Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904/23121637
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a peer reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdict planar editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.

The journal is basically self – financed by applying fees on the researcher’s work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:59 issue:4B

Article
pvl-carried methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospitalized patients in Baghdad, Iraq

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Abstract

Out of 150 different specimens, 67 S. aureus isolate were isolated. However, 16sRNA gene was located only in 60 isolates. Moreover, mecA gene was located in 48 isolates; thereby MRSA covered 80% of all S. aureus isolates. Of considerable interest, pvl gene was detected in only six isolates (10%). Hence, the present work emphasizes the notion suggested that pvl is not an indicative of CA-MRSA.

Keywords

: pvl --- MRSA --- PCR --- hospitalized patients


Article
Evaluation of TLR-2 sera levels in a sample of Iraqi pulmonary TB patients

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Abstract

The non-specific response of immunity has developed as the initial barrier for human protection from invading pathogens, which comprises certain pathogen recognition receptors (PRR) for instance toll-like receptors (TLRs). Toll like receptor 2 (TLR 2) is capable of recognizing pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP) coded by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To evaluate TLR 2 level in sera of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. About 120 subjects, involving 80 patients with pulmonary TB including 40 multiple drug resistance (MDR), 20 recently diagnosed pulmonary TB (RD) and 20 recurrent TB patients named as old cases (OC), in addition to 40 apparently healthy individuals were studied as control group. Sera from 68 TB patients and 20 healthy controls were obtained for measuring TLR 2 levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The present result revealed that serum levels of TLR 2 showed there is no significant differences between each patient's group and control except OC group given that, has decreased significantly (p<0.05). The mean ±SD of TLR 2 level in MDR, RD, OC and controls were 4.0± 2.4, 3.4±1.4, 2.2±0.9 and 4.1± 3.0 ng/ml, respectively. The results exhibited that during treatment of tuberculosis, patients with pulmonary tuberculosis showed elevated TLR 2 concentration, which looks probably in charge of regulating inflammation and infection. Consequently, this study proposes that killing of MTB could occur in the time of disease management because of effective treatment, in addition to activation and releasing of different immune system mediators via TLR 2.

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Article
Isolation and Identification Candida spp from Urine and Antifungal Susceptibility Test

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Abstract

Candida ssp. are of medical importance because they are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide, a common cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs), oral candidiasis and genitourinary candidiasis. The development of Candida spp infection depends on several factors such as age, sex, and immunity of the host-pathogen relationship. They are resistance to one or more antifungal. The purpose of these studies to isolation and identification of Candida spp from urine sample and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. There are 105 Urine sample of the renal failure were collected using a sterile urinary cap, different diagnostic techniques were used for characterization of Candida spp Culture characteristic, gram stain, Germ tube, CHROM agar Candida and scanning electronic microscopic. Results showed 40% urine sample positive also Different Candida spp isolated, C. albicans (20%), C. parapsilisos (20%), C. glabrata (32.72%), and C. krusei (27.27%). The antibiotic susceptibility test of the isolates was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Candida spp. sensitivity to 6µg/ml Amphotericin B but Fluconazole was ineffective against Candida spp. The most common pathogen in Urinary tract system is Candida spp. both Albicans and non-Albicans are unusual causes of urinary tract infections in healthy individuals also Candida spp resistance to Fluconazole but sensitivity to low concentration Amphotericin B.


Article
Serum level evaluation of interleukin-18 in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Authors: Mohamed Ismail Ibrahim --- Jinan M. Al-saffar
Pages: 1989-1994
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Abstract

This study is designed to measure the level of interleukin (IL) 18 in polycystic ovary women and its association with obesity. In this study, blood samples from 50 women with PCOS and 30 healthy control women were collected from AL-Yarmouk Teaching, Baghdad Teaching hospitals During January 2018 - March 2018 for estimation of their serum level of IL18 by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique and evaluation serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Testosterone, prolactin (PRL) and Estradiol (E2) by using Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). The results showed that there is a highly significant increase (P < 0.001) in serum level of IL18 in PCOS women than in healthy control group. As well as, the results of IL-18 value according to Body mass index (BMI) showed significant difference (P<0.05) between BMI and IL-18 level in all the PCOS patient subgroups (normal weight, overweight and obesity). Also, there was a significant increase in LH, FSH, PRL and T, and significant decrease in E2 was detected in PCOS patients.


Article
The Molecular Detection of HPV Infection in samples of Iraqi Women with Abnormal cervical Smears

Authors: Mais N. Abdul-samad --- Nuha J. Kandala
Pages: 1995-2004
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Abstract

Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause almost 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Recently, testing for high-risk HPV types have been adopted by clinical practices for the early detection of cervical cancer in conjunction with cytology tests. Cervical swab samples were collected at the Outpatient Gynecology department of Baghdad Teaching Hospital. These samples consisted of a patient group of 50 samples, and a healthy control group of 10 samples. A papanicolaou test (abbreviated as a Pap test) was also performed for each woman to examine the epithelial cells of both the endocervix and the upper vaginal region. Total DNA (genomic, mitochondrial, and viral) was extracted from cervical swab samples for molecular studies. HPV DNA testing was first done by using Real-Time PCR technology to target the L1 region of HR-HPV with specifically designed primers. This was followed by using AmpliSens kit for specific detection and genotyping of HPV16 and 18 with multiplex Real-Time PCR. The results of RT-PCR detection revealed that out of 16 samples detected with high-risk HPV, 5 samples were shown to be infected with HPV-16 and 5 samples were shown to be infected with HPV-18. These results show a significant relationship between the histological outcome of the patient and persistent HPV infection.


Article
Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among males with abnormal semen

Authors: Mays H. Ali --- Abdul Kareem A. Al-Kazaz
Pages: 2005-2011
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Abstract

Many studies revealed that Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent bacteria “that cause sexually transmitted infections in the world.. Most of these infections are asymptomatic and there is a remarkable relationship between CT infections and male infertility. Therefore, “the present study is established to determine the effect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on seminal fluid quality in males suffering from infertility compared with fertile males.. “Semen samples were collected from 63 infertile male and 13 fertile male as control group, attending the clinical laboratory for routine seminal fluid analysis. Seminal fluid was analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines, the whole genomic DNA was extracted for molecular study. Real time PCR technique was used to specifically detect the presence of CT DNA in semen samples.” C. trachomatis was demonstrated in the semen samples of 11 (17.4%) infertile male and all control samples were negative. Infertile, infected males had semen samples that showed statistically significant differences in the mean of total sperm count, motility and morphology as compared with fertile uninfected control samples. These differences indicate that chlamydial infection of genital tract could negatively influence the quality of seminal fluid.”


Article
Using Laser - induced breakdown spectroscopy system to determine the fertility of middle Iraqi soil

Authors: Ali H. Khidhir --- Mohammed A. Hameed
Pages: 2012-2019
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Abstract

In this work, different soil samples were brought to study and analyse the element concentrations from different middle regions of Iraq (such as, Habbaniah, Garmah, Fallujah, and Tarmiah cities). Using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been documented as an atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) technique. Laser-induced plasma utilized to analyse elements in materials (gases, liquids, and solids) in order to analyse elements in materials (gases, liquids and solid). The Nd:YAG laser excitation source at 1064nm with pulse width and pulse duration of 9ns is used to generate power density of 5.5 x 1012 MW/mm2, with optical spectrum in the range 320 -740 nm. The soils of Habbaniyah and Garmah cities features have small concentrations of P II (0.08 a.u), K II (0.01 a.u), SiII (0.004 a.u) and Ca II (0.04 a.u) elements. However, the Fallujah city features have a good concentration of Ca II (0.14a.u). It is concluded that the soil in Fallujah city is better than Habbaniah, Tarmiah and Garmah cities of concentration elements.


Article
Study the of effect of micro and nanoCadmium Oxide on the hardness test of (epoxy-polyurethane) blend

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Abstract

This research includes using epoxy resin and polyurethane resin to form a blend (EP+PU) with different resin ratios (90 – 10)%, (80 – 20)%, (70 – 30)%, and (60 – 40)% to achieve best ratio for impact strength as a function of better toughness; then reinforced with micro and nano (CdO) with weight fraction (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08). Mechanical properties were studied including hardness before and after exposure to UV irradiation. Results showed that the composite (nano CdO+ blend) had better properties compared with (micro CdO+ blend) composite. Also hardness show increases with increasing the weight fraction for all samples.

Keywords

micro --- nano --- cadmium oxide --- hardness test --- epoxy --- polyurethane.


Article
Comparison of Provenance of the Injana and Mukdadiya Formations in Zorbatiya area, Wasit Governorate, East of Iraq

Authors: Neaam O.F. Al-Dabbagh --- Mazin Y. Tamar-Agha
Pages: 2026-2039
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Abstract

Petrographic, heavy mineral and clay mineral analyses are carried out for the sandstone and the mudstone units of Injana and Mukdadiya Formations in Zorbatiya area, Wasit Governorate, East of Iraq. The sandstones and the mudstones are nested as repeated fining–upwards successions, representing fluvial deposits. The sandstones of the Mukdadiya Formation is gravelly and on occasions becomes conglomerate. The sandstone of both formations comprises rock fragments, quartz and feldspars. The rock fragments are the dominant component consisting sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rock fragments, accordingly these sandstone are classified as litharenite. The clay minerals of the mudstone units are mostly illite, kaolinite, chlorite and mixed-layered clay. The mineralogic and petrographic data suggest the derivation of Injana and Mukdadiya Formations from nearby sources with contribution from igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary provenance and deposited in arid climate. The Mukdadiya deposits are rich with Paleogene deposits, some of which are coarse and cobbly.


Article
Petrography and Provenance of the Sandstone of Injana and Mukdadiya Formations (Upper Miocene/Pliocene) at Duhok Governorate, Northern Iraq

Authors: Nazar Z. Al-Salmani --- Mazin Y. Tamar-Agha
Pages: 2040-2052
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Abstract

A total of 23 samples are collected from Injana and Mukdadiya Formations representing: sandstone (14 samples from Injana Formation and 9 samples from Mukdadiya Formation). 19 sandstone samples are thin sectioned for petrographic study (10 thin sections from Injana and 9 thin sections from Mukdadiya) and 23 sandstone samples are selected for heavy minerals study (14 samples from Injana and 9 samples from Mukdadiya). The petrographic investigations revealed that the sandstone of Injana and Mukdadiya Formations are composed primarily of rock fragments (sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic), quartz (monocrystalline and polycrystalline) and feldspars (orthoclase, microcline and plagioclase). The matrix is subordinate and the cement is mostly carbonate. The amount of quartz in Injana sandstone is more than of that in Mukdadiya sandstone and the amount of rock fragment in Injana sandstone is less than of that in Mukdadiya sandstone. Provenances of the Injana and Mukdadiya Formations consist primarily sedimentary and igneous rocks and subordinate metamorphic rocks. These sandstones are classified as Litharenites and are mineralogically immature. The heavy minerals assemblages include opaque minerals as major component, epidotes, garnet, amphiboles, clinopyroxenes, orthopyroxenes, chromian spinal, zircon, tourmaline, rutile, chlorite, biotite, muscovite and others (kyanite and staurolite). These assemblages indicate that the heavy minerals are derived from mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks mainly as well as acidic igneous and reworked sediments. The tectonic provenances of both Injana and Mukdadiya Formations can be described as transitional and lithic recycled of recycled orogen.


Article
Microfacies Analysis and Stratigraphic Development of the Mishrif Formation in the Eastern of the Mesopotamian Zone, Southeastern Iraq

Authors: Medhat E. Nasser
Pages: 2053-2064
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Abstract

Mishrif Formation is the most important succession in the southern part of Iraq and has extensive distribution in the Arabian Plate. The present study focuses upon the sequence stratigraphy and development of Mishrif Formation basin in four oil fields within the eastern part of the Mesopotamian Zone are:- Halfaya (Hf-1), Noor (No-1) and Abu Ghirab (AG-3) and Fauqi oil fields (Fq-1). There are several types of microfacies were distinguished in the succession of the Mishrif Formation. Their characteristic of the grain types and carbonate texture enabled to interpret of five facies associations (depositional environments) were observed in this formation, they are: deep marine, shallow open marine, Shoal, rudist biostorm, and shallow restricted associations facies. The stratigraphic development of Mishrif succession in the studied oil fields was summarized by three depositional stages during the Cenomanian-Early Turonian cycle:- First stage:- the basin of Rumaila Formation during this stage was continued to deposition the lower part of Mishrif Formation within the deep marine environment. The end of deposition in this basin (Rumaila basin) was represented by shallow open marine associated facies in the studied area. The High stand sequence distinguished by deposition the deep marine facies and the shallow open marine as two cycle in the southwest, while to the northeast one cycle. The end of the first stage was finished by the shoal facies in all studied area to mark a sequence boundary type II (prograde stage A). Second stage:- the basin was developed from shoal to biostorm facies association with slow sea level rise. The deposition of the open marine associated facies within the biostorm-shoal sequence marked the mfs surface. The final step of this stage was shown the shallowing up-ward by overlaying the shallow open marine association facies upon the biostorm and shoal. At the end of this period, the lagoon/restricted facies were spread in the studied area to mark the prograde stage B as sequence boundary type II. Third stage:- the sea level raised in the southwest direction as open sea association facies, while to the northeast the restricted facies was dominated. This sequence appeared the shoal facies underly the open sea facies marked the mfs surface to start the final high stand deposition overly the restricted facies. This stage is representing the prograde stage C for the Mishrif Formation, where ended the deposition to mark the unconformable surface (SBI) with Khasib Formation.


Article
Facies Analysis and Geological modeling of Euphrates Formation in Ajeel Oil Field, Northern Iraq

Authors: Muhand Hassan Mahammed --- Medhat E. Nasser
Pages: 2065-2079
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Abstract

Abstract The current study summarized the construction of a three-dimensional geological model of the Aquitanian sediments age, which represented by the Euphrates and Serikagni formation in Ajeel Oil Field, where Ajeel Oil Field has structural closure towards northwest - southeast. Sedimentary of the current study consist of limestone, dolomitic limestone, dolomite (compose of skeletal grains, non-skeletal grains and cement) and the appearance of some anhydrite rocks. The petrographic study of the Euphrates Formation were prepared using a thin section of wells (Aj-1, Aj-4, Aj-5, Aj-6 and Aj-7), Previous studies and geological reports, as well as use well logs data in the statistical analysis by Petrel software using the Neural Network and Train Estimation Model, for divide sedimentary environments of Euphrates Formation. The petrographic analysis showed mudstone, wackstone, packstone and grainstone facies. The sedimentary environment was then determined and the sedimentary model of the current study rocks in the Ajeel field which compared with Wilson scheme where represented by zones (FZ-6, FZ-8, FZ-7) extend through lagoon environment, back shelf and open shelf, through the sedimentary model was determined the type of Euphrates Formation platform(Rimmed Platform).


Article
Application of the Predictive deconvolution on a seismic line Al-Najaf and Al-Muthanna Governorates in Southern Iraq

Authors: Kamal. K. Ali --- Laith. R. Khaleefah
Pages: 2080-2088
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This study deals with the processing of field seismic data for a seismic line located within the administrative boundaries of Najaf and Muthanna governorates in southern Iraq (7Gn 21) with a length of 54 km. The study was conducted within the Processing Department of the Oil Exploration Company using the Omega system, which contains a large number of programs that deal with processing, through the use of these programs applied predictive deconvolution of both( gap) and (spike). The final section was produced for both types. The gap predictive deconvolution gave improvement in the shallow reflectors while in deep reflectors it did not give a good improvement, thus giving a good continuity of the reflectors at the expense of resolution, whereas spike predictive deconvolution caused an increase in frequency noise in seismic sections, giving a good resolution at the expense of continuity.


Article
On Soft LC-Spaces and Weak Forms of Soft LC-Spaces

Authors: Sabiha I. Mahmood
Pages: 2089-2099
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Abstract

The main purpose of this article is to study the soft LC-spaces as soft spaces in which every soft Lindelöf subset of is soft closed. Also, we study the weak forms of soft LC-spaces and we discussed their relationships with soft LC-spaces as well as among themselves.


Article
On Skew Left ∗-n-Derivations of ∗-Ring

Authors: Anwar Khaleel Faraj --- Ruqaya Saadi Hashem
Pages: 2100-2106
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In this paper, the commutativity of *-ring and some related results are obtained by introducing the new concept which is called skew left ∗-n-derivations.


Article
The dual notions of semi-essential submodules and semi-uniform modules

Authors: Muna Abbas Ahmed
Pages: 2107-2116
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The purpose of this paper is to introduce dual notions of two known concepts which are semi-essential submodules and semi-uniform modules. We call these concepts; cosemi-essential submodules and cosemi-uniform modules respectively. Also, we verify that these concepts form generalizations of two well-known classes; coessential submodules and couniform modules respectively. Some conditions are considered to obtain the equivalence between cosemi-uniform and couniform. Furthermore, the relationships of cosemi-uniform module with other related concepts are studied, and some conditional characterizations of cosemi-uniform modules are investigated.

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Article
A new Color image Encryption based on multi Chaotic Maps

Authors: Ibtisam A.Taqi --- Sarab M. Hameed
Pages: 2117-2127
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This paper presents a new RGB image encryption scheme using multi chaotic maps. Encrypting an image is performed via chaotic maps to confirm the properties of secure cipher namely confusion and diffusion are satisfied. Also, the key sequence for encrypting an image is generated using a combination of 1D logistic and Sine chaotic maps. Experimental results and the compassion results indicate that the suggested scheme provides high security against several types of attack, large secret keyspace and highly sensitive.


Article
Application of WDR Technique with different Wavelet Codecs for Image Compression

Authors: Faisel Ghazi Mohammed --- Hind Moutaz Al-Dabbas
Pages: 2128-2134
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Storing and transferring the images data are raised in recent years due to requisiteness of transmission bandwidth for considerable storage capacity. Data compression method is proposed and applied in an attempt to convert data files into smaller files. The proposed and applied method is based on the Wavelet Difference Reduction (WDR) as considered the most efficient image coding method in recent years. Compression are done for three different Wavelet based Image techniques using WDR process. These techniques are implemented with different types of wavelet codecs. These are Daub2+2,2 Integer Wavelet transform, Daub5/3 integer to integer wavelet transform, and Daub9/7 Wavelet transform with level four. The used multimedia files are gray and color (Bmp) files of dimensions (512×512). The quality of the reconstructed images is calculated by using three performance parameters: Compression Ratio (CR), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE) values. The experiments of comparing the compression outputs of both JPEG and JPEG2000 Standard are done. The results indicate that Daubechies9/7 wavelet filter give better results than other filters. And all the results are closer to the JPEG standard with good correlation.

Keywords

Wavelet Image Compression --- CR --- PSNR --- MSE --- and WDR.


Article
Improving Extractive Multi-Document Text Summarization Through Multi-Objective Optimization

Authors: Nasreen J. Kadhim --- Hilal H. Saleh --- Bara’a Attea
Pages: 2135-2149
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Multi-document summarization is an optimization problem demanding optimization of more than one objective function simultaneously. The proposed work regards balancing of the two significant objectives: content coverage and diversity when generating summaries from a collection of text documents. Any automatic text summarization system has the challenge of producing high quality summary. Despite the existing efforts on designing and evaluating the performance of many text summarization techniques, their formulations lack the introduction of any model that can give an explicit representation of – coverage and diversity – the two contradictory semantics of any summary. In this work, the design of generic text summarization model based on sentence extraction is redirected into more semantic measure reflecting individually both content coverage and content diversity as two explicit optimization models. The problem is defined by projecting the first criterion, i.e. content coverage in the light of text similarity. The proposed model hypothesizes a possible decomposition of text similarity into three different levels of optimization formula. First, aspire to global optimization, the candidate summary should cover the summary of the document collection. Then, to attain, less global optimization, the sentences of the candidate summary should cover the summary of the document collection. The third level of optimization is content with local optimization, where the difference between the magnitude of terms covered by the candidate summary and those of the document collection should be small. This coverage model is coupled with a proposed diversity model and defined as a Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) problem. Moreover, heuristic perturbation and heuristic local repair operators have been proposed and injected into the adopted evolutionary algorithm to harness its strength. Assessment of the proposed model has been performed using document sets supplied by Document Understanding Conference 2002 (DUC2002) and a comparison has been made with other state-of-the-art methods. Metric used to measure performance of the proposed work is Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation (ROUGE) toolkit. Results obtained support strong proof for the effectiveness and the significant performance awarded to the proposed MOO model over other state-of-the-art models.


Article
Calculation the Venus orbital properties and the variation of its position

Authors: Aya Khalil Ibraheem --- Abdulrahman H. Salah
Pages: 2150-2158
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Venus orbit around the Sun is an ellipse inside the Earth orbit. The elements of Venus orbit and its position are affected by the gravitational force of near planets therefore the elements were determined with Julian date through ten years 2011-2020. The orbital elements used to calculate Venus distance from the Sun, the heliocentric and geocentric equatorial coordinates. From the results the orbit of Venus and its position were described and show the gravity effect of near planets on it. The results get the values and their variation through ten years for the eccentricity, semi-major axis, inclination, longitude of ascending node, argument of perihelion, mean anomaly and distance from the Sun. The variation is very small through 10 years. The values of eccentricity variation are from 0.0067678 to 0.0067630 and inclination from 3º.39537 to 3º.39529 and argument of perihelion from 54º.634 to 54º.663 and longitude of ascending node from 76º.927 to 76º.899 and the mean anomaly increases at a uniform rate from 0º to 360º every one orbital period which mean value equal to 224.73 days. All variations were calculated through about 16 orbital periods and they are secular variation and may show more value through many hundred years due to perturbation from the Sun and planets especially the Earth, Mercury and Jupiter. The equatorial coordinates show that Venus has apparent retrograde motion as seen from Earth and that is because the Earth and Venus orbital periods around the Sun are different as well as the Venus orbit inside the Earth orbit. The distance between the Sun and Venus is various between minimum value 0.71843 AU and maximum value 0.72822 AU.

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