article
Spectrophotometric, Turbidimetric and Gravimetric Estimation of Total Hydrocarbon Contamination of Soil

Authors: Mahmood M. Barbooti --- Aliaa A. Razzak --- Aliaa Majeed
Pages: 192-197
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Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) are among the common contaminants of land, water and atmosphere. They are sampled and analyzed in their media as group of compounds usually referred to as total petroleum hydrocarbons, TPH. Soil samples were collected from Baghdad and Babylon governorates from potentially polluted area near community power generators. Control samples were collected from local gardens. Turbidimetric as well as infrared spectral methods were employed for their determination and the obtained results were compared with that of the gravimetric method. For turbidimetric measurements TPH were extracted with a solvent mixture (MeOH-EtOH), filtered and transferred into a glass cell containing an emulsifier aqueous solution. The TPH form an emulsion with water that is stable for certain time. The turbidity was then measured and correlated with the TPH concentration, following a calibration step using diesel fuel in the same extraction solvent. For FT-IR spectral investigation, the soil samples were introduced to the spectrophotometer in three forms: untreated soil powder; soil powder after charring at 650o C until a constant weight; and soil extract with CCl4 mixed with KBr crystals and dried. The comparison of the spectra indicated the IR absorption of the hydrocarbon contaminant. The percentage loss on ignition values were also recorded and correlated with the results of the turbidimetric measurements R2 = 0.7721). The soil samples of the gardens were not hydrocarbon free because of the expected hydrocarbons precipitated from air.


Article
Genetic Diversity and Relationships Among Species of Iris L. (Iridaceae) Growing Wildly in Iraq by Using RAPD–PCR Technique

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Abstract

This study shows the diversity and genetic relations among 8 species belong to the genus Iris L. growing wildly in Iraq by using RAPD-PCR technique. This study included Genomic DNA extraction from dry leaves of plants by useing 5 random primers that produced several polymorphic bands among the 8 tested species, in addition the genetic fingerprint were identified for all species by emergence many of unique bands . The genetic distance between species was determined as it ranged from 0.10 to 0.97, as well as the use of cluster analysis to build the genetic diversity tree which formed two main groups based on their ancestors, morphological and anatomical specifications, which depending on the results of this study and the results of other studies as anatomy and pollen were recorded a new species in Iraq within this genus is Iris madonna Dykes.

Keywords

Iris --- DNA --- RAPD

Table of content: volume:36 issue:2 Part (C)